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Full text of "Annual Reports of the Department of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1906--Miscellaneous Reports, Governors of Territories, etc."

ANNUAL REPORTS 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1906. 



GOVERNORS OF TERRITORIES, ETC 



Cle 

WASHINGTON- 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

19 06 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Report Of the governor of Alaska 1 

Delegate 4 

Population 4 

Taxable property 5 

Settlement and disposition of lands 5 

Commerce 5 

Transportation 6 

Agriculture 7 

Stoek raising 7 

Mining s 

Gold 8 

< i ipper 9 

Tin 9 

Silver 10 

Coal ' 10 

Petroleum 10 

Gypsum 10 

Forests and the production of lumber <*T. 10 

Education 10 

t Labor supply 11 

Condition of the Indians 11 

Public buildings 12 

Legislation desired 11 

Fish 14 

Furs 15 

Cables and telegraphs 15 

Surveys lo 

Board of road commissioners 15 

Alaskan Insane hi 

Mail hi 

District Historical Library and Museum 16 

Conclusion 17 

Appendixes— 

A.— Receipts and disbursements of the Alaska Historical Library and Museum fund ... 18 

B.— Official direct. try 20 

€.— Members of the Alaskan bar 23 

D.— Notary public commissions issued from July 18, 1900, to September 30, 1906, with 

date of expiration 25 

E,— Domestic corporations tiled in the office of the secretary of Alaska 28 

F.— Documents of foreign corporations tiled in the office of the secretary of Alaska 30 

G.— Newspapers and magazines in Alaska 31 

H.— United States Signal Corps telegraph tariff for Alaskan lines 32 

I.— Post-office department 33 

J.— Licenses collected in the District of Alaska 33 

K. — Distribution of domestic merchandise received and general customs business trans- 
acted in the customs district of Alaska 34 

L. — Incorporated towns 39 

M.— Cost of living and rates of wages 39 

Map of the District of Alaska 40 

Report of the Governor of Arizona 41 

Population 44 

Immigration 44 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Report of the Governor of Arizona— Continued. Page 

Labor 14 

Financial condition of the Territory 44 

Receipts 4 p 

Disbursements 47 

Public funds In banks 47 

Bond statement 48 

Schedule of the funded debt 4g 

Board of equalization 4 8 

Apache County 4g 

Cocl rise Cou nty 49 

Coconino County 49 

Gila County [ ^ 

Graham County 50 

M;i ricopa County c 

M < >liave County ., 

Na vajo County R1 

Pima County -„ 

Pinal County ,.„ 

mta Cruz County , 

Ya \ ;i pii i County __ 

Yuma County 

Total valuation by counties .. 

Aggregate valuations of each class of property r. 

Valuation of railroad property „ 

Terri I 1 .rial tax levy ' J? 

Rate of taxation in the several counties L 

Banks ™ 

Territorial ...".!"."!!!" ' % 

National .' ][ ' ft6 

Incorporations 

Imports and exports 57 

Public lands ..".......'... 57 

Indians ' 

Na t ional Guard ' 58 

Arizona Rangers 58 

Territorial prison 68 

Territorial industrial school '. 60 

Asylum for the insane 61 

Education 61 

-Mining 62 

Agriculture 64 

Live-stock industry " 65 

Taxation .* ]' 65 

Map of Arizona 66 

Report of the Governor of New Mexico 70 

General introduction *_' 

Reclamation act 73 

A 1 ■< a of Territory 74 

Population 74 

estimated number of people 75 

.Methods used in making estimation " 75 

Proportion of population of Mexican and Spanish descent « 

Proportion of population of Anglo-Saxon descent « 

Sheep ,-■ 75 

Number of sheep in Territory ... 73 ' 76 

Value of sheep industry " * 76 

Development of sheep industry [ J 6 

Lamb crop " 7 » 

Demand for sheep 76 

I ' rices received for sheep J 6 

Diseases of sheep 77 

Inspection of sheep * 77 

Va 1 ue of wool " 77 

Amount of wool produced 73,78 

Report of sheep sanitary board ] 73,78 



CONTENTS. V 

Report of the Governor of New Mexico— Continned. Page. 

Cattle 80 

Value of industry 81 

Decrease in shipments 81 

Report of cattle sanitary board 81 

Forest reserves , 81 

Number in Territory 82 

Number of acres in reserves •. 82 

Marketable timber on reserves 82 

Value of marketable timber 82 

Sale of marketable timber 82 

Counties benefited by sale of timber 83 

Grazing within reserves 83 

Pecos River Forest Reserve 83 

Jemez Forest Reserve 84 

Gila River Forest Reserve . 85 

Portal es Fores t Reserve 87 

Lincoln Forest Reserve 88 

Lumber 88 

Annual output 88 

Capacity of lumber mills 88 

Number of men employed 88 

Wages paid men employed 88 

Attitude of Lumbermen toward Governmenl foresl reserves 88 

Reports on lumber Industry 89 

Rail roads 73, 90 

Mileage of lines 90 

New construction work 90 

Money expended in construction work '. 90 

Projected lines 91 

Labor 91 

Scarcity of laborers 91 

Scarcity oj skilled mechanics 91 

Request to import foreigners 74,91 

Irrigation- 
Work done by Government 92 

Hondo project 92 

Carlsbad project 92 

Elephant Butte project 92 

Las Vegas project 92 

Various small projects 92 

Projects planned in San .Juan County 93 

What can be done by Irrigation 93 

Pecos Valley an example 94 

Area under irrigation in Pecos Valley 95 

Agriculture 96 

Variety of crops raised 96 

Success of grain raising 96 

Public lands 74, 96 

Land open to settlement 97 

Land taken up in homesteads 97 

Acreage of land open to settlement 97 

Location of reserved and unreserved land 97 

Land entries for past year 97 

United States land districts 97 

Report of the Territorial land commissioner 98 

Report of the United States land commission 98 

Coal 98 

Area of coal fields 99 

Location of coal fields 99 

Development of coal fields 99 

Number of men employed in coal fields 99 

Production of coal for past year 100 

Value of coal produced 100 

Future of coal industry 100 

Government coal lands •- - 100 

Withdrawal of coal lands from entry 100 

Value of lands withdrawn 100 



VI CONTENTS. 

Beporl of the Governor of »» Mexico— Continued. Page. 

Mining— 

lopmenl work 101 

Metallic output for past year 102 

Production of placer gold 103 

Grant County 10 ^ 

nity 107 



Colfax County 

Donna Ann County. 

Bddj County 

Lincoln County 

Luna County 



110 

no 
no 
111 
in 



Otero County - - 111 

Rio Arriba County m 

Sandoval County m 

Ban Miguel County n - 

Banta Fe County n - 

Blerra County 112 

County U2 

Valencia County H- 

Mineral locations on private land grants 113 

T.i ication and finam 

Proportion of taxes borne by various property interests 113 

Assessed valuation of property 114 

A#:essed valuations fixed by board of equalization 115 

Classification of timber and coal lands 116 

Territorial tax levies 116 

Assessed valuation of property by counties 117 

Financial condition of counties 118 

Disbursements for the years 1904 and 1905 119 

Financial transactions of counties i 119 

Receipts for the year 1 905 120 

Disbursements for the year 1905 121 

Summary of county and school district bonds and indebtedness 122 

Territorial banks 122 

Resources of Territorial banks 122 

Liabilities of Territorial banks 123 

I U sources of national banks 123 

Liabilities of national banks 123 

Courts 123 

Business transacted by Territorial courts during past year p 123 

Business pending in Territorial courts 124 

Tables showing business transacted by Territorial courts 124 

Report of business transacted by Territorial supreme court 124 

Educa t ion and schools .' 125 

Number of school children 125 

Number of Children enrolled in Territorial schools 125 

Number of teachers employed 125 

Report of Territorial superintendent of public instruction 125 

I in I i iis 127 

General condition of Indians 127 

Indian population of Territory 128 

Condition of Jicarilla and Mescalero Indians 128 

Condition of Pueblo Indians 129 

Report of Judge A. ,1. Abbott on Pueblos 129 

Population of Pueblo villages 131 

Reflorl of Superintendent C. J. Crandallon Pueblos 131 

Report on Mescalero Indians 132 

Report on Jicarilla Indians ]33 

Report on Albuquerque Indian school 134 

Report on Zufii Training School 135 

Climate 136 

Mean temperature a1 various points in Territory 136 

Averaue precipitation at various points in Territory 136 

Relative humidity at various points in Territory 136 

.Tubercular cures effected at Fort Bayard 137 

Report of the Government sanitarium at Fort Bayard 137 



CONTENTS. VII 

Report of the Governor of New Mexico— Continued. Page. 

Recommendations of the Governor — 

Grazing of sheep owned by Indians 79 

Minerals on private land grants „ 1]3 

Mescalero and Jicarilla Indians 128 

Appropriation for the legisla ture 138 

Antigambling bill 140 

Joint statehood 174 

Reports of the— 

Secretary of the Terri tory 140 

Territorial treasurer 142 

Public printer 148 

Adjutant-general 149 

Game warden 152 

Superintendent of insurance 153 

Artesian-well supervisor 154 

Secretary of the bureau of immigration 155 

Secretary of the board of equalization 156 

Territorial librarian 158 

Captain of mounted police 158 

Capitol custodian committee 159 

Irrigation engineer 159 

Superintendent of the penitentiary 161 

University of New Mexico 104 

Roswell Military Institute 165 

College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 167 

Normal University 168 

School of Mines 169 

New Mexico Insane Asylum 169 

Orphan Children's Home 170 

New Mexico Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb 170 

New Mexico Institute for the Blind .*. 171 

Private charitable institutions receiving Territorial aid 171 

Board of ostheopathy 172 

Board of pharmacy 172 

Board of health 173 

Board of dental examiners 173 

Reform school board 173 

Report of the Governor of Oklahoma 175 

Roster of Territorial officials 178 

Population 180 

Immigration 180 

Commerce 181 

Manufacturing 181 

Crop outlook 181 

Farm products 182 

Live stock 183, 190 

Agriculture 183 

Wheat, cotton, corn 184 

Hay, oats, broom corn, etc 185 

Potatoes, melons, and fruit 186 

Nursery inspection 193 

Stock-food and fertilizer law 193 

Irrigation 194 

Irrigation and reclamation 196 

Navajo irrigation project 198 

Public highways 199 

Assessment of property and taxation 200 

Value of farm lands 202 

Geology and natural history 203 

Survey commission 208 

Milling industry 209 

Granite industry 211 

Forestry 211 

Wichita Forest Reserve 212 

Oilfields 213 

Livestock association 213 



\ 



VIII CONTENTS. 

Kewort of the Governor of Oklahoma— Continued. Page. 

Federation of commercial and industrial organizations 214 

Jamestown Exposition 215 

Newspapers - 216 

Public and private credit 217 

Public buildings 217 

Internal revenue 217 

Building and loan associations 217 

Ci ties of the first-class 218 

Post-offices 219 

Counties 219 

Reports of United States officers 222 

Territorial election 222 

Public schools 222 

Institutions of learning 223 

School apportionment 223 

University of Oklahoma 224 

University Preparatory School 230 

Agricultural and Mechanical College 231 

Agricultural experiment station 234 

Central State Normal School 238 

Northwestern Normal School 241 

Southwestern State Normal School 242 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University 244 

Kingfisher College 246 

School for the Deaf and Dumb 246 

Chilocco Indian Agricultural School and Indian Institute 248 

Historical Society 249 

Reform School '. 250 

Separate schools 250 

Penitentiary , 251 

Hospital for the insane 251 

Fort Supply Military Reservation 253 

Churches and fraternal societies 254 

Missions 257 

Territorial secretary 257 

Treasurer, report 258 

Auditor, report 261 

Superintendent of public instruction, report 262 

Legal department 264 

Militia 266 

Banking ". 270 

Library 273 

Game and fish 273 

Insurance 276 

School lands 276 

Board of Agriculture 285 

Live-stock sanitary commission 286 

Railway assessors 288 

Board of equalization 290 

Board of health 291 

Board of trustees, hospital for the insane 292 

Board of pharmacy 293 

Board of dental examiners 294 

Osteopathic examining board 295 

Board of embalmers 295 

Railways 296 

Railways chartered 297 

Telegraph and telephone 298 

Historical 299 

Statehood 3U. r > 

Map of Oklahoma 325 

Beport of the Mine Inspector for New Mexico «27 

Present conditions and future prospects of the coal-mining industry in New Mexico 329 

Description of New Mexico coal fields, area, available tonnage, etc 332 

Coal areas which can be profitably mined * 337 

Colfax County coal mines 338 



CONTENTS. IX 

Report of the Mine Inspector for New Mexico— Continued. Page. 

Lincoln County coal mines 357 

McKinley County coal mines 358 

Rio Arriba County coal mines 373 

Santa Fe County coal mines . 375 

Sandoval County coal mines '. 380 

San Miguel County coal mines 381 

San Juan County coal mines .- 382 

Sierra County coal mines 384 

Socorro County coal mines 384 

Production of coke 38s 

Table of statistics of coal industry in New Mexico 388 

List of fatal accidents 392 

Table showing number of tons of coal mined for each life lost 392 

Coroner' s inqu ests .394 

Method of working, power used, ventilation, etc 394 

Directory of coal mines and management 395 

New mines opened and mines suspended 396 

Prices paid for labor in coal mines of New Mexico 396 

Analysis of New Mexico coals 404 

Recommendations 408 

Report of the Commissioner of Education for Porto Rico 413 

Office organization 415 

Appointments, etc 416 

American teachers 416 

Government beneficiaries 418 

Licenses, allotments, etc 420 

Licenses of teachers 420 

School boards 421 

Allotments of schools 421 

Report of the secretary of the department 422 

Superintendence 424 

Supervision 424 

Statistical administration 425 

Report of the general superintendent 426 

The field force 427 

Reports of district superintendents- 
No. 1 , San Juan 428 

No. 2, Carolina 429 

No. 3, Fa jardo 430 

No. 4, Humacao 431 

No. 5, Caguas : 431 

No. 6, Guayama 432 

No. 7, Aibonito 433 

No. 8, Coamo 434 

No. 9, Ponce 436 

No. 10, Yauco 436 

No. 11, San German 438 

No. 12, Mayaguez 438 

No. 13, Aguadilla 440 

No. 14, Lares 441 

No. 15, Utuado 442 

No. 16, Arecibo 443 

No. 17, Manati 444 

No. 18, Toa Alta 445 

No. 19, Bayamon 446 

Examinations 448 

Eighth-grade diplomas 448 

Teachers' licenses 449 

Examinations in English 449 

Report of superintendent of examinations 449 

Business relations 450 

Expenditures . 450 

School property 451 

Text-books 451 

Report of chief of division of property and accounts 451 

Local administration 453 



X CONTENTS. 

Ui |, .it of the Commissioner of Education for Porto Rico— Continued. Page. 

Report of assistant chief of division of property and ace mnts 454 

School buildings - 457 

Report of chief of division of school extension 460 

General considerations 462 

Teaching force 462 

Teachers' institutes 464 

English language • 4(>G 

Course of Study 467 

School decoration 467 

Schools 468 

Common schools 468 

Schools and teachers 468 

Enrollment 471 

Attendance 476 

Sex of pupils 479 

Age of pupils 481 

Grades 485 

Length of time in school 487 

Pr< imotions 490 

Agricultural schools 492 

Report of directorof school of practical agriculture 495 

Industrial schools 496 

Report of principal, San Juan school 498 

Report of principal, Ponce school 499 

Report of principal, Mayaguez school 500 

High schools 500 

Report of principal, San Juan school 502 

Report of principal, Ponce school 502 

Report of principal, Mayaguez school 503 

Insular normal school 504 

Report of principal 505 

Night schools 506 

Private schools 509 

Summary 509 

Conclusion 510 

Common schools— 

1. Schools open enrollment and attendance, by weeks 511 

2. Schools and teachers at end of the year 512 

3. Teachers at the end of the year 513 

4. Teachers, by sex 515 

5. Graded schools according to number of grades in each, and enrollment 516 

6. Total and average enrollment 518 

7. Average attendance 519 

8. Average daily enrollment and attendance per school 522 

9. Percentage of attendance 525 

10. Enrollment and attendance per school, and percentage of attendance 1904-5 and 

1905-6 526 

11. Sex of pupils, March 2, 1906 529 

12. Graded schools— Ages of pupils Mar 'h 2, 1906 537 

13. Rural schools— Ages of pupils March 2, 1906 572 

14. Graded schools— Years in school of pupils enrolled March 2, 1906 589 

15. Rural schools— Years in school of pupils enrolled March 2, 1906 621 

16. Promotions 638 

Agricultural rural schools — 

17. Total enrollment and average daily enrollment 652 

18. Average daily attendance and percentage of attendance 653 

19. Sex of pupils, March 2, 1906 653 

20. Ages of pupils, March 2, 1906 653 

21. Years in school of pupils March 2, 1906 656 

Night schools— 

22. Number and enrollment 658 

23. Average attendance per school and percentage of attendance 660 

24. Sex of pupils, March 2, 1906 661 

25. Ages of pupils, March 2, 19C6. 662 

26. Years in school of all pupils, March 2, 1906 672 



CONTENTS. XI 

R»port of tlie Commissioner of Education for Porto Rico— Continued. Page. 

Private schools — 

27. Statistics of private schools 673 

School buildings— 

28. Buildings in use for schools 674 

School board finances— 

29. Receipts and expenditures 675 

30. Expenditures classified 676 

31. Outstanding floating debts classified 677 

Report of the Commissioner of the Interior for Porto Rice 079 

Bureau of public works, road construction 682 

Table No. 1.— Road construction in Porto Rico 684 

Table No. 2.— Road construction in Porto Rico 687 

Table No. 3.— $50,000 appropriation 688 

Table No. 4.— Construction and repair of roads and bridges, trust funds 689 

Maintenance of roads 693 

Table No. 5.— Expenditures for maintenance of insular roads 695 

Table No. 6.— Expenditures for maintenance during the last four years 69t3 

Public buildings 697 

Public lands 699 

Table No. 7.— Leases of public buildings and lands during and prior to fiscal year 700 

Railroads 701 

Bureau of docks and harbors 701 

Table No. 8.— Harbor fees in San Juan, Ponce, and Mayaguez 701 

Table No. 9.— Character and tonnage of vessels entering San Juan, Ponce, and Mayaguez... 702 

Bureau of insular telegraph 703 

Table No. 10.— Amount of cash receipts, apparent gross earnings, and amount expended for 

sala ries, etc 704 

Table No. 11.— Total appropriated, expended for salaries and incidentals, cash receipts, 

value of free business, and value of messages handled, etc 705 

Division of archives 705 

Personnel 706 

Road and railroad map of Porto Rico 706 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA 



Office of the Executive, 

Juneau, Alaska, October 1, 1906. 

Sir: In compliance with an act of Congress making further pro- 
vision for a civil government for Alaska, and for other purposes, 
approved June 6, 1900, I have the honor to submit herewith the 
annual report of my official acts and doings and of the condition of 
the district with reference to its resources, industries, population, 
and the administration of the civil government thereof. 

Acting under a commission from the President, dated March 21, 
1906, I took the oath of office as governor of the district of Alaska 
April 29, 1906, at Juneau, Alaska, and proceeded to Sitka and 
assumed the duties of the office on May 1. 

Immediately upon the assumption of the duties of office I pro- 
ceeded to make such investigation into the condition of affairs 
within the Territory as the season of travel would permit. After 
having visited all the towns and scenes of industrial activity in 
southeastern Alaska, I left Skagway on June 30 for a visit to the 
interior, stopping en route in British Columbia and Yukon Territory 
while waiting for necessary steamer connections. 

At Dawson, Yukon Territory, I was extended every courtesy by 
the Hon. W. W. B. Mclnnes, commissioner for the Yukon Territory, 
and given every opportunity to acquaint myself with the industrial 
conditions in that Territory and the working of its government. 
From Dawson I proceeded down the Yukon River, stopping at all 
the towns and hamlets along that river such time as the steamer 
remained, with the exception of Fairbanks, the largest city in the 
interior of Alaska, where I remained one week, and at Nome, the 
largest city on Seward Peninsula, where I stayed ten days. After 
my return to Juneau I proceeded to Valdez, Seward, and neighbor- 
ing places, the scenes of activity in railroad building. 

Pursuant to an order of the Department, dated July 23, 1906, I 
procured suitable offices and quarters in Juneau for the governor of 
the district of Alaska, and on September 8 moved the executive 
office to Juneau. This location of the executive office of the district 
of Alaska has met with very general approval from the people through- 
out the district, and will better enable me to keep in touch with the 
people of the district and greatly facilitate the transaction ol public 
business. 

At every place visited I was extended the kindest treatment and 
most generous courtesies by the people, who are very proud of their 
country and are striving earnestly for the development of its vast 
resources 

3 



4 ANNUAL EEPOETS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Owing to the short tenure of office and the lack of machinery for 
collection of reliable information regarding the various industries, 
resources, and conditions of the country I shall be unable to make 
as full a report this year as I would like, but during the coining year 
I purpose the organization of some system for the collection of 
information on the many subjects of interest pertaining to Alaska 
which can be relied upon as being approximately correct. 

DELEGATE. 

In accordance with the provisions of an act of Congress, approved 
May 7, 1906, an election for a Delegate to represent Alaska in the 
Congress of the United States was held on August 14, 1906, and 
Frank H. Waskey, of Nome, was elected for the short term ending 
March 4, 1907, and Thomas Cale for the long term of two years 
beginning March 4, 1907. 

This election, so far as I have been able to learn, was conducted 
in an orderly and quiet manner and excited varying interests through- 
out the district. Some sections showed very little interest in the elec- 
tion, while the larger towns and settlements of the interior evinced 
much interest. 

It is to be hoped that Alaska will be benefited by a duly elected 
representative of its people and that the hopes of those who have 
been asking for representation in Congress for many years may be 
fully realized. 

POPULATION. 

The population of Alaska has during the past year increased 
materially in some sections and diminished perceptibly in others, 
with a n^t result that there has been an increase of about 3,500 
people in the permanent white population, most of which has been 
in the third judicial division, in the Fairbanks and Valdez districts, 
and was caused by the rich discoveries of placer gold in and about 
Fairbanks and the building of railroads and development of copper 
deposits in Prince William Sound and the Copper River Range of 
mountains. 

This population is distributed, according to the best data obtain- 
able, about as follows: 

In fche first judicial division 9, 000 

In the second judicial division, with Nome as its center of population 12, 000 

In the third judicial division, with Fairbanks, Valdez, and Seward as the centers 
of population 12, 000 

This is a very liberal estimate of the permanent white population 
of Alaska, but in addition to this there are probably 6,000 people of 
mixed nationalities who are employed in the mines, canneries, and 
various industries during the summer and leave at the close of the 
season of activity. Except in the vicinity of the larger settlements, 
where truck gardening is carried on to a limited extent, there is 
practically no population attached to the soil and engaged in its 
cultivation. 

This increase in population consists mainly of American citizens 
coming to this country from the States. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



TAXABLE PROPERTY. 



There has been during the year no decided increase in the valua- 
tion of property in the towns of Alaska, but a very material increase 
in the valuation of the industrial property scattered throughout the 
district. 

SETTLEMENT AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS. 

Soon after the passage of the homestead law for Alaska, approved 
March 3, 1903, numerous tracts of land were taken up under this law 
and are being held to perfect title, but no extensive development of 
such homesteads has been made, the locators in most cases proceed- 
ing only to carry out the law to obtain title. 

COMMERCE. 

This year has marked a decided increase in the commerce between 
the United States and Alaska. The increase in the value of domestic 
merchandise shipped from the States to Alaska during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1906, is 28 per cent over that of 1905. The value of 
domestic merchandise shipped from Alaska to the United States 
shows a decrease of $1,490,564, which is accounted for by the 
decrease in the amount of canned salmon. The markets having 
been overstocked and the price low, the canneries curtailed their 
outputs. This decrease in domestic merchandise has been more than 
made up, however, by an increase of 39.3 per cent in the value of 
domestic gold and silver shipped from Alaska to the United States 
during the year. 

COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND ALASKA. 

Domestic merchandise shipped from the United States to Alaska during the fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1906. 



Commodity. 



Coal 

Lumber 

Hardware and machinery- 
Provisions 

Liquors 

All other 

Total 



1903. 



$256,117 

445,965 

2,318,535 

2,427,127 

360,357 

3,458,403 



9,266,504 



1904. 



$195,991 

417,185 

2,127,675 

2,710,840 

411,816 

4,006,214 



), 869, 721 



1905. 



$191,718 

294,282 

2,065,032 

3,410,170 

505,897 

4,760,520 



11,227,619 



1906. 



$268,723 
350,871 
2,682,435 
4,438,685 
738,240 
5,896,321 



14,375,275 



Distribution of domestic merchandise shipped from the United States to Alaska during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1906. 



District. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


Southeast Alaska, as far west as Sitka 


$3,270,246 
1,537,418 

3,749,070 

709,770 


$3,370,119 
1,578,065 

3,847,518 

1,074,019 


$3,076,368 
2,099,565 

3,559,155 

2,492,531 


$3,938,826 


Southern Alaska, Sitka to Una laska 


2,688,176 


Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, all other points on sea- 
coast except St. Michael 


4,556,962 


Yukon River, including St. Michael and all other 
places 


3,191,311 






Total 


9,266,504 


9,869,721 


11,227,619 


14,375,275 





241 b— 07- 



6 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Domestic merchandise shipped from Alaska to the United States during the fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1906. 



Commodity. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 




$8,410,931 

771,711 

98,956 

29,311 

877,311 


$8,552,985 

487,795 

137,703 

41,534 

880,164 


$8,381,466 

628,623 

440,488 

42,061 

1,206,056 


$6,467,927 


All other fish 


780,991 




823,015 


Fish oil 


25,831 




1,110,366 






Total 


10,188,220 


10,100,181 


10,698,694 


9,208,130 







Domestic gold and silver shipped from Alaska to the United States. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


Gold ... 


$4,744,427 
10,151 


$6,347,742 
4,286 


$9,030,023 
8,302 


$12,638,608 




1,015 






Total . 


4,754,578 


6,352,028 


9,067,325 


12,639,623 







Foreign gold and silver shipped from Alaska to the United States. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


Gold 


$10,979,285 
282 


$8,555,600 


$10,733,835 


$7,467,992 


Silver 


23, 541 










Total 


10,979,567 


8,555,600 


10,733,835 


7,491,533 







Total values domestic merchandise, gold and silver, and foreign gold and silver shipped from Alaska 
to the United States: 1903, $25,922,365; 1904, $25,007,809; 1905, $30,499,854; 1906, $29,339,286. 



TRANSPORTATION. 

The increase in commerce has brought about a material increase 
in the water transportation to and from Alaskan ports. The devel- 
opment of the rich placer deposits of the Yukon Valley and of Seward 
Peninsula and the prospective development of rich copper deposits 
in the coast range of mountains near the Copper and White rivers 
and their tributaries has caused an activity in railroad construction 
throughout Alaska, and there are now in process of construction and 
extension several lines of railroad, and others are in contemplation. 

On the Seward Peninsula the Solomon River Railway has extended 
its line to the Casadepaga and is pushing its construction to reach 
Council City. 

At Nome the Nome and Arctic Railway has purchased the Wild 
Goose Railroad and has been actively engaged in the extension of 
its line during the summer, with the Kougarok as its destination. 

There are several projected railroads to the copper fields of the 
Copper River and its tributaries. These roads all contemplate 
branch lines to the Kayak coal fields, which, according to the report 
of G. C. Martin, of the Geological Survey, contain large areas of coal 
of excellent quality and of high grade, suitable both for coking and 
general use. 

The Copper River Railway, with its terminus at Cordova, has a 
force of men actively engaged in grading the roadbed and laying of 
track, and will by the close of this season, when work will be stopped 



GOVEBNOR OF ALASKA. 7 

on account of heavy snowfall, have 20 miles of railroad completed 
and grade complete almost to Copper River, with a considerable 
section of the heavy rock work through Abercrombie Canyon, on 
Copper River, completed. 

The Copper River and Northwestern Railway Company, which 
projected a road from Valdez, has had during the summer approxi- 
mately 100 men at work on the grading and in the canyon 20 miles 
north of Valdez. This road has also had men in the field all summer 
making surveys and examinations for other routes, including detailed 
surveys of a road to start from Catalla, touching the Kayak coal 
fields, and thence over practically the same route as the Copper 
River Railway. 

The Valdez and Yukon Railway has built a wharf and offices at 
Valdez, graded part of its roadbed, and had laid about 1 mile of 
standard-gauge track by September 15. 

The Alaska Railroad contemplates a road from the head of Cor- 
dova Bay through the Copper River Valley to Eagle City. 

In addition to these there are two or three projected roads from 
Catalla to the Kayak coal fields. 

About 220 miles west of the Copper River Valley, at Seward, the 
Alaska Central Railway has built 47 h miles of standard-gauge track, 
and has its roadbed in excellent shape. From this point to mile 54 
there are a series of tunnels and heavy grade work, which is about 
90 per cent completed. In this distance they have seven tunnels, 
with a total length of 3,800 feet. The ultimate destination of this 
road is to be Fairbanks, with a branch line to the Matanuska coal 
fields, which, according to the report of G. C. Martin, of the Geolog- 
ical Survey, contain large areas of excellent coal. 

The Alaska Short Line Railway has a terminus at Illiamna Bay, 
and projects a road from this point to Nome. 

The Tanana Mines Railway has built and is operating 36 miles of 
railroad from Chena to Gilmore by way of Fairbanks. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The experiments of residents of Alaska and at the various experi- 
mental stations in the district under the charge of the agent of the 
Department of Agriculture have proven conclusively that the har- 
dier vegetables can be grown with success in most parts of Alaska. 

There having been no experiments conducted in the valleys of the 
interior, where large areas of rolling land are to be found, it seems 
to be advisable that the smaller experiment stations be abolished 
and efforts concentrated at one or more experiment stations in the 
large valleys of the interior, to determine whether hay, grain, and 
stock feed capable of maintaining work animals can be grown, as 
well as determining their other agricultural possibilities, and a 
possible development of tonnage for lines of transportation, which 
eventually must be built. 

STOCK RAISING. 

The agent of the Department of Agriculture is attempting to find 
a breed of cattle that will thrive in Alaska. To this end he has pur- 
chased several Galloway cattle and cattle of other breeds, and we 
await the result of the experiment with a great deal of interest. 



8 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Most if not all the towns and settlements have milch cows, which 
during the summer months subsist principally on the wild grasses, 
but during the winter all require to be fed from feed imported into 
the country. 

MINING. 

Each year sees a decided progress in the development of the min- 
ing industry, which has been and is certain to remain the greatest 
industry in Alaska. 

GOLD. 

This metal is found in varying quantities throughout the whole dis- 
trict. In southeastern Alaska it occurs in veins and lodes, and gener- 
ally in the free state. Wherever prospecting and development work has 
been carried on in a careful, businesslike manner, the results have been 
very satisfactory, and as the years go by and depth is obtained, the 
persistency of values and continuation of ore bodies is being proven 
beyond question. There has, however, been no important discov- 
eries of this metal in southeastern Alaska during the past }^ear. 

Considerable amount of placer gold is recovered from the gravels 
of this section of Alaska from year to year, but the gravel-bearing 
areas are small, andean not be regarded as of very material value in 
the future. 

There is still mining on the beach at Cape Yaktag and in Cooks 
Inlet. 

Placer mining continues on the branches of the Copper River, Slate 
Creek, Miller Gulch, and Nizina. These camps are supplied from 
Valdez and the expense of getting supplies is great, without hope of 
reduction until one of the various contemplated lines of railroad has 
reached Copper Center. 

There have been many encouraging reports of prospects on the 
Yentna and at the headwaters of the Kuskokwim River. Transporta- 
tion to these camps is still difficult and expensive, but a large develop- 
ment can be expected upon the completion of the Alaska Central 
Railroad. 

The large gold-bearing area of the Yukon Valley is increasing its 
output from year to year, and the developments in the Fairbanks 
district and near Richardson have been so great as to leave no doubt 
as to the tremendous possibility of that section of Alaska. The out- 
put from this district and from the entire Yukon Valley this year has 
been very considerably curtailed by lack of water, the past season 
having been unusually dry. Notwithstanding the shortage of water, 
the output of the Fairbanks district will be 30 per cent larger than 
during the preceding year. 

Mining continues near Circle City, on the Yukon River, on the head- 
waters of the Koyukuk, and the older placer camps of the interior. 
Large areas of placer-bearing gravel in the older Yukon camps are 
being purchased by capitalists for the purpose of installing dredges 
and labor-saving appliances for the recovery of gold. 

On account of the very rich discoveries on old beach lines near 
Nome, unusual activity has prevailed in that camp during the past 
year, resulting in a very considerable increase in the output of gold, 
notwithstanding a season of dryness. The developments at Nome 
and on the Seward Peninsula have been such, and returns to capital 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 9 

so satisfactory, that many large projects for cheapening the cost of 
gold production in this section have been set afoot and caused a great 
stimulus to the mining industry in that section of the country. 

Owing to the peculiar nature of the deposits and loose methods 
followed in staking claims and maintaining titles, much litigation 
has been brought before the courts in this district and has resulted 
in tying up some very rich properties, and it is hoped that before 
another season begins much of this litigation can be settled and the 
country developed with a rapidity which its richness warrants. 

For similar reasons many of the rich claims of the Fairbanks dis- 
trict remain undeveloped, the title to the claims being in dispute and 
before the court for settlement. 

A destructive fire occurred at Fairbanks May 22, 1906, destroying 
the larger part of the town, but hardly had the ashes cooled when, 
with commendable zeal and energy the people of that town began to 
rebuild their houses and offices, and at the time of my vi#it, in July, 
there were few evidences of a destructive fire to be seen. 

Both at Fairbanks and Nome new strikes are being continuously 
reported, and if relief can be given to congestion of litigation the 
coming year will show a very large output of gold from both districts. 

COPPER. 

Mines producing this metal a year ago have, without exception, 
increased their production during the past year. Larger develop- 
ments, with increasing prospective success, have been made in south- 
eastern Alaska in the Ketchikan district, on Prince of Wales Island. 
Two smelters in this district have been "able to run a much larger 

f)ortion of the year than heretofore. The developments of the mines 
eave the future of this section assured. * 

The Prince William Sound district, the Ellamar mine, in Virgin 
Bay, and the Beatson mine, on Latouche Island, continue their suc- 
cessful mining and shipments of sulphide ore. Work upon other 
claims on Latouche, Boulder, Landlock, and Galena bays and other 
arms of Prince William Sound have .been carried on with energy 
during the season. North and east of Prince William Sound, in the 
Copper River range of mountains, there has been a great increase in 
activity in prospecting for and development of copper ores, and 
many reports of finds of surprising richness have been made. 

The ores of this section are reported to be of much higher grade 
than the ores in Prince William Sound, but they await transportation 
facilities to be brought into the market. As there are several pro- 
jected railways to this section, it will be but a short time until this 
rich section of Alaska will be open to development and production. 

With the opening of the coal deposits of Controller Bay and the 
Matanuska and the construction of railroads through the copper belt of 
central Alaska, the future of this section and of Prince William Sound 
as copper producers seems to be assured. 

TIN. 

Exploitation and development of the tin deposits of the Seward 
Peninsula continue, and one 20-stamp concentrator mill has been in 
operation throughout the summer. 



10 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

SILVER. 

This metal has been produced during the year only as a by-product 
with the gold. 

COAL. 

The great value of the coal fields of the Matanuska and Bering 
rivers having been determined, their development awaits trans- 
portation, which is now well in progress and within a reasonable 
time Alaska will furnish the Pacific coast with the highest grades 
of coal and coke. Owing to the expense of obtaining titles to coal 
lands in Alaska and the additional expense necessary for their 
development, such land is beyond the reach of the ordinary pros- 
pector. To prevent frauds in obtaining titles and at the same time 
secure the necessary development of the coal fields, some modifica- 
tion of our coal-land laws should be made so as to enable people 
acting in good faith to obtain these lands in such areas as to make 
it profitable to develop and market the coal. 

PETROLEUM. 

Drilling for oil has continued in the territory east of Copper River 
to some extent during the summer, but so far no wells are producing 
oil in quantities to market. 

GYPSUM. 

The Pacific Coast Gypsum Company has begun its shipments of 
ore from its mine on Chicagoff Island, and this industry seems to be 
an assured success. 

MARBLE. 

Developments of this material are being made on Prince of Wales 
Island with satisfaction to the owners. 

FORESTS AND THE PRODUCTION OF LUMBER. 

The best timber section of Alaska is now embraced in the forest 
reserves on Prince of Wales, KupreanofT and Chicagoff islands, and 
owing to the lack of knowledge on the part of the residents of Alaska 
of the rules regarding purchase of timber from these reserves there 
has been some dissatisfaction. The Bureau of Forestry has, with 
commendable energy, sent its agents to inquire into the existing 
conditions and causes of complaint, and I have no doubt will find a 
way to preserve such valuable timber as exists in Alaska without 
hampering its residents in the development of the country. The 
production of lumber has been only for local uses. The mines usually 
have their own small sawmills, and the towns have larger mills to 
furnish the demand in other industries. 

EDUCATION. 

All incorporated towns of Alaska have provided graded schools 
for the children residing therein. The people have taken much pride 
in these schools, and they have been conducted without exception 
in a wise manner. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 11 

Under the provisions of an act of Congress approved January 
27, 1905, commonly known as the Nelson bill, schools for children 
of white and mixed blood have been established at the following 
places: Afo<mak, Catalla, Cleary, Council City, Ellamar, Haines, 
Hope, Kodiak, Longwood, Reservation, Seward, and Sitka. The 
people were quick to take advantage of the provisions of this bill, 
but it will take a year or two to develop a perfectly satisfactory 
system of schools under this bill. 

The fund allowed for these schools is accummulating, and there 
are some places that have not a sufficient number of children of 
school age to receive the benefits of a school under the provisions 
of this act. I would therefore recommend that the number of 
children necessary before a school can be established be reduced to 15. 

Owing to the failure to comply with some of the provisions of the 
law there may be a delay this year in commencing some of the 
schools already established. 

The Government schools for the education of the natives con- 
tinue to be under the charge of the Bureau of Education. Many 
of the denominations of the Christian Church are also engaged in 
the education of the natives. The Presbyterians, the Roman 
Catholics, the Moravians, the Methodists, the Baptists, the Episco- 
palians, the Friends, the Swedish Evangelical, the independent 
missionary William Duncan at Metlakahtla, and the Orthodox Greek 
Church, which has been generously maintained and supported in 
Alaska by the Russian Government, have all been doing such work 
among the native people as their means and opportunity offered, 
wi*Ti a result of a general uplifting of the conditions of these people 
and better fitting them for contact with the whites. These schools 
all teach the English language, and tins is the first essential for con- 
tact with the white man, that the Indian may be more valuable as 
a laborer and better able to treat for his hire. 

In some instances, where the natives have been long under the 
influence of these missions, they have been very considerably 
advanced in civilization, indeed, so far that it seems but fair and 
right that some means should be provided by which a native could 
acquire all kinds of property and transmit it to his descendants, 
the same as all citizens. 

LABOB SUPPLY. 

There has been a decided shortage of labor in southeastern Alaska 
and along the southern coast during the past season. The activity 
in railroad building and the development of new mines have caused 
a demand for labor which the supply has not equaled. This is 
partly caused by the varying demand of the winter and the summer, 
and conditions can hardly VJe expected to become satisfactory until 
a more even balance between the winter and summer demand can 
be had. There are, however, at all times on the coast of Alaska 
ample opportunities for the industrious laborer. 

CONDITION OF THE INDIANS. 

The general condition of the coast Indians is improving. Reliable 
information as to the condition of the Indians in the interior is diffi- 
cult to obtain. From that which I deem most trustworthy it would 
seem that the greatest need of these Indians is to provide some means 



12 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

of securing them medical assistance at all times, and particularly at 
such times as an epidemic may prevail. 

Owing to complaints as to conditions of the Copper River Indians 
the War Department issued rations to some of them for a period, 
but from reports of Lieutenant Sharp and Captain Helmick, who had 
charge of the distribution of these rations, it seems that the issuing 
of free rations would tend to create a dependence of these people 
upon the Government entirely for subsistence. If the Government 
will provide some means of giving medical aid, their condition will 
be much improved over what it ever has been. 

From reports I have received I am left in doubt as to whether the 
condition of these natives is any worse now than in previous years 
or whether on account of the advent of the white man the knowledge 
of the Indians' condition is becoming more general. At present 
there is no machinery of government in Alaska by which aid can be 
rendered these natives when needed, and it is to be hoped that Con- 
gress will provide necessary relief. 

There are, no doubt, instances where the natives are maltreated 
by the whites, but in every instance where punishment could be 
meted out to the offender it has been done. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

Except at Juneau, where a court-house, with suitable vaults, has 
been built, and at Nome, where the commissioner and recorder for 
that district has been able to lease a building with a fireproof vault, 
the records of title of every piece of property in Alaska are kept in 
wooden buildings and constantly subjected to the dangers of loss by 
fire. 

The first session of the Fifty-ninth Congress appropriated money 
for the construction of a fireproof vault for the records of the clerk 
of the court at Nome and at Fairbanks, ajid I earnestly recommend 
that an additional appropriation be made for the construction of 
such vaults for the court at Valdez and Ketchikan. 

As all the general offices of the district of Alaska are now located 
at Juneau in rented offices, and a suitable site for a public building 
can now be had at a reasonable price, I recommend that as soon as 
practicable suitable buildings be erected at Juneau for all the gen- 
eral officers of the district. This would effect a very material saving 
to the Government in rents and provide for a better conduct of its 
business. 

LEGISLATION DESIRED. 

Alaska is now governed under a code of laws enacted by Congress 
and approved June 6, 1900. Since the passage of this act the devel- 
opment of the country has been wonderful, and legislation has nec- 
essarily been unable to keep pace with its growth. This act was a 
great step in advance, and its working has been all that its authors 
could reasonably expect. It was somewhat hastily constructed and 
is defective in many ways. To remedy these defects and provide 
such additional legislation as will meet the growing needs of this 
country, I think that it would be wise to provide some means by 
which the Alaskan code of laws could be revised. To this end I 
would suggest that Congress provide for a commission to visit all 
parts of Alaska, study the needs of the various districts, and make 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 13 

such recommendations which, if enacted into law, would conduce to 
the better welfare of Alaska. This commission could present in one 
bill nearly everything that would be needful in the way of legislation 
for a considerable period of years and would decrease the demands 
upon Congress for piecemeal legislation, which seems to be constantly 
increasing. 

There are, however, some matters of urgent importance, which 
have need of the immediate attention of Congress. 

First of importance is the creation of an additional judicial divi- 
sion to embrace that portion of Alaska along the coast west of Yaku- 
tat Bay and extending to the interior for a distance of 200 miles. 
This proposed district is now embraced within the third judicial dis- 
trict and entails work upon the judge which it is impossible for one 
man to do. The increase of business of the third judicial division 
has been very great within the last two years, and with the increasing 
developments in Prince William Sound and the Copper River valleys 
the necessity for an additional judicial division is urgent. 

Owing to the present congestion of business in the courts of the 
second and third judicial divisions, caused by the large amount of 
litigation, a fifth judge should be provided for Alaska, this judge to 
be assigned to such district as the Attorney-General might direct as 
conditions warranted. 

Owing to the peculiar nature of the deposits of gold in the Fair- 
banks district and in the Nome district, there have been many con- 
flicts over the ownership of very valuable mining claims, causing 
endless vexation and trouble, and depriving rightful owners of the 
use of their property for prolonged periods. In some instances there 
has been as much as a million dollars of gold on a dump awaiting 
months for a decision as to the rightful ownership, and then perhaps 
a year or more for an appeal. In many instances these contests of 
title have savored of blackmail. The originators of suits, knowing 
the congested condition of the courts, have taken advantage of the 
fact to tie up vast sums of money in the hope of effecting compro- 
mise. If a quick determination of these suits could be had there 
would undoubtedly be fewer of them, and as there will be no need 
of additional general court officers for this additional judge the 
expense will be small. 

Owing to the activity in railroad construction which now prevails 
in some sections and seems to be only starting, I would recommend 
that a law be enacted prohibiting the sale of liquor or the licensing 
the sale thereof at any place within a radius of 5 miles of a construc- 
tion camp of a railroad or other enterprise employing 100 or more 
men, except in incorporated towns. 

Owing to the peculiar nature of the deposits of gold in the placer 
districts of the interior of Alaska the general mining laws of the 
United States do not seem to be entirely applicable, and have been 
the cause of much contention and litigation, and some relief should 
be given. The remedy should be well thought out and could be best 
found by a commission on revision of the laws, which I have already 
recommended. 

Owing to the recent important discoveries of rich copper deposits 
near the one hundred and forty-first meridian, the boundary line 
between Alaska and the Yukon territory, I have to recommend that 
the necessary money be appropriated for the permanent marking of 



14 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 

this boundary, as it is along this line that the most recent discoveries 
of mineral of value have been made. As coalitions exist, the locators 
are in doubt as to whether their claims are in Alaska or in the Yukon 
territory, and are compelled to record in both countries. 

Congress has been liberal in its treatment of Alaska in giving it 
light-houses, buoys, and aids to navigation, but owing to the increase 
in shipping these needs are increasing, and there is need for a con- 
tinuance of liberality in establishing these light-houses and stations. 

These light-houses and stations have been in charge of the inspector 
of the Thirteenth light-house district, with headquarters at Portland, 
Oreg. They have grown in numbers and importance, and cover such 
a large extent of the seacoast that it seems the time has now come 
when a separate light-house district for Alaska should be created. 
It is now practically impossible for a tender stationed at Portland to 
cover the whole of the Alaska coast as is needed. 

FISH. 

SALMON. 

The total pack of the canneries for the year will be about 1,500,000 
cases of 4 dozen 1 -pound cans to the case. As none of the canneries 
had completed their pack at the time of making this report, I am 
unable to give the exact figures of the pack. 

. The United States Fish Commissioner and some canneries are con- 
ducting experiments in hatching salmon fry, in order to augment the 
yearly supply of salmon. The result of these experiments is awaited 
with much interest, but as they are of such recent date there is no 
data obtainable as to definite results. 

The Bureau of Fisheries has its agents each year in Alaska looking 
after the regulations for the protection of the salmon fisheries, and 
I have had no complaints of illegal fishing since my incumbency in 
office. 

HALIBUT. 

The business in this fish is growing rapidly, new fishing stations 
being established each year, and better and surer means of preserv- 
ing the fish in transit to market has rendered this ^industry more 
profitable from year to year. 

COD. 

There is a limited business in fishing for this character of fish. 
A few vessels are engaged in it, catching the fish, salting and taking 
them for final preparation for market to San Francisco or Seattle. 

HERRING. 

This fish is at present used in the manufacture of oil and guano, 
and there is at present an old-established oil and guano factory at 
Killisnoo on the west side of Admiralty Island, and a second one is 
building on the south side of the same island. 

At Juneau the experiment continues of putting up the small her- 
ring as sardines. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 15 

FURS. 

The independent buyers of furs are on the increase, and for this 
reason it is difficult to obtain a correct estimate of the value of furs 
shipped from Alaska during the year, but it is undoubtedly large. 

CABLES AND TELEGRAPHS. 

Congress has conferred no greater benefit on Alaska than the con- 
struction of cables and telegraphs throughout the district. The serv- 
ices rendered through the Signal Corps of the Army have been 
very satisfactory, and we ask that this service be extended as rap- 
idly as possible. By November 1 the cable and telegraph which was 
provided for by the first session of the Fifty-ninth Congress will be 
extended to Wrangell, Hadley, and Ketchikan, and the improve- 
ments of the line contemplated by this appropriation will have been 
made in the interior. 

The growing population and increasing business activity in Prince 
William Sound in the Copper River country is such as to warrant an 
extension of the cable from Valdez to Cordova, and thence by land 
line to Catalla and the coal fields, and I have, therefore, to recom- 
mend that provision be made for this extension. I have also to 
recommend that the land lines be extended to Circle City, one of 
the important towns on the Yukon River not now supplied with 
cable service. 

In the construction and maintenance of the land lines in the interior 
of Alaska great credit is due to the line of the Army stationed at the 
various posts throughout Alaska. The officers and men at these posts 
have been engaged during the past year in the widening of the right 
of way of these lines to prevent breaks by falling timber, and thereby 
securing an uninterrupted service of the telegraph. They have been 
engaged in this work both winter and summer, and under the trying 
conditions which exist to outdoor life in Alaska have been subjected 
to many hardships, which they have borne without complaint and 
at great sacrifice to themselves. For this much credit is due them. 

SURVEYS. 

The Geological and Coast and Geodetic Surveys have, so far as the 
facilities at their command permitted, been engaged upon a work 
which is of great value to Alaska, and its citizens hope for a contin- 
uance of liberality of Congress in the support and maintenance of these 
two surveys in the work which they are engaged upon in this country. 

BOARD OF ROAD COMMISSIONERS. 

This board was organized under the act of Congress approved 
January 27, 1905, and during that year made such preliminary sur- 
veys and locations of roads and trails as time and the money at 
their disposal would permit. The first session of the Fifty-ninth 
Congress appropriated the sum of $150,000 for the construction and 
maintenance of post roads, bridges, and trails in the district of 
Alaska, to be expended under the direction of this board, and this 
work has been forwarded with great rapidity and energy and with 
the highest satisfaction to the people of the district. 



16 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The personnel of this board continues as at first organized, with 
Maj. W. P. Richardson, U. S. Army, as president. 

During the past summer 50 miles of wagon road and approxi- 
mately 400 miles of trails have been completed. 

Congress at its last session appropriated the sum of $35,000 for a 
reconnoissance and preliminary survey of a land route from the navi- 
gable waters of the Tanana River, at or near Fairbanks, to the 
vicinity of Council City, in the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, for a mail 
and pack trail along such route, and as soon as this money was avail- 
able the board of road commissioners set parties in the field to make 
this survey, which is to be completed by October 1, thus giving us 
invaluable information regarding a practicable route for an all-land 
pack and winter route for the present and a possible railroad in the 
future. The services rendered to the people of Alaska by this com- 
mission, acting as the agents of a generous Congress, have been highly 
efficient and fully appreciated by the people of Alaska, and it is to be 
hoped that Congress will continue its liberality in appropriations for 
the support of this commission in the prosecution of its work. 

INSANE. 

There are at present 75 patients in the sanitarium at Mount Tabor, 
Portland, Oreg., being cared for under the terms of a contract entered 
into with this company January 16, 1905, at the rate of $348 per 
annum for each patient received. This is an increase of 10 patients 
over the number treated at the institution during the previous year. 
There being no other provisions for the inspection of this asylum, I 
shall from time to time make such visits as may be necessary to 
secure proper care and treatment for these unfortunates. 

DISTRICT HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND MUSEUM. 

The moneys received for certificates issued to members of the bar, 
for commissions to notaries public, and other sources during the 
year, and set aside to be disbursed on the order of the governor in 
maintaining the District Historical Library and Museum, under the 
provisions of section 32 of the act of June 6, 1900, prescribing a civil 
code for the district of Alaska, and the act approved March 3, 1905, 
entitled "An act to further prescribe the duties of the secretary of 
the district of Alaska," including the balance on hand, aggregated 
$5,138.17, of which $1,169.09 was expended, leaving an available 
balance of $3,969.08. 

For details of receipts and expenditures of this fund see Appendix 
A. 

There being no suitable building for the care and preservation of 
the property of this library and museum, and the annual payments 
into this fund not being large enough to provide for same, I shall 
make a very limited expenditure until such time as provision can be 
made for the housing of the property of this museum. 

MAIL. 

While Congress has shown a very liberal spirit in providing for 
mail facilities and the Post-Office Department has been diligent in its 
efforts to improve the mail service in Alaska, new camps spring up 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 17 

so quickly and live under such trying conditions, theft it has seemed in 
some instances that suitable provision could not be made for these 
contingencies. It would be well, therefore, if Congress would pro- 
vide an emergency fund, in reasonable amount, for the extension of 
mail service to such camps as may come into existence during the 
interval between appropriations. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion we ask that Congress will give us such legislation 
from time to time as will aid us in the development of the vast 
resources of Alaska and will continue a generous spirit in its appro- 
priations for mails, roads, cables, and telegraph extensions, light- 
houses, buoys, aids to navigation, and geological and coast and 
geodetic surveys. While the resources of the country are yearly 
adding to the wealth of the nation, much of it goes beyond our 
reach. We ask, therefore, that Congress and the Government con- 
tinue their interest in our welfare until such time as we are better 
able to take care of ourselves. 

Very respectfully, Wilford B. Hoggatt, 

Governor of Alaska. 

The Secretary of the Interior. 



APPENDIXES. 



Appendix A. 



Receipts and disbursements of the Alaska Historical Library and Museum fund for the year 

ended September 30, 1906. 



DEBIT. 



Name and object. 



Amount. 



Balance, last report 

Joseph K. Wood, notary public 

S. G. Holt, notary public 

E. W. Pettit, notary public 

Samuel M. Graff, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Oct. 1 to Oct. 31, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 1 . 
John G. Heid, notary public 

F. Homer, notary public 

Arthur P. Tifft, commissioner of deeds 

John Rustgard, notary public 

Geo. V. Borchsenius, member of bar ' 

Lawrence M. Sebring, member of bar 

J. C. Sutley, notary public 

C. G. Cowden, notary public 

Thomas M. Reed, notary public 

J. W. Leedy, notary public 

Z. R. Cheney, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Nov. 1 to Nov. 30, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 2 

Henry Roden, notary public 

William Millmore, notary public 

Harry L. Cohn, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Dec. 1 to Dec. 31, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 3. 

Cyrus F. Orr, notary public 

Clara E. Wright, notary public 

Clyde A. Thompson, notary public 

W. A. Kelly, power of attorney 

John R. Beegle, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Jan. 1 to Jan. 31, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 4 . 

Phil Abrahams, notary public 

R. W. Jennings, notary public 

F. G. Kimball, notary public 

Dodd, Mead & Co., refund of overcharge, voucher 12, dated Aug. 25, 1905 

John R. Winn, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporr tions and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Feb. 1 to Feb. 28, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 5 

R. Blix, notary public 

O. L. Grimes, notary public 

The Manchester Life Insurance Co., qualification 

The Manchester Life Insurance Co., power of attorney - 

J. Allison Bruner, member of bar 

Pearl M. Park, notary public 

John A. Clark, notary public 

John F. Dillon, notary public 

Emelian Petellin, notary public 

Frank H. Hold, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Mar. 1 to Mar. 31, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 6 

George Max Esterly, notary public 

James M. Shoup, member of bar 

L. V. Ray, notary public 

H. H. Hildreth, notary public 

Willoughby Clark, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seaJ affixed, from Apr. 1 to Apr. 30, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 7 

18 



$3, 340. 39 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 

88.23 
10.00 
10.00 
5.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 

55.50 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 

34.00 

10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
5.00 
10.00 

170. 00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
2.50 
10.00 

70.80 
10.00 
10.00 
5.00 
5.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10. 00. 
10.00 

73.75 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 

48.85 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



19 



Receipts and disbursements of the Alaska Historical Library and Museum fund for the year 
ended September 30, 1906 — Continued. 



DEBIT. 



Name and object. 



E. Ellis, notary public 

George Irving, notary public 

Wm. G. Thomas, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from May 1 Co May 31 , inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 8 

George II. Corey, commissioner of deeds 

J. W. MacCormack, notary public 

Charles Hirschberg, notary public 

John S. Wurtz, commissioner of deeds 

Arthur Frame, member of bar 

Ida G. Chaquette, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from June 1 to June 30, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 9 

Lewis L. Bowers, notary public 

D. B. Chace, nota ry public 

George M. Ashford, nota ry public 

John E. Barrett, notary public 

Inez Huntoon, notary public 

G. A. Adams, member of bar: 

T. M. Clowes, member of bar 

Receipts from foreign and domesticinoorpoml ions and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affix* d, from July 1 to July 31, inclusive, as per itemized statement No.10 

Otto Halla, notary public 

Geo. J. Miller, notary public 

C. S. H annum, notary public 

M. L. Peterson, notary public 

Charles B. Allen, notary public 

John Burton, notary public 

A. R. Hoare, notary public 

Mabel Searl, notary public 

P. D. O verfield, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed , from Aug. 1 to Aug. 31, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 11 

Thomas R. Shepard, notary public 

Alfred J. Daily, notary pul die 

Lawrence S. Kerr, notary public 

Cyril P. Wood, notary public 

Charles Edgar Rice, notary public 

George Edward Boulter, notary public 

Geo. W. Dutton, notary public 

W. H. Adams, notary public 

Chas. W. Thornton, notary public 

Frank J. Dynan, notary public 

R. T. Roth, member of bar 

J. Lindley Green, notary public 

John L. McGinn, notary public 

T. C. Campbell, notary public 

Receipts from foreign and domestic incorporations and the issuance of certificates, 

with seal affixed, from Sept.l to Sept. 30, inclusive, as per itemized statement No. 12 

Total 



Amount. 



CREDIT. 



Forum Publishing Co., voucher No. 1 

Edward de Groff, agent Pacific Express Co., voucher No. 2 

The Nome Gold Digger, voucher No. 3 

Leo NabokofE, voucher No. 6 

Alaska Sentinel, voucher No. 4 

Leo Nabokofl, voucher No. 6 

Gevrge Kostrometinoff, voucher No. 5 

Leo NabokofE, voucher No. 6 

Leo NabokofE, voucher No. 6 

K. Knutsen, voucher No. 7 

Ginn & Co., voucher No. 8 

The Sitka Cablegram, voucher No. 9 

The Council City News, voucher No. 10 

Leo NabokofE, voucher No. 11 

Lowman & Hanford Stationery and Printing Co., voucher No. 12 

Edward de GrofE, agent Northwestern Steamship Co., voucher No. 13 

The Alaska Transcript, voucher No. 14 

Ferdinand Roll, voucher No. 15 



20 



ANNUAL EEPOKTS OF THE DEPAKTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



Receipts and disbursements of the Alaska Historical Library and Museum fund for the year 
ended September 30, 1906 — Continued. 



CREDIT. 



Date. 



1906. 
Mar. 9 



9 

9 
12 
12 
14 
14 
14 
14 

Apr. 10 
10 
10 

Sept. 4 
30 



Name and object. 



Don Cameron, voucher No. 16 

Ray James, voucher No. 17 

Albert James, voucher No. 18 

Thomas Cook, voucher No. 19 

Peter K. Jacobs, voucher No. 20 

John Willard, voucher No. 21 

E. W. Merrill, voucher No. 22 

Cyrus Peck, voucher No. 23 

Haida Daniel, voucher No. 24 

Garfield Bailey, voucher No. 25 

George Bartlett, voucher No. 26 

Howard Patton, voucher No. 27 

Thomas Willard, voucher No. 28 , 

John Patton, voucher No. 29 , 

Eaton Hunter, voucher No. 30 

Lowman & Hanford Stationery and Printing Co., voucher No. 31 

S. Stephensen, voucher No. 32 

H. Patton, voucher No. 33 

Henry L. Bahrt, jr., voucher No. 34 

Waska Allard, voucher No. 35 

The Alaskan, voucher No. 36 

E. W. Merrill, voucher No. 37 

Howard Patton, voucher No. 38 

The Nome Semiweekly Nuggett, voucher No. 39 

Dispatch PubUshing Co., voucher No. 40 , 

John J. Clarke, voucher No. 41 

By balance 

Total .' 



Amount. 



$48. 00 
48.00 
48.00 
26.10 
41.10 
48.00 
70.00 
11.70 
14.40 
42.00 
42.30 
40.80 
14.40 
42.00 
40.80 
24.40 
19.50 

6.69 

4.50 
14.25 

6.00 
10.49 
25. 20 

5.00 
16.00 

3.67 
,969.08 



5, 138. 17 



Appendix B. 

OFFICIAL DIRECTORY. 

DISTRICT GOVERNMENT 

Governor, Wilford B. Hoggatt, Juneau. 

Secretary to the governor, William H. Loller, Juneau. 

Ex officio secretary of Alaska, William L. Distin, Juneau. 

UNITED STATES SURVEYOR-GEN ERAL's OFFICE. 



Juneau. — William L. Distin, surveyor-general; George Stowell, chief clerk; Martin 
George, chief draftsman; John J. Clarke, stenographer and typewriter clerk; William F. 
Jeffreys, transcribing clerk ; William Rugg, draftsman ; Laurence Delmore, copyist ; Charles 
Haley, messenger. 

United States deputy surveyors. — A. J. Adams, Valdez; C. M. Anderson, ; G. M. 

Ashford, Nome; E. G. Allen, Fairbanks; George E. Baldwin, Valdez ; A. G. Blake, Nome; 

Webster Brown, ; F. Butterworth, Valdez; J. C. Barber, Ketchikan; T. C. Breiten- 

stein, Orca; C. E. Davidson, Juneau; L. E. Davick, ; Martin George, Juneau; T. H. 

•; C. S. Hubbell, Wrangell; Herman Heinze, 



George, Juneau ; Clinton Gurnee, 

W. A. Hesse, Nome; W. H. Hampton, Juneau; Udo Hesse, — 

banks; G. A. Kyle, Seward; Albert Lascy, ; F. H. Lascy, 

lin, Nome; A. B. Lewis, Seward; J. L. McPherson, ; A. J. Meals, Valdez; John A. 

McQuinn, — — ; Elias Ruud, Juneau; LeroyD. Ryus, Ketchikan; Henry States, Juneau ; 



R. A. Jackson, Fair- 
Lewis E. Frank- 



Roy W. Sweet, - 
field, Ketchikan. 



-* D. B. Skinner, Catalla; N. B. Whitfield, Ketchikan; D. S. Whit- 



United States deputy mineral surveyors. — A. J. Adams, Valdez; George M. Ashford, Nome; 
A. G. Allen, Fairbanks; Mark N. Ailing, Nome; George E. Baldwin, Valdez; John C. Barber, 

Ketchikan; Arthur G. Blake, Nome; J. F. Blakely, ; Webster Brown, ; F. 

Butterworth, Valdez; T. C. Breitenstein, ; W. S. Chapman, Kayak; C. E. Chapman, 

Valdez; J. B. Cameron, Seward; C. E. Davidson, Juneau; David Fox, ; Martin 

George, Juneau; T. H. George, Juneau; Clinton Gurnee, ; Herman Heinze, ; 

W. A. Hesse, Nome; William B. Hoag, Nome; C. S. Hubbell, Wrangell; H. H. Harvey, 
Tin City; W. H. Hampton, Juneau; Udo Hesse, ; R. A. Jackson, Fairbanks; Albert 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 21 

Lascy, ; Frank IT. Lascy, : ; E. Franklin Lewis, Nome; A. B. Lewis, Seward; 

S. L. Lovell. Kayak; J. L. McPherson, ; John A. McQuinn, ; A. J. Meals 

Valdez; Elias Ruud, Juneau: L. D. Ryus, Ketchikan; Lucien S. Robe, Fairbanks; Henry 
States, Juneau; N. B. Whitfield, Ketchikan; D. S. Whitfield, Ketchikan; J. Potter Whittren, 
Sullivan City; Alfred Williams, Dawson, Yukon Territory; W. A. Wan-en, Nome; R. F. 
Whitham, . 

UNITED STATES CUSTOMS DISTRICT. 

Juneau. — Clarence L. Hobart, collector; J. R. Willis, special deputy collector; Fred S. 
Williams, deputy collector and inspector; Milson S. Dobbs, deputy collector and inspector; 
H. R. Shepard, deputy collector and inspector; George M. Simpkins, deputy collector and 
inspector; Harry E. Barrackman, deputy collector and inspector; R. E. Robertson, ste- 
nographer and typewriter. 

Ketchikan. — John R. Beegle. deputy collector in charge; John L. Abrams, deputy col- 
lector and inspector; Richard L. Colby, deputy collector and inspector; August Groot, 
deputy collector and inspector (navigation season) ; Ben C. Delzelle, deputy collector and 
inspector (navigation season). 

Wrangell. — F. E. Bronson, deputy collector in charge; L. M. Churchill, deputy collector 
and inspector (navigation season). 

STcagway. — Matthew Bridge, deputy collector in charge; J. F. Pugh, deputy collector and 
inspector; M. S. Whittier, deputy collector and inspector; Edwin R. Stivers, deputy col- 
lector and inspector; Nicholas Bolshanin, deputy collector and inspector; Montgomery A. 
Snow, deputy collector and inspector (navigation season); Loring C. Elliott, deputy col- 
lector and inspector (navigation season); George C. Carson, deputy collector and inspector 
(navigation season); James B.'Hart, deputy collector and inspector (navigation season). 

Summit White Pass. — G. C. Miller, deputy collector and inspector. 

Eagle. — Clarence L. Andrews, deputy collector in charge; John J. Hillard, deputy collector 
and inspector; John M. Thompson, deputy collector and inspector; George W. Woodruff, 
deputy collector and inspector; Frank A. Reynolds, deputy collector and inspector (navi- 
gation season); J. A. Folsom, deputy collector and inspector (navigation -season). 

Forty Mile. — Fred J. Vandewall, deputy collector in charge; James H. Van Zandt, 
deputy collector and inspector; Fred Reichert, deputy collector and inspector (navigation 
season). , 

St. Michael. — L. U. Stenger, deputy collector in charge; A. J. Henderson, deputy col- 
lector and inspector (navigation season); T. P. Christian, deputy collector and inspector 
(navigation season); Iolo R. Smith, deputy collector and inspector (navigation season); 
F. J. Wettrick, deputy collector and inspector (navigation season). 

Nome. — G. D. Garfield, deputy collector in charge; R. W. J. Reed, deputy collector and 
inspector (navigation season); Robert J. Williams, deputy collector and inspector (naviga- 
tion season). 

UnalasJca. — D. P. Lea, deputy collector in charge; L. A Lavigne, deputy collector and 
inspector (navigation season). 

Kodiak. — William E. Pence, deputy collector in charge. 

Seward. — E. F. Pitman, deputy collector in charge. 

Valdez. — Edward B. Spiers, deputy collector in charge. 

Sitka. — Victor L. Holt, deputy collector in charge; Henry L. Bart, laborer. 

UNITED STATES COURTS. 

Division No. 1. — Royal A. Gunnison, judge, Juneau; C. C. Page, clerk of court, Juneau; 
A. L. Collison, deputy clerk of court, Juneau; M. H. McLellan, deputy clerk of court, 
Skagway; D. C. Abrams, deputy clerk of court, Ketchikan; G. H. Lull, assistant clerk of 
court, Juneau; J. E. Brooks, assistant clerk of court, Juneau; Harold Lull, court stenog- 
rapher, Juneau; John J. Boyce, United States district attorney, Juneau; William A. Barn- 
hill, assistant United States district attorney, Juneau; George W. Irving, assistant United 
States district attorney, Ketchikan; James M. Shoup, United States marshal, Juneau; 
W. H. McNair, chief deputy United States marshal, Juneau; John B. Heyburn, deputy 
United States marshal, Juneau; A. G. Shoup, deputy United States marshal, Ketchikan; 
J. P. Campbell, deputy United States marshal, Sitka; Hector McLean, deputy United 
States marshal, Skagway: William D. Grant, deputy United States marshal, Wrangell; 
H. B. Le Fevre, United States commissioner, Skagway; Cortes Ford, United States 
commissioner, Haines; Carl Spuhn, United States commissioner, Kilhsnoo; L. A. Slane, 
United States commissioner, Hoonah; Edward de Groff, United States commissioner, 
Sitka; H. H. Folsom, United States commissioner, Juneau; E. S. Stackpole, United States 
commissioner, Ketchikan; A. V. R. Snyder, United States commissioner, Wrangell; Wil- 
liam Duncan, United States commissioner, Metlakatla. 

241b— 07 3 



22 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Division No. 2. — Alfred S. Moore, judge, Nome; John H. Dunn, clerk of court, Nome; 
Angus McBride, deputy clerk of court, Nome: John M. McDowell, deputy clerk of court, 
Council; E. H. Flynn, deputy clerk of court, St. Michael; Henry M. Hoyt, United States 
district attorney, Nome; John J. Reagan, assistant United States district attorney, Nome; 
George B. Grigsby, assistant United States district attorney, Nome; W. N. Landers, 
assistant United States district attorney, Nome; Thomas Cader Powell, United States 
marshal, Nome; R. W. Thompson, chief deputy United States marshal, Nome; John H. D. 
Bouse, deputy United States marshal, Nome; Frank A. Newton, deputy United States 
marshal, Nome; Joseph F. Warren, deputy United States marshal, Nome; James J. Stokes, 
deputy United States marshal, Nome; Daniel J. Wynkoop, deputy United States marshal, 
Nome; David B. Fuller, deputy United States marshal, Nome; Lloyd L. Scott, clerk, United 
States marshal, Nome; Isaac Evans, deputy United States marshal, Teller; Hugh J. Lee, 
deputy United States marshal, Solomon; Thomas R. White, deputy United States marshal, 
Council; George W. Johnson, deputy United States marshal, Nulato; Fred G. Kimball, 
deputy United States marshal, St. Michael; J. C. Tolman, deputy United States marshal, 
Candle; H. H. Darrah, deputy United States marshal, Marys Igloo; F. E. Fuller, United 
States commissioner, Nome; John M. McDowell, United States commissioner, Council; 
Lars Gunderson, United States commissioner, Igloo; S. C. Kenton, United States com- 
missioner, Teller; A. S. Kepner, United States commissioner, Candle: E. H. Flynn, United 
States commissioner, St. Michael; Garrett Busch, United States commissioner, Nulato; 
Peter H. McGrath, United States commissioner, Kuskokwim precinct; S. R. Spriggs, 
United States commissioner, Barrow; C. W. Thornton, United States commissioner, Solo- 
mon; Martin F. Moran, United States commissioner, Shungnak. 

Division No. 3. — James Wickersham, judge, Fairbanks; Edward J. Stier, clerk of court, 
Fairbanks; E. A. Henderson, deputy clerk of court, Fairbanks; S. A. Crandall, deputy 
clerk of court, Valdez; U. G. Myers, deputy clerk of court, Eagle; George A. Jeffries, court 
stenographer, Fairbanks; N. V. Harlan, United States district attorney, Fairbanks; Harry 
L. Cohn, deputy United States district attorney, Fairbanks; O. P. Hubbard, deputy United 
States district attorney, Valdez; Cecil H. Clegg, deputy United States district attorney, 
Seward; R. H. Geoghegan, clerk to United States district attorney. Fairbanks; George G. 
Perry, United States marshal, Fairbanks; E. E. Reynoldson, chiej deputy United States 
marshal, Fairbanks; Geo. Dreibelbis, deputy United States marshal, Fairbanks; Chas. 
Dreibelbis, deputy United States marshal, Fairbanks; J. C. Dillow, deputy United States 
marshal, Fairbanks; F. C. Wiseman, deputy United States marshal, Geary City; George 
Vautier, deputy United States marshal, Fort Gibbon; Jas. H. Johnson, deputy United States 
marshal, Coldfoot; J. F. Drake, deputy United States marshal, Rampart ; E. L. Cloud, deputy 
United States marshal, Circle City; J. W. Robinson, deputy United States marshal, Eagle 
City; Jas. M. Lathrop, deputy United States marshal, Valdez; H. P. Wybrant, deputy 
United States marshal, Seward; L. L. Bowers, deputy United States marshal, Kodiak; 
C. L. Vawter, deputy United States marshal, Unga; Russell S. Bates, deputy United States 
marshal, Nushagak, Jas. Wardell, deputy United States marshal, Catella; C. C. Harman, 
deputy United States marshal, Unalaska; E. R. Brady, United States commissioner, Forty 
Mile precinct; George C. Britton, United States commissioner, Kayak precinct; F. C. 
Dreffield, United States commissioner, Unga precinct; N. Gray, United States commis- 
sioner, Unalaska precinct; J. Lindley Green, United States commissioner, Rampart pre- 
cinct; L. S. Howlett, United States commissioner, Kenai precinct; John Goodell, United 
States commissioner, Cook Inlet precinct; Andrew Holman, United States commissioner, 
Copper Center precinct; Frank E. Howard, United States commissioner, Koyukuk precinct; 
F. D. Kelsey, United States commissioner, Kodiak precinct; John Lyons, United States 
commissioner, Valdez precinct; U. G. Myers, United States commissioner, Eagle precinct; 
John Nevins, United States commissioner, Bristol Bay precinct; L. L. Votaw, United 
States commissioner, Circle precinct; E. M. Carr, United States commissioner, Fairbanks 
precinct; J. Y. Ostrander, United States commissioner, Valdez precinct; John Bathurst, 
United States commissioner, Rampart precinct; F. C. Krause, United States commissioner, 
Fairbanks precinct; J. E. Rivard, United States commissioner, Fairbanks precinct; Lee 
Van Slyke, United States commissioner, Kantishna precinct; H. L. Hedger, United States 
commissioner, Tanana precinct; Samuel J. Marsh, United States commissioner, Chandlar 
precinct. 

UNITED STATES LAND OFFICE. 

John W. Dudley, register, Juneau; P. M. Mullen, receiver, Juneau; H. K. Love, special 

agent, Juneau. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Experiment stations. — C. C. Georgeson, special agent in charge of Alaska investigations, 
Sitka; R. W. DeArmond, assistant at Sitka; F. E. Rader, assistant in charge of Rampart 
station, Rampart; P. H. Ross, assistant in charge of Kenai station, Kenai; J. W. Neal, 
assistant in charge of Copper Valley station, Copper Center. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



23 



BTJKBAU OF EDUCATION. 

Wilford B. Hoggatt, ex-officio superintendent of public instruction, Juneau; Sheldon 
Jackson, agent, Washington, D. C; William Hamilton, assistant agent, Washington, D. C.; 
W. A. Kelly, superintendent of schools southern district, Sitka; W. T. Lopp, superintendent 
of schools, northern district, Teller. 

SCHOOLS MAINTAINED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1906. 

Schools for native children. — Afognak, Miss Hannah Breece, teacher; Copper Center, Mrs. 
G. S. Clevenger, teacher; Haines, Miss May Mackintosh, teacher; Jackson, Miss Marion Mac- 
Lean, teacher; Juneau, Miss Gillespie, teacher; Kake, Mrs. Anna R. Moon, teacher; 
Kasaan, Mr. A. R. Law, teacher; Killisnoo, Mrs. Catharin Kilborn, teacher; Klawack, Miss 
N. E. Edgar, teacher; Klinkwan, Miss Selma Peterson, teacher; Saxman, Miss Laura 
Oakes, teacher; Sitka, Miss R. McCaleb, teacher; Shakan, Mr. Frederick Chase, teacher; 
Tee Harbor, Miss Emily Gillespie, teacher; Wrangell, Miss L. Easter, teacher; Yakutat, 
Mr. E. A. Rassmason, teacher; Klinkwan, Mrs. McCullough, teacher. 

School districts established under act of January 27, 1905. — Catalla, Catalla; Cleary, Cleary 
City; Council, Council; Ellamar, Ellamar; Haines, Haines; Hope, Hope; Kodiak, Kodiak; 
Longwood, Kodiak; Reservation, Valdez; Seward, Seward; Sitka, Sitka. 

INTERNAL REVENUE. 

John Cameron, deputy collector, Fairbanks. D. H. Terwilliger, deputy collector, Juneau. 



IMMIGRATION INSPECTOR. 



Kazis Krauczunas, Ketchikan. 



INDIAN POLICE. 



Augustus Bean, Sitka; Kat le an, Sitka; Thomas Snuck, Klawack; Son i hat, Kasaan; 
Yalth hock, Kluckwan; John Reese, Tanana; Charles Gunnok, Kake; Henry Kwulwul, 
Circle; Edwin Scott, Klinkwan; David Kinninook, Saxman; Alexis RichterofF, Illiamna; 
Joseph Howard, Metlakatla; Charles Brendible, Metlakatla; Willis Hammond, Hoonah; 
David Willard, Haines; Waska, Bethel. 



Appendix C. 

Members of the Alaskan bar. 



Name. 



Aldrich.C. S 

Arthur, Frank D 

Adams, W. H 

Applewhite, J. C 

Adams, G. A 

Barnes, E. M 

Bruner, A.J 

Beeman, E. R 

Bard, W. H 

Bell, Jas.H 

Bethel, W. A 

Brown, Fred M 

Brown, John K 

Bevington, V. L 

Brinker, W. H 

Brady, Elwar R 

Bowman, H. C 

Burnham, H. E 

Burleigh, Andrew F 

Barnhill, Wm. A 

Boyce, John J 

Bruner, Elwood 

Beecher, A.J 

Brown, M. C 

Burton, N. L 

Borchsenius, Geo 

Bruner, J. Allison 

Claypool, Chas. E 

Coston, Porter J 

Cosley, J., jr 

Cochran, O. D 



Post-office address. 



Nome. 
Valdez. 
Rampart. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Valdez. 
Nome. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 
Rampart. 
Skagway. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York, N. Y. 
Juneau. 

Do. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Fairbanks. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 



Name. 


Post-office address. 


Clegg, Cecil H 


Nome. 






Cheney, Z. R 

Castle, N. H 


Juneau. 
Nome. 


Campbell, Geo. D 


Do. 


Carson, John A 


Valdez. 


Cosgrove, C. H 


Ketchikan. 


Condon, Edward B 

Cushmnn, Francis W 


Eagle. 

Tacoma, Wash. 
New York, N. Y. 


Chytraus, Axel 

Clark, J. S 

Carrier, B. N 

Clark, C. A 

Coffer, J. E 

Clowes, T. M 

Dibert, Philip. 

Du Bose, Dudley 


Nome. 

Juneau. 

Skagway. 

Juneau. 

Jack Wade. 

Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 


Dodson, D.N 


Valdez. 


Dodge, Bion A 


Dawson. 


De Mattoo, J. P... 




Dillingham, W. P 


Washington, D. C. 


De Steinguer, Geo. E 

De Journal, Fernand 


Juneau. 

Fairbanks. 

Valdez. 


Early, Thomas C 


Nome. 


Erwin, Guy Burton 

Frost, C. A. S 

Fox, Geo. W 


Fairbanks. 
Nome. 
Do. 


Fenton, James E 


Do. 



24 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Members of the Alaskan bar — Continued. 



Name. 



Frar-.e, J. F 

Freedman, H. Y 

French, George K 

Ferguson, Walter H 

French, L. H 

Frazier, C. M 

Frame, Arthur 

Gavigan, Wm. J 

Green, A. J 

Geary, Thos. J 

Gallagher, Peter 

Gilmore, W :u. A 

Gordon, Harry C 

Green, J. Lindley 

Galen, J. L 

Grimm, Edgar 

Griffin, James W 

Gunderson, Lars 

Groff, Samuel M 

Goodell, John 

Gillette, L. R 

Godfrey, James J 

Gallaher, Philip 

Grigsby, Geo. B 

Gfeller, A 

Hall, Gordon 

Houghton, S. C 

Halsted, A. S 

Hubbard, Oliver P 

Hill, E. Cake 

Hastie, A. W 

Hess, L. C 

Howard, S. B 

Hall, L. C 

Henton, S. C 

Hobbs, J. F 

Hale, Wm. H 

Heyburn, W. B 

Heilig, A. R 

Hudson, R. G 

Harding, J. S 

Ipswitch, Albert V 

Irwin, G. M 

Ingalls, H. A 

Jeffreys, S. F 

Johanson. Carl M 

Johnson, Charles M 

Knight, Samuel 

Keefer, James 

Kenaga, Heber 

Kepner, Alfred S 

Knott, Bruce F 

Kellum, J.C 

Kelly, Jos. P 

Kinkaid, M. P 

Kriete, E. C 

Kennedy, J.J 

Lomen, G.J 

Latimer, Jay M 

Leedy, J. W 

Love, Wm. T 

Lewis, R. P 

Lazarus, S. J 

Landers, W. N 

Metson, W. H 

Miller, H. B. M 

Murane, C. D 

Miller, J. K 

Milligan, S. C 

Meyer, G. H 

Meyers, O. G 

McNulta, Francis 

McConnell, C. B 



Post-office address. 



Nome. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Skagway. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Jackwade. 
Valdez. 
Juneau. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Nome. 

Juneau. 

Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Fairbanks. 
Nome. 
Skagway. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Treadwell. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nomr 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Valdez. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 



Name. 



McGowan, Thos. A 

McGinnis, B.J 

McCowan, E. B 

McBride, Claude H 

McKenzie, Donald 

McDowell, J. M 

McLochlen, E. H 

Nudd, Ben F 

Nelson, Knute 

Nye, Roy V 

Orton, Ira D 

Olsen, Oliver 

Osborn, Richard 

Peck, Zue G 

Plumly, W. A 

Post, A. M 

Pickler, Charles 

Perkins, W. T 

Patterson, T. M 

Peckwood, W. H 

Reed, John T 

Rice, John F 

Rognon, Ernest J 

Rinehart, M. V., jr 

Rustgard, John 

Rice, Levi S 

Roy, David T 

Reegan, John J 

Rivard, J. E 

Roth, R. T 

Smith, S.C 

Shackleford, L. P 

Sullivan, Potter C 

Shields, II. E 

Schooler, W. II 

Steele, Frank A 

Smith, Ralph H 

Sullivan, M. L 

Stevens, R. N 

Shedd, W. S 

Sullivan, G. II 

Spring, Abe 

Smith, John P 

Smith, Edmund 

Soderberg, N 

Smith, J. H 

Swineford, A. P 

Shepard, Thos. R 

Sebring, L. M 

Shoup, James M 

Thompson, Arthur G 

Thuland, C. M 

Thornton, John T 

Thompson, I. S 

Tewkesbury, David B 

Thompson, Julius 

Tam, J. H 

Todman, Josephine 

Thornton, Charles W 

Tozier, Leroy 

Udell, Charles 

Word, Samuel 

Wright, Arthur B 

Willett, Wallace W 

Wheeler, A. K 

Walling, N. B 

Whipple, R.H 

Waller, Jesse L 

White, Thomas R 

Wilson, E. T 

Watson, A 

Wright, E.J 

Woods, Samuel D 



Post-office address. 



Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 
Coldfoot. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Washington, D. C. 
Fairbanks. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Washington, D. C. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Valdez. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Fairbanks. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Fairbanks. 
Skagway. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Ketchikan. 
Nome. 
Circle. 
Ketchikan. 
Valdez. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Ketchikan. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

D* 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 

Appendix D. 



25 



Notary public commissions issued from July 18, 1900, to September 30, 1906, with date of 

expiration. 



Name. 



1900. 
G. M. Rose 

Isaac J. Tomlinson — 

V. L. Bevington 

J.W. Albright 

W.J. Milroy 

C. S. Hannum 

James W. Griffin 

Henry Sheldon 

Philip C. Dibert 

R. W. Bowen 

Chas. Udell 

A. J. Green 

J. F. Hobbes 

H. B. M. Miller 

E. E. Cunningham 

H. L. Atkinson 

Stephen B. Howard. . . 

W. P. Butler 

Chas. E. Dickey 

Jeremiah Cousby, jr... 

Wm. H. Schooler 

Sylvain J. Lazarus 

W. G. Palmer 

A. H. Kenaga 

C. S. Blackett 

Geo. A. Leekley 

J. Sullivan 

A. J. Bruner 

A. V. Dedvick 

H. E. Shields 

Arthur G. Thompson . 

P. H. Watt 

S. A. Keller 

H. A. Day 

Alex. Allardyce 

Frederick B. Chandler. 

Benj. F. Tuft 

I. S. Thompson 

JohnH. Kelly 

Chas. A. Noyes 

H. L. Van Winkle 

N. Gray 

Chas. E. Hastings 

M. F. Brown 

Ralph H. Smith 

T. R. Lyons 

T. J. Donoboe 

D. A. McKenzie 

Geo. F. Hooper 

Chas. E. Ingersoll 

E. J. Chamberlain 
Laniw McKee 
Galan Wood 
C. S. Houghton 
G. N. Everett 
Gordon Hall 
Guy N. Stockslager 
Marcus Roberts 
Alfred S. Kepner 

Willoughby Clark 

Chas. D. Murphy 
Neville H. Castle 
Lillian Thompson 
P. J. Coston 
Elinor B. Courtney 
Norton D. Walling 
H. Y. Freedman 

Albert Fink 

Fred G. Kimball 

Key Pitman 

Oliver P. Morton 
Eugene McElwaine 

L. C. Church 

C. J. Riley 

Arthur J. Dibert 
Robt. M. Price 



Address. 



1904. 
July 18 
Aug. 16 
Aug. 31 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 9 

Do. 
Aug. 10 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Aug. 11 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Aug. 28 
Aug. 13 

Do. 
Sept. 4 



Juneau Sept. 18 



Juneau 

Ketchikan. 

Eagle 

Nome 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Unalaska. 

Circle 

do.... 

Nome 



Expires. 




Do. 
Sept. 20 

Oct. ' 2 
Oct. 25 
Nov. 2 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Nov. 19 

Do. 

Do. 



Name. 



1900. 
H. O. Nordwig. 
Clous Rodine. 
F. E. Fuller. 
Morton E. Stevens. 
Arthur B. Wright. 
Sol. Ripinsky 
Arthur S. Lowell. 

C. C. Heid 

Thos. C. Wakefield. 
E. D. Sanxay. . 
T. M. Reed, jr. 
W. C. Irish... 



Address. 



Nome 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Haines 

J uneau 

..do 

do 

Wood Island . 
Nome. . 
Juneau 




1901. 

Chas. Fletcher 

Theo. S. Solomons. 

S. A. Phimley 

W. B. Stout 

H. R. Mauntifield. 

J. L. Green 

F. A. Handy I Nome . 

C. P. Cone St. Michael. 

A. Smith Nome 

H. N.Carter do 

R.R.Rogers Douglas... 

George A. Verge Nome 

Emma J. Steiner do 



Unga 

Nome 

Juneau 

Haines 

Rampart.. 
do 



Expires. 



11. A. Smith 

P. Pettit 

H. T. Harding 


Sunrise 

Skagway 


F. McNulty 


...do 




Juneau 


A. E. Williams 




...do 


C K. Poteet 


Rodman Bay. 

Rampart 

Juneau 


C. B. Allen 


J. G. Heid 


C. W. Thorton 




Rampart 

Douglas 

Council 


Z. R. Cheney 


G. A. Adams 


B. J. McGinnis 


H. A. Johnson 

A. P. Mordamet 

M. R. Hirschberg 


do 

Golofnin 

Teller 


F. King 


Ketchikan 




H. H. Hildreth 


Valdez 

do 

Juneau 

do 


J. w. Leedy 


E. F. Rose 


Guy B. Brubaker 


.do 


Mary L. Talford 

M. L. Sullivan 




do 


Emma L. Kelly 


..do 


Walter Vonder Lieth. . . 


do 

...do 


I. N. Wilcoxen 


Skagway 

Nome 


Edwin H . Flynn 


C. M. Summers 


Juneau 

S. S. Bertha 
(Sitka). 

Valdez 

...do 


O. A. Johanson 

A. M. Edwards 


D. N. Dodson 


Timothy J. Kirby 


do 


Fred M. Brown 


...do 


G. L. Steelsmith 

T. G. Woodruff 


(Skagway) 
Fortymile. 

Juneau 

Sitka 


W. D. McNair 


F. R. Miller 


Skagway 

Juneau 

Nome 


J. P. de Mattoes 

M. L. Reinold 


J. R. Brewster 


do 


E. T. Hatch 


do 


Geo. Morrill 


do 



1904. 
Nov. 19 

Do. 

Do. 
Nov. 20 

Do. 
Dec. 3 

Do. 
Dec. 7 

Do. 
Dec. 17 

Do. 
Oct. 18 

1905. 
Jan. 21 

Do. 
Mar. 2 
July 17 
July 30 

Do. 

Do. 
July 31 

Do. 

Do. 
Aug. 2 

Do. 
Aug. 6 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 19 
Sept. 1 

Do! 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 19 
Oct. 1 
Oct. 7 
Oct. 18 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Oct. 21 
Oct. 25 
Nov. 7 

Do. 
Nov. 20 
Nov. 26 

Do. 
Dec. 2 

Do. 
Mar. 2 

Do. 

Do. 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 18 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Apr. 1 
May 2 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

May 3 
May 20 
June 1 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



26 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Notary public commissions issued from July 18, 1900, to September 30, 1906, with date of 

expiration — Continued. 



Name. 



1901. 
Nellie A. Handy. 

M. F. Mosher 

W. W. Sale 

Frank Allyn, jr.. 

S.J. Call 

A. E. Flemniing. 
W. H. Ferguson. 

Frances Fitz 

John Goodell 

John R. "Winn... 



Address. 



Nome 

do 

do 

Tacoma.Wash 

Nome 

do 

do 

Council 

Valdez 

Juneau 



E. Petellin Hope . 



L. L. Bowers. 

O. Gard 

C. S. Aldrich 

Jennie A. Snyder 

Robert W. Jennings. 

1902. 
Geo. Clark 



Geo. W. Fox 

C. G. Cowden 

J. S. Thompson.. 

Jas. W. Bell 

E. Cake Hill 

Wm. T. Love 

G. J. Lowmen. .. 
E. H. McBridge. 
Martha L. Steele. 
Thos. P.Ryan... 



Jno. R. Beegle 


Ketchikan 


M. V. Loy 


Hallis 


P; Abrahams 


Skagway 


Martha E . Meigs 

J. D. Thagard 


Nome 

do 


P. D. Range 


Wrangell 


C. R. Corbusier 


Tanana 




Eagle 


H. N. Nince 


Dutch Harbor 


R. Blix 




John McClelland 

Geo. W. Dutton 

Oscar Fish 


Golofnin 

Dutton 

Valdez 


Allan R. Joy 


Koyukuk 


John D. DeFries 

A. R. Hoare 


Nome 

Anvik 


F. A. Benjamin 

John G. Price 


Nome 

Skagway 

Tyonok 

Valdez 

Skagway 

do 


Thomas W. Hanmore. . 

Frank H. Lasey 

John F. Dillon 


Louis K. Pratt 


John W. Miller 




Geo. D.Claggett 

E. R. Brady 


Juneau 


C. G. McLeod 




George Irving 


Ketchikan 


C. M. Johnson 


Douglas 


A. C. Griggs 


J. H. Schoechert 

J. T. Cowles 


Carmel 


J.N. Corma 




Geo. S. Means 




N. W. O'Rear 


St. Micheal 


A. J. Daly 




Hon. C. S. Johnson 

James Christoe 


do 

Douglas 

Kasaan 

Nome 


L. A. Humiston 

Wm. L. Distin 


W. V. Rinehart, jr 

John R. Parker 

Joseph Zuboff 

OttoHalla 

C. D. Murane 

Viola M. Codding 

Geo. J. Miller 


do 

do 

Killfenoo 

Nome 

do 

do 

Golofnin 



Kodiak. . 
Skagway . 

Nome 

Wrangell. 
Skagway . 



Ketchikan . . , 



Nome. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



Expires. 



1905. 
June 7 
June 17 

Do. 
June 26 
July 12 

Do. 
Dec. 2 

Do. 

Do. 
Dec. 3 
Dec. 11 

Do. 
Dec. 16 

Do. 
Dec. 24 

Do. 



1906. 
Jan. 



1905. 
July 26 

Do. 
July 8 
July 26 

Do. 
July 17 
July 13 
July 26 
July 13 
July 22 

1906. 
Jan. 22 

Do. 
Feb. 6 
Feb. 20 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 17 

Do. 
Feb. 19 
Mar. 24 

Do. 

Do. 

A &. ' 

Apr. 3 
Apr. 4 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 22 
Apr. 28 

May' 3 

Do. 

Do. 
May 6 
May 14 
May 17 
May 14 

Do. 
May 22 
May 29 

Do. 
Apr. 24 
June 23 
June 27 
June 10 

Do. 

Do. 
June 10 

Do. 
June 14 
July 16 
July 25 
Aug. 6 
Aug. 22 
Sept. 1 

Do. 
Sept. 3 



Name. 



1902. 
Abe Spring 

B. D. Mills 

H. W. Walbridge... 

J. H. Tam 

J. R. Poland 

S. T.Jeffrey 

J. H. Hamilton..... 

F. W.Clayton 

Thos. R. White 

C. M. Thuland 

R. L. Burnam 

Ulyssess G. Myers.. 
Geo. D. Campbell.. 
John Y. Ostrander. 

C. H. Hawkins 

Saml. L. Lovell 



1903. 
L. R. Gillette... 
E. V. Harlan... 
M. W. Mikesell.. 
H. C. Gordon... 
C. H. Cosgrove.. 

G. Taylor 

R. J. Mahoney. . 

C.N. Pring 

S.J. Kane 

M. Bridge 

J. C. Kellum 

E. B. Condon... 
W. S. Chapman . 
Carrie G. Lakke. 
A. G. Holman. . . 



J. F. Bleakley 

L. B. Francis 

F. Knights 

W. E. Bates 

A. M. Randol 

W. A. Abernethy . . . 

J. McLeland 

Wiliard B. Hastings. 

W. S. Contant 

J. H. Romig 

William A. Gilmore. 

Ashby E. Bain 

Volney Richmond . . . 

Geo. W. Doyle 

Chas. E.M. Cole 

P. M. Elwell 

A. J. Beecher 

C. B. McConncll 

O. D. Cochran 

J. E. Coffer 

Chas. Grimm 

Wm. F. Brown 

M. S. Whittier .. 

J. A. Kemp 

F. B. Seely 

Jay Monroe Latimer 

J. P. Kelly 

T. G.Wilson 

H. B. Scott 

F. Moran 

S. C. Henton 

M. Barker 

N. H. Bard 

C.H.Clegg 

B. B. Lockhart 

S. Ripinsky 



1904. 
W. A. Kelly.... 

G. H. Meyer 

L. C. Hess 

H. P. Gallagher. 
J. W. Albright.. 

A. J. Adams 

C. K. Pettingill. 



Address. 



Eagle 

do 

Rampart. 

Nome 

Juneau... 

Nome 

do... 



Steele Creek 

Nome 

do 

do 



Eagle 

Nome 

Valdez . . . 
Nome 

Skagway . 



Juneau. 
Valdez . 
do. 



Council 

Ketchikan 

Valdez 

Kayak 

Fairbanks 

Hoonah 

Sitka 

Fairbanks 

Eagle 

Kayak 

Nome 

Resurrection 
Bay. 

Sunrise 

Juneau 

Loring 

Nome 

Unga 

Kayak 

Cold Bay 

Council 

Juneau 

Bethel 

Nome 

St. Michael... 

Bettles 

Wickersham.. 

....do 

Valdez 

Nome 

....do 

....do 

Chicken Creek 

Bettles 

Tenakee 

Skagway 

Jackwade 

Coppermount. 

Juneau 

Council 

Teller 

Sand Point. .. 
Wickersham.. 

Teller 

Nome 

....do 



Valdez . 
....do. 
Haines . 



Sitka 

Council... 

Eagle 

Koyukuk. 

Nome 

Valdez . . . 
Seward . . . 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



27 



Notary public commissions issued from July 18, 1900, to September 30, 1906, with date of 

expiration — Continued. 



Name. 


Address. 


Expires. 

1908. 
Apr. 22' 
May 4 
May 6 
May 7 
May 13 

Do. 
May 17 
May 20 

Do. 
June 7 
June 8 
July 1 
July 5 

Do. 
July 7 
July 14 
Julv 22 

Do. 

Do. 
Aug. 4 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 17 
Aug. 25 
Sept. 1 

Do. 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 23 
Oct. 6 

Do. 
Oct. 7 

Do. 
Oct. 12 
Oct. 13 
Oct. 19 
Oct. 21 
Oct. 24 
Oct. 27 
Oct. 28 
Oct. 29 
Nov. 2 
Nov. 9 

Do. 
Nov. 23 

Do. 
Dec. 3 
Dec. 15 

1909. 
Jan. 5 
Feb. 2 
Feb. 6 

Do. 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 17 
Feb. 21 

Do. 
Mar. 4 
Apr. 6 

X. 7 

Apr. 18 

Do. 
Apr. 20 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
May 4 
May 6 

Do. 
May 8 
May 10 

Do. 


Name. 


Address. 


Expires. 


1904. 


Eagle 


1905. ' 
H. O. Tiedmann 


Fairbanks 

Juneau 


1909. 
May 11 
May 31 




Douglas 

Catalla 

Sunrise 

Kodiak 

Juneau 


W. M. French 


Cassius M. Frailer 

S. O. Morford 




Seward 

Juneau 

Valdez 

N o i ae 


Do. 


P. D. Blodgett... 


D. H. Jarvis 


June 6 






Do. 




T. C. Wakefield 




M. P. Bransfield 


Seward 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Kayak 

Sullivan 

Nome 


C. M. Summers 


Juneau 

Kayak 

Nome 


June 13 


J. A. Peck 


J. L. McPherson 

V. E. Vincent, 


June 18 


F. H. King. . 


Jun« 28 


H. S. Noon 


Seward A. Plumley 

A. C. Williams ..." 


Ketchikan 

Catalla 

Fairbanks 

Nome 


Do. 


E. S. McGinn 


July 5 
July 7 


F. N. Smith 


Eagle 


Albert R. Heilig 

Frank W. Redwood 

Frank E. Young 

H. Y. Freedman 

C. C. Heid 


B. A. Dodge. . 


Fairbanks 

St. Michael. . . 
Nome 


July 12 


A. F. Zipf 


Seward 

Nome 


July 14 


J. F. Hobbes 


Julv 17 


A. Fink 


do 

do 

Eagle 


Juneau 

Deering 

Nome 


Do. 


J. Cousby 


B. L. Gurry 


Do. 


V. L. Bevington 




July 24 
Do. 


Nome 


W. B. Stout 


Haines 

Nome 


G. D. Schofield 


do 

do 


F. E. Fuller 

Rev. Hudson Stuck 

C. Harry Woodward 

Jas. W. Bell... 


Do. 


P. J. Coston 


Fairbanks 

do 

Nome 


Julv 31 

Aug. 7 

Aug. 11 

Do. 


J. Sullivan 

P. H. Watt.... 


do 

do 

do 


L. F. Thomas 


F. R. Cowden 

G. J. Lowman. .. 


do 

do 


N. H. Castle 


Council 

Dolomi 

Fairbanks 

do 

Candle 

Council 

Fairbanks 

Nome •. 


Do. 


F. M. Loomis 


G. A. Adams 

Fernand de Journal 

John T. Reed 

Andrew J. Baungai tner 

J. S. Harding 

E. T. Woolcott 

Harold M. Lull 

Webster Brown 

E. F. Rose 

Rov G. Hudson 

H. T. Harding 

B. M. Carrier 

A. N. Evans 

A. G. Thompson 

C. S. Hubbell . . . 


Council 

I nks 

Nome 

do 

Skagway 

Fairbanks 

Juneau 

Catalla 

Juneau 

Nome 


Do. 


C. M. Johansen 


Aug. 17 


E. L. Wilson 

A. S. Kepner 


Do. 

Do. 


S. A. Keller 


Aug. 18 
Sept. 1 


E. M. Wilson 


G. Hall 


R. V. Nye 


Fairbanks 

Nome 


Sept. 5 


I. S. Thompson 


Sept. 7 
Sept. 14 


H. A. Day 


Juneau 

St. Michael.... 
Nome 


L. U. Stenger 


do 

Skagway 

Nome 


C. L. M. Noble. . 


Do. 


M. J. Cochran 


do 

Fort Yukon . . 

Fairbanks 

Valdez 

Rampart 

Skagway 

Juneau 

do 

Seward 

Sitka 


Do. 


T. H. Beaumont 

M. E. Stevens 


Yakataga 

Kayak 

Seward 

Valdez 

Knik 


Sept. 16 
Sept. 20 


G. E. Baldwin 


J. L. Reed 


Do. 


J. B. Wingate 


A. H. Berrv 


Do. 


H. B. Le Fevre 


G. W. Palmer . 


Do. 


G. McNaughton 


C. E. Clavpool... 


Fairbanks 

St. Michael.... 


Sept. 23 


E.J.Wright 


J. E. Rivard. 


Sept. 29 


E. R. Gray 


Joseph K. Wood 

S. G. Holt 


Oct. 5 


V.L.Holt 


Juneau 

do 

Seward 

Juneau 

Kodiak 


Oct. 6 


T. R. Lyons 


Juneau 

Fairbanks 

Juneau >.. 

do 

do 


E. W. Pettit 

Samuel M. Graff 

John G. Heid 

F. Homar 

John Rustgavd 

J. C. Sutlev 

C. G. Cowden. 


Oct. 19 


M. L. Sullivan.... 


Oct. 23 


Wm. A. Barnhill 

E. H. McLoehlen 

A. S. Dautrick 


Nov. 2 

Nov. 4 
Nov. 8 


J. E. Warden 


Wrangell 

Valdez 

Skagwa y 

Fairbanks 

do 


Juneau 

Nome 


Do. 




Nov. 17 


1905 


Thomas M. Reed 


do 


Do. 


L. S. Drake... . 


J. W. Leedy 


Valdez 

Juneau 

Chena. 


Nov. 28 




Z. R. Chenev 


Do. 


E. H. Vandin 


Henry Rodeu. . . 


Dec. 6 




Harry L. Colin 


Fairbanks 

Wrangell 

Fairbanks 

Eagle 


Dec. 30 


L. Craden 

J. J. Rogers 


do 

Skagway 

Valdez 

Catalla 

Fairbanks 


1906. 
Cyrus F. Orr 


1910. 


P. Gallagher 


Jan. 2 


W. H. Whittlesey 

H. V. Nichols 


Clara S. Wright 

Clyde A. Thompson 

John R. Beetle 


Jan. 6 
Mar. 16 


G. B. Brubaker... 


Ketchikan >.... 

Skagway 

Juneau 

St. Michael.... 

Juneau 

Hope 


Mar. 7 


L. L. James 


Chena 


Phil Abrahams 

R. W. Jennings 


Feb. 9 




Fairbanks 

Ketchikan 

Wrangell 


Feb. 7 


C. E. Ingersall 


F. G. Kimball 


Do. 


J. S. Clark 


John R. W r inn 


Mar. 1 




O. L. Grimes 


Mar. 7 




Fairbanks 

do 

do 


R. Blix 


Copper Center 

Fairbanks 

Seward 

Fairbanks 

Hope 


Do. 


G. B. Erwin 


John F. Dillon 


Apr. 28 


R. M.Crawford 


Pearl M. Park 

John A. Clark 


C. V. Bennett. . 


Juneau 


Do. 




Emelian Petellin 

Frank H. Bold 


Do. 


T. M. Hasking 

W. W. Sale 

C. A. Schulze 


do 

do 

Chena 


Ketchikan 

Valdez 

reward 

do 


Do. 


George Max Esterly 

L. V. Rav 

H. H. Hildreth 


Do. 
Do. 


F. M. Brown 


Valdez 


May 2 



28 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Notary public commissions issued from July 18, 1900, lo September 30, 1906, with date of 

expiration — Continued. 



Name. 


Address. 


Expires. 


Name. 


Address. 


Expires. 


1906. 
E. Ellis 




1910. 
Do. 

May 14 
June 1 
June 16 
June 28 

Do. 
July 5 
July 10 
July 12 
July 16 
July 19 
Aug. 2 
Aug. 16 

Do. 

Do. 
Aug. 24 

Do. 


1906. 
A. R. Hoare 


Tanana 

Nome 


1910. 

Aug. 30 

Do. 




Ketchikan 

Wrangell 

Richardson... 
Teller. 


Mabel Smith 




P. D. Overfield 


do 


Do. 


J. W. MacCormack 


Willoughby Clark 

Thomas R. Shepard 

Alfred J. Daly 


Wrangell 

Nome 


Sept. 1 


Ida G. ChaqueUe 




do 


Do. 


Kodiak 


Lawrence S. Kerr 


do 


Do. 


D. B. Chace 


Cyril P. Wood 


Circle 


Do. 




.do 


Charles Edgar Rice 


do 


Sept. 6 
Do. 




Valdez 

Nome 


George Edward Boulter 

Geo. W. Dutton 

W. H. Adams 


Eagle 


Inez Huntoon. . . 


Dutton 

Fairbanks 

Solomon 

Dome City 

Fairbanks 

do 

do 


Do. 


Otto Halla 


do .. 


Sept. 13 
Do. 


Geo. J. Miller 


St. Michael 

Nome 


Chas. W. Thornton 

Frank J. Dynan 

J. Lindley Green 

John L. McGinn 

T. C. Campbell 




Do. 


M. L. Peterson 

Charles B. Allen :.. 


do 

Ra mpart 


Sept. 27 
Do! 













Appendix E. 



List of domestic corporations fled in the office of the secretary of Alaslca, under amendment 
to the civil code, chapter 37 of the formation of private corporations, approved March 3, 
1903. From April 1, 1903, to September 30, 1906, inclusive. 



Aug. 

Aug. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Mar. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

July 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Apr. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Mar. 

July 

July 

Oct. 

Mar. 

Sept. 

June 

Oct. 

July 

Sept. 

Apr. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

July 

Sept. 

Aug. 

June 

Oct. 

July 

Feb. 

Apr. 

June 

Sept. 

May 



11,1903 

21, 1903 

15, 1903 

6, 1904 

8. 1904 
15, 1905 

3. 1905 
23, 1905 

20. 1905 

15. 1906 

6. 1906 
20, 1906 

21. 1903 

2. 1903 

20. 1904 
15, 1904 

6, 1905 

1, 1905 

21, 1903 

24. 1903 

3. 1904 

21. 1904 

16. 1904 

22. 1905 

3. 1905 

31. 1905 

3. 1905 

22. 1906 
20, 1906 

22. 1903 

29. 1904 
16, 1906 
14, 1906 

28. 1905 

2. 1906 

14. 1906 
21, 1904 
19, 1904 
23, 1904 
28, 1906 

6, 1905 

18. 1900 
9, 1901 
1, 1901 

30. 1901 

30. 1901 

19. 1902 



Alaska Placer Mining Co 

Alaska Packing and Navigation Co 

Alaska Nowell Gold Mining Co 

Alaska Water Wheel Governor Co 

Alaska Publishing Co 

Alaska Electric Light and Power Co 

Alaska Chief Mining Co 

Alaska Liquor Co 

Alaska Steam Laundry 

Alaska Powder Manufacturing Co 

Alaska Rubicon Gold Mining Co 

Aurora Mining Co 

Bettles & Samuels Trading Co 

B. M. Behrends Mercantile Co 

B. M. Behrends Co 

Blue Goose Mining Co 

Barthel Brewing Co 

Beluga Mining Co. of Alaska 

Citizens Light, Power, and Water Co 

Copper Center Mining and Trading Co 

Copper Island Mining Co 

Century Club 

Cleary Creek Lumber Co 

Chena Tramway Co 

Consumers Milk Co 

Central Water Co 

C. W. Young Co 

Canyon Creek Gold Mining Co 

Common Sense Gold Mining Co 

Davidson Improvement Co 

Damascus Manufacturing and Milling Co 

Daniels-Seward Mining and Development Co. 

Dahl Creek Mining and Trading Co 

Enterprise Mining Co 

Fairbanks Trading and Transportation Co.. 

Fairbanks News Publishing Co 

Golden Gate Hotel Co 

Gold Run Ditch Co 

Gold Bottom Mining Co 

George E. James & Co. (Inc.) 

Happy Four Mining Co 

Incorporation city of Junea u 

Incorporation town of Eagle 

Incorporation Tread wel 1 

Incorporation city of Nome 

Incorporation town of Valdez 

Incorporation town of Douglas 



Nome. 
Juneau. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Nome. 
Fairbanks. 
Juneau. 
Wrangell. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Juneau. 

Do. 
Nome. 
Fairbanks. 
Seward. 
Ketchikan. 
Copper Center. 
Ketchikan. 
Fairbanks. 

Do. 

Do. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Seward. 
Nome. 
Juneau. 
Seward. 
Bluff City. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Fairbanks. 

Do. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 
Juneau. 
Eagle. 
Trend well. 
Nome. 
Valdez. 
Douglas. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



29 



List of domestic corporations filed in the office of the secretary of AlasTca, under amendment 
to the civil code, chapter 37 of the formation of private corporations, approved March 3, 
1903. From April 1, 1903, to September 30, 1906, inclusive— Continued. 



June 18,1903 
Dec. 26,1903 
July 21,1904 
Apr. 3, 1905 
Apr. 27,1900 
July 26,1900 
Sept. 21, 1903 
June 2, 1904 
Mar. 15,1905 
May 11,1905 
June 29,1906 
May 21,1903 
Sept. 23, 1904 
Mar. 22,1906 
Apr. 12,1906 
May 21,1906 
Aug. 20,1906 
July 29,1901 
Mar. 22,1906 
Nov. 17,1903 
July 3, 1904 
Apr. 3, 1905 
Aug. 22,1905 
July 19,1906 
Aug. 20,1906 
14,1906 

5. 1905 
19, 1905 

4, 1903 
8, 1903 
14, 1900 
23, 1904 
28, 1904 
1904 
2i; 1905 

4. 1906 
7, 1906 

June 16,1906 
Sept. 14,1906 
July 24,1903 
Sept. 22, 1903 
Jan. 2, 1904 
June 23,1904 
July 16,1904 
July 19,1904 
Oct. 12,1904 
Feb. 4, 1905 
Feb. 21,1905 
May 9, 1905 

Do 

June 16,1906 
Sept. 29, 1905 
Apr. 25,1903 
July 22,1903 
Aug. 4, 1904 
Sept. 5,1904 
July 5, 1905 
Oct. 24,1904 
June 16,1906 
June 28,1906 
J-.ny 19,1906 
D"0. 16,1903 



Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

Feb. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

Feb. 



Incorporation town of Wrangell 

Incorporation Fairbanks : . . 

Incorporation town of Chena 

Incorporation Council 

Incorporation town of Ketchikan 

Irving Consolidated Mining Co 

Juneau Steamship Co 

Juneau Packing Co 

Juneau Ferry and Navigation Co 

Juneau Building and Improvement Co 

Jack Pot Mining Co 

Ketchikan Power Co 

Kayak Wharf and Townsite Co 

Kenai Lumber and Fuel Co 

Ketchikan Brick and Tile Co 

Knights Island Copper Mining Co 

The Kuskokwim Co 

Mystery Mining Co 

Mutual Commercial Co., The 

Nome Quartz Mining Co 

Northwestern Ditch Co 

North Star Gold Mining Co 

Northern Express Co 

Nome Cooperative Publishing Co 

Northwestern Exploration Co., The 

Nome Ear-Mountain Tin Mining Co 

Port Valdez Electric Light and Water Co 

Port Valdez Investment Co 

Rampart Mining and Commercial Co 

Rampart Chamber of Commerce 

Standard Mining Association of Alaska 

Sawtooth Electric Power Co 

Seward Ditch Co 

Solomon Quartz Mining Co 

Seward Light and Power Co 

Solo Mining Co 

Seward Construction and Development Co 

Western Trading Co 

Sour Dough Mining and Trading Co 

Tanana Development Co 

The Trilby Creek Mining Co 

The Petersburg Lumbering and Manufacturing Co 

The Gold Creek Construction Co 

The Alaska Central Mining Co 

The Beckorof Improvement Co 

The Sheep Creek Mining Co 

Tanana Trading Co 

Tanana Brewing Co , 

Tillikum Club Co 

The Kenai Mining and Milling Co 

Tanana Mill Co 

United Ditch Co 

Valdez Copper River and Tanana R. R. Co 

Valdez Brewing Co 

Valdez Mercantile Co 

Valdez Real Estate Co 

Valdez Bank and Mercantile Co 

Wrangell Electric Light and Power Co 

Western Trading Co 

Wrangell Boat and Machine Shops 

Wonde r Mining Co 

Yukon Development Co 



Wrangell. 

Fairbanks. 

Chena. 

Council. 

Ketchikan. 

Do. 
Juneau. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Nome. 
Juneau. 
Catalla. 
Seward. 
Ketchikan. 
Valdez. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Valdez. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Nome. 
Juneau. 
Valdez. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 
Valdez. 

Do. 
Rampart. 

Do. 
St. Michael. 
S i n Francisco. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Seward. 
Nome. 
Seward. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 
Eagle. 
Nome. 
Juneau. 

Do. 
Seward. 
Kodiak. 
Juneau. 
Fairbanks. 

Do. 
Valdez. 
Seward. 
Fairbanks. 
Nome. 
Valdez. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Wrangell 
Juneau. 
Wrangell. 
Nome. 
Eaele. 



30 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Appendix F. 

List of documents of foreign corporations filed in the office of the secretary of Alaska under chap- 
ter 23, title 3, of the civil code approved June 6, 1900. From December 1, 1903, to September 
30, 1906, inclusive. 



Date filed. 



Address. 



Feb. 8 
Mar. 3 

May 5 
May 19 
May 25 
May 24 
Oct. 5 
Nov. 15 
Nov. 17 
Feb. 9 
May 18 
July 12 
July 27 
Apr. 3 
Feb. 1 
July 16 
Apr. 21 
July 12 
Sept. 1 
Jan. 7 
Feb. 1 
Mar. 20 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 12 
May 11 
June 6 
July 27 
Sept. 14 
June 6 
May 29 
Oct. 27 
Sept. 13 
Feb. 17 
July 24 
Nov. 7 
Apr. 12 
Sept. 27 
Oct. 27 
June 16 
Sept. 29 
Apr. 7 
Oct. 23 
July 27 
Apr. 17 
Jan. 10 
May 27 
Aug. 11 
Oct. 17 
Dec. 4 
Apr. 19 
May 7 
Sept. 27 
July 14 
Nov. 7 
Mar. 10 
July 27 
Sept. 27 
May 24 
May 29 
Sept. 29 
Mar. 15 
Aug. 17 
Sept. 5 
Sept. 28 
Oct. 5 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 28 
Nov. 17 
May 17 
June 6 
Mar. 7 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 7 
Jan. 18 
Do. 
May 9 



1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1900 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 

1905" 



Alaska Fishing and Development Co 

Alaska Telephone and Telegraph Co 

Alaska Marble Co 

Alaska Pacific Railway and Terminal Co 

American Tin Mining Co 

Alaska Rivers Navigation Co 

Alaska Treasure Consolidated Mines 

Alaska Mercan-nile Co 

Alaska. Copper Co 

I Alaska Calumet Copper Co 

Alaska Metals Mining Co 

Alaska Rivers Navigation Co 

American Coral Marble Co 

Bank of Seward 

Buckeye Gold Mining Co 

Bering Shore Mining Co 

Cook Inlet Coal Fields Co 

Credric Ditch Co 

Council City and Solomon River Rwy. Co 

Continental Distributing Co 

Copper River Rwy. Co 

Carlyon-Matheson Co 

Corson Gold Mining Co 

Chippewa-Alaska Mining Co 

Cymru Copper Co 

Central Alaska Co 

Canyon Creek Gold Mining Co 

Consolidated Mining Securities Co 

Copper River and Northwestern Rwy. Co 

Deep Gravel Mining Co 

Dora Gold Mining Co 

Fairhaven Water Co 

Gold King Mining Co 

Galoin Mining and Ditch Co 

Golden Dawn Mining Co 

Galena Bay Mining Co 

Gold Beach Development Co 

Helvetia Mining Co 

Hume Packing Co 

Inmachuk Gold Mining Co 

Juneau Mining and Power Co 

Keystone Gold Mining Co 

Kugarok Mining and Ditch Co 

Lan De Van Mining and Milling Co 

Little Georgia Mining Co 

Manitowoc Furniture Co 

Maryland-Virginia Mining Co 

Mount Andrew Mining Co 

Mead Development Co 

Moria Copper Co 

Miners and Merchants Bank of Ketchikan 

Moonlight Water Co : 

Nome Wharf Co 

Nome Drill Co 

North Star Rwy. Co 

Northwestern Development Co 

Nome Consolidated Mining Co 

Northwestern Fisheries Co 

North American Trading and Transportation Co. 

Northern Alaska Mining and Trading Co 

Orca Packing Co 

Ophir Creek Hydraulic Mining Co 

One Man Mining Co 

Omar Mining Co 

Oelbaum Mining Co 

Ottumwa Placer Gold Mining Co 

Port Clarence Gold Mining and Development Co. 

Port Dick M inin g and Power Co 

Pacific American Fisheries 

Porter Fish Co 

Rainbow Creek Mining Co. of Alaska 

Rodman Bay Co 

Ruby-Boulder Gold Mining Co '. 

Royal Development Co 

Rampart Hydraulic Mining Co 

S. Foster Co 



Y. 



Stockton, Cal. 

Nome. 

Juneau. 

Kayak. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Skagway. 

Douglas. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Do. 

Do. 
New York, N. 
Fairbanks. 
Ketchikan. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Findlay, Ohio. 
Nome. 

Titusville, Pa. 
Nome. 

New York, N. Y. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Do. 
Wrangell. 
Manchester, N. H. 
Valdez. 

Tacoma, Wash. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Do. 
Juneau. 
Nome. 
Juneau. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Nome. 
Valdez. 

St. Paul, Minn. 
Juneau. 
Wrangell. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Mansfield, Ohio. 
Juneau. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Ketchikan. 
Macon, Ga. 
Ketchikan. 
Nome. 

New York City. 
Nome. 
Ketchikan. 

Do. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Nome. 

Do. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Do. 
Nome. 

Seattle, Wash. 
Council. 
Valdez. 
Ketchikan. 
Nome. 

Do. 

Do. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Juneau. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Hope. 
Juneau. 

Do. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



31 



List of documents of foreign corporations filed in the office oj ike secretary of Alaska under chap- 
ter 23, title 3, of the civil code approved June 6, 1900. From December 1 , 1903, to September 
30, 1906, inclusive — Continued. 



Date filed. 



May 27, 
Sept. 15, 
Sept. 29, 
Oct. 27, 
May 7, 
June 21, 
Aug. 24, 
May 11, 
May 24, 
Do. 
May 29, 
June 6, 
Sept. 14, 
Aug. 11, 
Mar. 14, 
Sept. 27, 
July 12, 
Jan. 6, 
Mar. 20, 



Name. 



1905 

1905 

1905 i 

1905 ! 

1906 

1906 

1906 

1905 

1905 



1905 
1905 
1906 I 
1905 
1906 
1906 ! 

1905 | 

1906 j 
1905 I 



Stewart & Holmes Drug Co 

Solomon Mining and trading Co 

Standard Mining and Investment Co 

Scandia Mining Syndicate 

Standard Copper Mines Co. of Alaska 

Seward Mining Co 

Seward Cooperative Telephone Co 

Tanana Railway Construction Co 

The Fairbanks Dock and Warehouse Co. (Ltd.) 

Three Friends Mining Co 

Taylor Creek Ditch Co 

The Copper River and Northwestern Rwy. Co. . 

Tanana Electric Co 

Uncle Sam Copper Co 

United States Alaskan Tin Mining Co 

Universal Mining Co 

Valdez, Marshal Pass, and Northern R. R. Co.. 

Valdez Hydraulic and Gold Mining Co 

Washington- Alaska Bank 



Address. 



Juneau. 

Williamstown, Ky. 

Nome. 

Chicago, 111. 

Valdez. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Nome. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Skagway. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Do. 
Fairbanks. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Do. 
Nome. 
Valdez. 

Do. 
Seattle, Wash. 



Appendix G. 



NEWSPAPERS IN ALASKA. 



The Mining Journal, Ketchikan; Alaska Sentinel, Wrangell; The Douglas Island News, 
Douglas; Daily Alaska Dispatch, Juneau; Daily Record-Miner, Juneau; The Sunday Alas- 
kan, Juneau; Alaska Transcript, Juneau; The Alaskan, Sitka; The Daily Alaskan, Skag- 
way; The Alaskan, Cordova; The Alaska Prospector, Valdez; The Valdez News, Valdez; 
Seward Gateway, Seward; The Orphanage News Letter, Wood Island; Council City News, 
Council; The Yukon Valley News, Rampart; The Tanana Teller, Tanana; The Weekly 
Times, Fairbanks; Tanana Semiweekly Miner, Fairbanks; The Daily Times, Fairbanks; 
Daily News, Fairbanks; Daily Miner, Fairbanks; The Nuggett, Nome; The Nome Gold 

MAGAZINES. 



The Alaska Monthly Magazine, Juneau, 



32 



ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



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GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 

Appendix I. 

POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



33 



Office. 



Afognak 

Amalga 

Anvik 

Apollo 

Barrow 

Baldwin 

Bettles 

Bluff 

Candle 

Catalla 

Chatham 

Chena 

Chicken. 

Chignik 

Chisna 

Chomly 

Circle 

Geary 

Coal Harbor.. 

Coldfoot 

Copper Center 
Coppermount. 

Council 

Dahl 

Davidson 

Deering 

Diamond 

Dillingham... 

Dolomi 

Douglas 

Dutton 

Eagle 

Ellamar 

Fairbanks 

Fort Lis< um. . 
Fort Yukon.. 

Franklin 

Funter 

Gakona 

Haines 

Hollis 

Homer 

Hoonah 

Hope 

Howkan 

Igloo 

Jack Wade ... 

Jualin 

Juneau 

Kake 

Katishna 

Keewalik 

Kenai 



Postmaster. 



T. Sharatine. 
James R. Whipple. 



H. R. Marsh. 
Robert Rea. 
Charles F. Grim. 
Frank Wadelton. 
Annette E. Perigo. 
A. Charles Williams. 
George T. Meyets. 
Herbert A. Currier. 
Grant S. Driver. 
Carl J. Brun. 
Melvin Dempsey. 
John Douglas. 
Ethel C. Votaw. 
Albert H. Camehl. 
Henry S. Tibby. 
Jessie M. Howard. 

P. H. Mellen. 

John A. White. 
J. M. Davidson. 
Birdie L. Gurry. 
John II . Hughes. 
Russell S. Bates. 
Beverly Raymond.* 
R. R. Hubbard. 
George W. Dutton. 
Clyde A. Thompson. 
J. D. Meenach. 
John P. Clum. 
Mildred R. Hunter. 
Lizzie J. Woods. 
F. VV. Tomlinson. 
James T. Barron. 
George B. Rorer. 
W. B. Stout. 
Mrs. Helen Althouse. 
S. T. Pemberthy. 
Louise Kane. 
E. Petellin. 
Loyal Young. 

R. F. Oberlander. 
A. N. Nadeau. 
Ernest J. Brooks. 
Ernest Kirberger. 
William A. Boss. 
Aimer Rydeen. 
Bogart. 



Office. 



Ketchikan . 

Kiam 

Killisnoo 

Klawock 

Knik 

Kodiak 

Koserefsky 

Kotzebue 

Landlock 

Latouche 

Loring 

Metlakatla 

Niblack 

Nizina 

Nome 

Nulato 

Nushagak 

Orca 

Petersburg 

Porcupine 

Rampart 

Rodman 

St.Michael 

Sand Point 

Seldovia 

Seward 

Shakan 

Shungnak 

Sitka 

Skagway 

Snettisham 

Solomon 

Sulzer 

Sumdum 

Sunrise 

Tanana 

Teller 

Tenakee 

Tin City 

Tolovana 

Tonsina 

Tread well 

Tyonok. 

Udakta 

Unalakleet 

Unga 

Uyak 

Valdez 

Wales 

Windham 

Woedsky 

WrangeU 

Yakutat 



Postmaster. 



E. J. Williams. 
John McCallion. 
Carl Spuhn. 

H. E. Seift. 
George W. Palmer. 
H. P. Cope. 
Raphael J. Crimont. 
D. H. Thomas. 
William A. Dickey. 
Andrew K. Beetson. 
Emma W. Knights. 
James Wallace. 
William N. Fink. 
Frank Kernan. 

F. W. Swanton. 

A. H. Mittendorf. 
William J. Shepard. 
O. P. Brown. 

M. P. Fleischman. 
Wythe Denby. 
Albert T. Zipf. 
H. B. Scott. 
J. W. Smith. 
Lillie M. Gordon. 
Horace Cummins. 
Martin F. Moran. 
Sidney E. Flower. 
W. B. Sampson. 
John Rangem. 
Samuel Archer. 
Charles A. Sulzer. 

John G. Kopf. 
George H. Tiffany. 
Max R. Hirshberg. 
Edward Snyder. 
Martin Sch witter. 
Annie B. Riley. 
Jacob Mafsted. 
R. J. Willis. 
Durell Finch. 
Benjamin Netherland. 

P. K. Gwild. 

F. A. Davidson. 

F. M. Boyle. 

Mrs. Susie R. Bernardi. 

Alfred Gfeller. 

T. J. Maloney. 

John E. Worden. 

F. S. Stimson. 



Appendix J. 

Licenses collected during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906. 



Division. 


Incorpo- 
rated towns. 


Outside of 
incorpo- 
rated towns. 


First 


$91,652.04 
48,273.70 
22,937.96 


$35,710.87 


Second 


29,313.50 


Third 


64,337.23 






Total 


162,863.70 


129,361.60 




Grand total 


$292, 


225. 30 









34 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Appendix K. 

ANNUAL REPORT, SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE RE- 
CEIVED AND GENERAL CUSTOMS BUSINESS TRANSACTED IN THE CUSTOMS 
DISTRICT OF ALASKA, FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR 1905. 

United States Customs Service, 
Port of Juneau, Alaska, January 27, 1906. 

Frequent inquiries relative to the distribution of the domestic merchandise received in 
Alaska caused this office in 1903 to compile and issue a statement showing the values of 
domestic merchandise, as consigned on the manifests of the importing vessels, for the 
various towns and camps in Alaska. For convenience the district was divided into 
four sections, namely: Southeast Alaska, from southern boundary as far west as Sitka; 
southern Alaska, west of Sitka to and including Unalaska; Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, 
all other ports on the seacoast except St. Michael; Yukon River, including St. Michael 
and all interior places. 

A like report was issued on February 1, 1905, for the calendar year 1904, giving com- 
parative statements for the two years. For reasons stated in these reports the totals 
shown do not agree with those given by the Bureau of Statistics for the same periods. 
The discrepancies shown, however, are too small to materially affect the value of the 
report. The report of the Bureau for December, 1905, is not at hand at this time, but it 
is thought that the difference shown between the Bureau's reports for 1905 and the pres- 
ent annual statement will be less than in former years, as inaccuracies in manifests have 
been very infrequent during the past year. 

The domestic merchandise received during 1904 amounted to $2,052,792 more than the 
previous year, and the present report for 1905 shows an increase over 1904 of $3,707,255. 
The greater part of this increase is credited to Yukon River points, which shows an increase 
alone of $2,069,519, the remainder being made up as follows: 

Southern Alaska : $992, 058 

Bering Sea 372, 146 

Southeast Alaska 273, 532 

The shipments to Yukon River points for 1905 are almost three times as great in value 
as those for 1904 and five times as great as those for 1903. This remarkable increase is 
due to the recent mining activity in the Tanana Valley. The increase in the trade in 
southern Alaska is due in a large measure to the railroad building on Kenai Peninsula. 
The increase shown for Bering Sea and southeast Alaska, while not so great as for 1904, 
indicates a healthy growth in the business of those sections. 

The report for this year also contains a statement of the domestic exports from Alaska, 
imports of merchandise and gold and silver, shipments of domestic merchandise and gold 
and silver from Alaska to the United States, as well as a statement of the receipts from 
all sources, and other customs work transacted throughout the year. 

Clarence L. Hobart, 

Collector of Customs, 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



35 



Shipments of domestic merchandise from the United States to southeast Alaska. 



Coal. Lumber. 



Machin- 
ery. 



Provi- 



Liquor. All other. Total 



Berners Bay 

Blind Point 

Chatham Strait 

Chilkat 

Chilkoot 

Copper City 

Coppermount 

Dolomi 

Douglas 

Dundas Bay 

Eagle River 

Funter Bay 

Gypsum 

Hadley 

Haines 

Hollis 

Hoonah 

Howkan 

Hudson Bay 

Hunter Bay 

Juneau 

Kake 

Kasaan 

Ketchikan 

Kiliisnoo 

Kluwak 

Lake Bay 

Loring 

Metlakatla 

Moira Sound 

Niblack 

Petersburg 

Pillar Bay 

Pleasant Bay 

Point Astley 

Point Ellis 

Porcupine 

Saginaw Bay 

St. John Harbor 

Shakan 

Sinnazot 

Sitka 

Sitko Bay 

Skagway 

Skowl Arm 

Snettisham 

Southeast Al;i ska light- 

house station 

Sulzer 

Sumdum 

Sunny Point 

Taku Harbor 

Tee Harbor 

Tenakee , 

Tonka 

Treadwell 

Wrangell 

Wyndham Bay 

Yes Bay 

Various points 



$2, 163 
450 



$2, 654 



173 
22 
5,500 
720 
131 
751 



47 
452 



1,801 



91 

9,753 

8 

200 



402 

10,016 

337 

5,762 

33 



165 

ii"i72 



$5, 122 

892 

4,270 

3,418 

13, 493 

842 

17,520 

6,276 

17,949 

16, 653 

1,664 

14,950 

9,943 

15, 862 

21,742 

111 

1,010 

127 

26 



$850 
7,004 
12, 305 
3,449 



11,552 
3,432 

97, 451 

4,511 

6,102 

6,957 

629 

16, 602 

53,005 

1,716 

5,284 

1,894 

704 



470 
465 



2,424 

1,234 

1,447 

43 

6, 185 

158 

128 

24 

31 



6,902 
1,760 



170 
109 

378 



117, 250 

846 

1,790 

73, 835 

6,581 

18,712 

392 

43, 558 

12, 632 

17, 382 

514 

5,209 



240, 879 
2,839 
2, 213 
150, 868 
15, 396 
7,350 
646 
13, 246 
6,482 



525 



(M 



3,510 
i3,'i30 



:;o 



771 

50 

531 

245 

1,232 



2,974 
"5, 544 



220 



3,800 



a r >2 
200 



1,817 
723 



624 
2,275 
1,431 



68 



33 

27,002 

206 

15, 579 

1,700 

47, 230 

17,261 

26 

1,920 

3,054 

150 

340 

7,860 

44 

115 

6,585 

124, 140 

16, 271 

3.175 

4, 168 



7,034 

15,084 

1,159 

5,093 

102 

3,737 

368 

18, 620 

256 

6,734 

979 

37,984 



228,951 
57 



4,152 



632 

9,018 

65 

4,218 

6,324 

174, 156 

60,465 

2,072 

455 

29,314 



$75 
88 
490 



2,741 



28, 078 
25 



,832 
71 



52, 532 



10 

30,902 

557 



4,204 



11 



5,661 
"28," 434 



82 



103 
224 



282 

11,137 

14 



$2, 065 

1,003 

33, 118 

16, 525 

6,514 

75 

12, 585 

2,652 

110,979 

6,624 

2,780 

12,955 

1,114 

16, 175 

78, 281 

32 

6,239 

822 

581 

389 

282, 945 

1,482 

210 

204,974 

14, 853 

10.962 

8,528 

11,240 

12, 283 

371 

'4, 792 

12, 699 



5,680 



8,753 

199 

198 

598 

5,941 

549 

36, 531 

2,773 

244, 153 

337 

40 

1.180 
7,696 



107 

19,349 

1,658 

405 

11,925 

350, 276 

47, 678 

1,862 

777 

9,437 



$7, 187 

2,820 

49, 297 

33, 188 

24, 346 

964 

45, 023 

12, 382 

261,758 

28, 533 

10, 677 

36,015 

21,702 

51,053 

178, 375 

1,971 

12, 733 

2,843 

1,479 

389 

711,248 

5,632 

4,223 

469,905 

40, 381 

38,956 

9,609 

74, 285 

31, 555 

18,051 

17, 473 

37, 605 

1,159 

14, 808 

102 

25, 695 

567 

18,848 

890 

40,514 

1,784 

99, 360 

4,718 

555,544 

17,598 

123 

7,120 

14,984 

150 

1,079 

38, 799 

2,690 

4,962 

25,680 

740,822 

137,022 

7,138 

5,468 

38, 751 



Total. 



138, 288 



57, 655 



749,070 I 1,290,395 



177,586 



1,635,040 



,048,034 



Comparative statement of principal places in southeast Alaslca. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


Douglas 


$272, 368 
170,908 
346, 616 
360, 856 
190. 669 
139,332 
543, 741 
107, 486 
239,077 
86,265 
719,301 


$241,625 
203,901 
558, 977 
413,048 
133, 165 
66, 573 
557,543 
128,236 
625, 770 
148,339 
697,325 


$261,758 


Haines 


178,375 




711,248 


Ketchikan 


469, 905 


Loring 


74,285 


Pyramid Harbor 




Skagway 


555, 544 


Sitka 


99,360 


Treadwell 


740, 822 


Wrangell 


137,022 


All other places 


819,715 






Total 


3, 176, 619 


3,774,502 


4,048,034 







36 



ANNUAL KEPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



To southern Alaska from Yakutat to Unalaska and Dutch Harbor. 





Coal. 


Lumber. 


Machin- 
ery. 


Provi- 
sions. 


Liquor. 


All other. 


Total. 


Afognak 




$124 
3,365. 


$883 

30, 190 

270 

. 2,700 


$3,026 
5,418 

911 
2,752 

127 


$683 

60 

1,475 


$1,914 
7,100 
2,292 
1,263 


$6, 630 


Alitak 




46, 133 




$3, 400 


8,348 






6,715 










127 








1,200 

830 

273 

2,400 

40 

76 

37,208 

47,240 

4,374 

25 

1,187 

12, 768 

15,985 

270 

25,088 

230 

42 

6,910 

5,789 

70,115 

160 

820 

549 

4,856 

3,658 

5,036 

61 




1,277 

2,350 

410 


2,477 
11,748 




36 
20 


140 

20 


7,113 
530 
445 

598 

149 

10, 123 

7,075 

1,514 

888 

4,625 

22,034 

28, 891 

270 

38,843 

337 

293 

4,246 

6,024 

21,590 

433 

161 

2,411 

8,724 

42,776 

4,142 

484 

143 

11,238 

333 

10, 769 

1,024 

47, 487 

13,1 '00 

225, 446 

3,722 

5,671 

6,095 

12,919 

29,496 

5,777 

104, 704 

517 

149,797 

7,712 

10, 152 


1,279 
40 




1,293 

2,845 

698 










60 




Cape Elizabeth 




41 

7,707 

8,645 

1,876 

127 

415 

1,597 

2,901 

10 

982 




266 


Cooks Inlet 


3,965 
1,872 


1,743 
589 
170 


7,444 

4. 832 

1,572 

380 

3.r;2i 

15,979 

25, 108 

494 

17, 887 

191 

16 

5,000 

5, 285 

10, 605 

125 

89 

2,231 

11,977 

16, 578 

4,233 

5 

115 

4,509 

10 

5, 329 

139 

25,946 

6,535 

423, 549 

3,751 

1,907 

2,823 

11,026 

11,697 

8, 323 

19. 628 


68, 190 


Chignik 


70, 253 


Coal Harbor 


9,506 


Dora Harbor 


84 


1,504 
11, 783 


Dutch Harbor 


1,732 

4,667 

705 

160 

7,357 


Ellamar 


674 
2,874 


57, 719 
76, 524 


Fort Liscum 


Homer 


1,204 

90,557 

758 


Hope 


400 


Innerskin 


Jarvis City 




58 

519 

55 

1,864 


100 


509 


Iliamna 




16, 735 


Kayak 


56 
11,047 


3,004 

72 

876 

59 

345 

1,603 

1,902 

157 


20, 213 
115, 293 


Karluk 


Kurk Harbor 


1,594 


Kussiloff 






1.129' 


Kenai 




10 


5, 546 


Knik 




27, 160 


Kodiak + 

Latouche 


81 


732 
2,449 


65,817 
16,017 


Landlock 




550 


Nutchek 








258 


Orca 


1,001 


2,913 


19,894 


160 
25 
603 


40,375 


Odiak 


368 


Pirate Cove . 


655 


842 


5,177 


23,375 
1,163 


Palmer Station 


Seldovia 


45 

20 

1,552 

72 

280 


90 

460 

22, 446 

1,401 

505 

39 

25 

2,996 

48 

125 


8,790 

2,670 

278, 510 

1,203 

331 

4,928 

10, 608 

70,065 

1,540 

497 


5,563 

3,008 

43,120 

1,074 

105 

172 


87,921 


Sunrise 


26, 353 




994, 623 


Sand Point 


11, 223 


Sanak 


8,799 


Tyonok 


14,057 


Turnagain Arm 


110 

24 


34. 688 


Uyak 


205 
1,530 
4,623 


114,483 


Unalaska 


17,218 


Unga 


5,889 

65 

6,546 


135, 466 
682 


Unimak 


Valdez 


8,724 

32 

946 


36, 519 

574 

26, 130 


35, 640 
67 

887 


197,919 
2,015 
18, 543 


435, 145 


Yakataga 


10,400 


Yakutat 


380 


57,038 


Total 


41,908 


75,229 


748, 669 


873, 615 


125, 710 


894, 345 


2, 759, 476 



Comparative statement of principal places in southern Alaska. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


Alitak 




a $36, 435 
12,748 
47, 289 

191,638 
59,950 
51,065 
24,543 

281,690 
39,983 
26,586 

371,957 
65,424 
23,020 

535,090 


$46,133 


Dutch Harbor 


$32,003 
31,640 

122, 623 
65. 553 
56, 253 
25, 260 
7,741 
39, 123 
41,001 

496, 709 
46, 590 


11,783 


Ellamar 


57,719 


Kayak 


20,213 


Kodiak 


65,817 


Orca 


40, 375 


Sunrise 


26. 353 


Seward 


994, 023 


Unalaska 


17,218 


Unga 


135, 466 


Valdez 


435,145 


Yakutat 


57,038 


Yakataga 


10,400 


All other places , 


528,906 


841, 193 






Total 


1, 493, 402 

i 


1,767,418 

, , 


2, 759, 476 







a Included in "All other places " for 1904, 



GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



37 



To Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, except St. Michael. 



Bluff 

Bristol Bay 

Candle 

Council 

Davidson 

Deering 

Dicksen 

Golovin 

Keewalik 

Kotzebue 

Kougearok 

Kuskoquim 

Lost River . .* 

Nome 

Nushagak 

Penny River 

Point Hope 

Point Barrow 

St. Paul and St. George. 

Solomon 

Teller and Clarence 

Tin City 

Unalaklik 

Wainwright 



Coal. 



$315 

51,295 

550 

40 

100 

178 

202 

14 

77 

2,800 



10,399 
2,980 



127 
1,500 

4,200 
2,550 
15, 426 



Lumber. 



Total. 



$520 

95, 499 

1,754 

120 



1,618 

4,985 

7,730 

80 

48 



I'D 



40,138 

9,212 

396 

525 

162 

749 

10,641 

4,967 

568 



92,753 | 179,732 



Machin- 
ery. 



$1, 195 

378, 157 

5,516 

6,212 

1,703 

520 

6,501 

22, 176 

3,649 

218 



10 

514,071 

157, 263 

1,320 

367 

3,122 

1,829 

83, 450 

31.449 

2,365 

343 

123 



Provi- 
sions. 



$2,935 
137,118 



38, 507 
502 
14,085 
23, 785 
18, 776 
16,013 



5, 560 

360 

1,003,979 

58,920 

2,430 

6,126 

5,507 

13, 720 

29,608 

29, 736 

2,854 

3,099 

909 



1,222,708 



1, 415, 495 



Liquor. 



$555 
"4/687 
""330" 



130 



227, 181 

740 

2,830 

54 

37 

509 



607 



238, 496 



All other. 



$520 

250, 105 

3,539 

7,386 

1,465 

1,203 

7,464 

9,514 

1,677 

1,926 

375 

4,750 

180 

1,126,314 

49, 504 



1.714 

3,258 

9,965 

27, 281 

21,892 

1,292 

174 

649 



Total. 



$5, 485 

912, 729 

11,359 

56,952 

3,770 

17,934 

42,937 

58,210 

21, 496 

5,958 

644 

11,340 

550 

2,922,082 

278, 619 

6,976 

8,913 

13,586 

30,972 

153,530 

104,306 

7,079 

4,223 

1,681 



1,532,147 ; 4,681,331 



Comparative statement of principal places. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 




$1,568,324 


$1,780,431 

a 31,808 

a 99, ISO 

96,709 

1,988,520 

126,468 
21,662 
95,715 
68,692 


$1,191,348 


Council 


56,952 






42,937 
58,210 




135,833 
1,726,242 
89,926 
20,758 
38,854 
61,798 


Nome 


2, 922, 0ft 
153,530 
30,972 
104,306 
120,994 




St. Paul and St. George 


Teller and Clarence 


All other places 




Total 


3,641,735 


4,309,185 


4,6S1,331 





a Included in "All other places" for 1904. 
To Si. Michael, Yukon, and tributary valleys. 





Coal. 


Lumber. 


Machin- 
ery. 


Provi- 
sions. 


Liquor. 


AH 

other. 


Total. 


Andreaf sky 






$1,181 


$17,908 




$1,186 

3, 108 

10,730 

68,530 

12,852 

14,356 

667,545 

1,072 

35 

14,914 

11,903 

1,973 

383 

' 1,592 

3,448 

20,624 

301,393 

9,487 

15 

3,807 


.¥20,275 


Anvik 








3,108 


Bettles 




»33 

267 

100 

1,135 

2,481 


6,797 

63,216 

3,958 

4,362 

220,514 

172 


20,222 
62,573 
31,409 
38,524 
625,069 
3,346 
407 
15,992 
9,070 
3,102 
3,633 


$1,613 
24,491 
3,176 
8,659 
51,950 
2,312 


39,395 


Chena 


8622 


219,699 
51,495 


Circle City 


Eagle 




67,036 


Fairbanks 


2,054 


1,569,613 
6,902 


Fortymile 


Fort Hamlin 






442 


Fort Egbert 




42 


7,712 

2,093 

380 

978 

1,175 

1,020 

9,849 

106,050 

2,980 

1,508 

820 


80 


38,740 
23,066 


Fort Gibbon 




Fort Yukon 




13 
90 


85 


5,553 


Koyukuk 




5,084 


Novakaket 






2,767 


Mulato 






2,120 

91,253 

531,464 

22,356 

4,124 

2,990 




6,588 






66 

27,197 

818 


5,261 
40,933 
10, 459 


127,053 

1,025,011 

46, 100 


St. Michael 


17,974 


Tanana 


Twentymile 




5,707 


Weare 






1,160 


8,777 










Total 


20, 650 


32,242 


434,825 


1,485,562 


150, 179 


1,148,953 


3,272,411 







241b— 07- 



38 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Comparative statement of principal*places. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 






a $22, 592 

o 17, 491 

74,114 

21,849 

60,379 

367,591 

37,545 

a 9, 850 

11,499 

38,489 

502,820 

24,872 

13,801 


$20,275 


Bottles 




39,395 




$28, 139 
41,530 
48,722 
53,859 
52,217 


219,699 




51,495 




67,036 




1,569,613 
38,740 






23,066 




13,469 
71,305 

215,371 
30,285 

134,552 


6,902 




127,053 




1,025,011 




46,100 




38,026 




Total 


689,449 


1,202,892 


3,272,411 





a Included in "All other places " for 1904. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Value of domestic merchandise shipped from the United States. 



To- 


Coal. 


Lumber. 


Machin- 
ery. 


Provi- 
sions. 


Liquor. 


All other. 


Total. 


Southeast Alaska 


$138,288 
41,908 
92,753 
20,650 


$57,665 
75,229 

179,732 
32,242 


$749,070 

748,669 

1,222,708 


$1,290,395 

873.615 

1,415,495 

1,485,562 


$177,586 
125,710 
238,496 
150,179 


$1,635,040 

894,345 

1,532,147 

1,148,953 


$4,048,034 
2,759,476 
4,681,331 
3,272,411 


Bering Sea 


St. Michael and Yukon River 


Total, 1905 


293,599 
109,030 
219,694 


344,858 
437,843 
304,765 


3,155,272 

1,770,192 
980,195 


5,065,067 
3,5 8,515 

2,461,492 


691,971 
465,076 
389,083 


5,210,485 
4,683,341 
4,645,976 


14,761,252 
11,053,997 
9,001,205 


Total, 1904 

Total, 1903 



Comparative --tatement of total values. 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


Southeast Alaska 


$3,176,619 

1,493,402 

3,641,735 

689,449 


$3,774,502 
1,767,418 
4,309,185 
1,202,892 


$4,048,034 


Southern Ala ska 

Bering Sea 


2,759,476 
4,681.331 


St. Michael and Yukon River 


3,272,411 






Total 


9,001,205 


11,053,997 


14,761,252 





Comparative statement of exports from and imports into AlasTca for the calendar years 190£ 

and 1005. 





1904. 


1905. 


Shipments of merchandise to the United States: 

Salmon, canned 


$8, 569, 698 
484, 116 
461,449 
258, 302 
812, 495 


$6, 736, 693 


All other fi sh products 


822, 442 


Furs and fur skins , undressed 


480,805 


Copper ore 


663, 506 


All other articles of merchandise 


408, 896 






Total shipments to the United States 


10, 586, 060 

9, 082, 581 

1,141,569 

613, 781 


9, 107, 342 


Domestic gold shipped to the United States 


12,131,003 


Domestic exports 


1, 084, 462 


Domestic gold exported 


504, 027 






Total value of exports and shipments of domestic gold and inorchandise. 


21,423,991 

12, 550, 783 


22, 826, 834 
15, 839, 535 






Excess of exports over imports 


8,873,208 


6, 987, 299 







GOVERNOR OF ALASKA. 



Receipts by subports. 



39 





Imports. 


Tonnage 
tax. 


Fines, 
etc. 


Fees. 


All other 
collec- 
tions. 


Total, 
1905. 


Total, 
1904. 


Total, 
1903. 




$7, 843 

36, 148 

11,150 

609 


$396 

825 

185 

35 


$1,761 


$127 
556 
69 
57 


$335 

1,715 

284 

63 

2,300 


$10, 462 

39,244 

12, 338 

1,064 

2,300 


$10, 505 

62, 263 

30,211 

1,284 

5,444 

1,281 

681 

481 

10, 307 

4,169 

605 

9,477 

1,319 


$834 


Eagle 


12, 756 
7,561 
1,909 
4,179 




650 
300 


Wrangell 


Sitka 


Sand Point 












761 

204 

6,285 

4,189 

1,467 
7,585 
4,405 


106 


17 




61 


" 945 
204 
9,373 
4,342 
2,349 
8,781 
4,565 


411 






115 




1,199 




1,271 


618 

59 

626 

1,010 


4 210 


Fortymile 4 

St. Michael 


94 

200 
68 


7 738 




56 
118 
28 


2,518 

6,185 

120 


Skagway 






132 










Total.... 


80,646 


2,878 


3,073 


2,290 


7,071 


95,967 


138,027 


48, 5i6 





Appendix L. 

INCORPORATED TOWNS. 



Name. 


Date of 
incorpo- 
ration. 


Name. 


Date of 
incorpo- 
ration. 


Name. 


Date of 
incorpo- 
ration. 




1904 
1905 


Fairbanks 


1903 
1900 
1906 
1901 


Treadwell 


1901 




Juneau 


Valdez 


1901 




1902 
1901 


1 Ketchikan 


Wrangell 


1903 


Eagle 


Nome 













Appendix M. 

Table showing rate of wages and cost of living. 



District. 


Rate of wages. 


Cost of 

living 

per day. 


Mechanics. 


Miners. 


Laborers. 




$5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
15.00 
10.00 


$3. 50 to $4. 00 
3.50 


$3. 00 to $3. 50 
3.00 
3.00 
2.75 
3. 00 to 3. 50 
7.00 
5.00 


$1.00 




1.00 




1.00 






1.00 




3. 50 to 4. 00 
7.50 
6.25 


1.00 




2.50 




1.25 







mi necorasoi tne ueneraJ Land Urnce in 

Geological Survey; Canadian. mil other s 

under the direction til 

I'ltAX K ISONII 

Chief ofDnhiBg Division (ill). 

190f> 







^ 












«<?v 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 



41 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 



Office of the Governor, 
Phoenix, Ariz., September 1, 1906. 

Sir: In compliance with the directions contained in your letter of 
June 30, 1906, I have the honor to submit to you my annual report 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906. 

I have endeavored to make the report as brief and yet as compen- 
dious as possible, in accordance with the suggestions of your letter 
and with the Executive order of February 9, 1906. 

Arizona has had a prosperous year. In some parts of the Terri- 
tory, where there are in progress very active mining developments, 
the population is increasing rapidly; particularly is this so in Cochise 
and Gila counties. The irrigation works undertaken b}^ the Govern- 
ment under the national irrigation act are progressing, and, while 
neither of them has yet reached that stage of construction rendering 
them available for the actual storage, diversion, or supply of water, 
the assurance of their early completion has served to encourage and 
make hopeful the agricultural interests. 

Bountiful rains in all parts of the Territory have kept the ranges 
in good condition, and the cattle and sheep industries are especially 
prosperous. 

Peace and good order have prevailed throughout the Territory to a 
greater extent, probably, than ever before. The increase of popula- 
tion and the incidents of rapidly developing industries throughout the 
Territory have a strong influence to restrain the vicious and reckless 
elements regarded as inseparable from a new society, and they en- 
courage and promote the growth of those elements essential to the 
good order and intellectual and moral progress of the community. 

No system for the collection of general statistics has been pro- 
vided by the legislature, and detailed, accurate statements of the 
production of the range, field and mine are not obtainable and 
can only be estimated. 

During the year, the experiment of growing sugar beets and the 
manufacture of sugar therefrom has been undertaken. A large fac- 
tory has been erected at Glendale, in Maricopa County, at a cost of 
about $300,000, and 300 or 400 acres of land were planted in sugar 
beets. Some annoying and unexpected obstacles have delayed the 
experiment, but enough has been done to warrant the confident pre- 
diction that the enterprise will be entirely successful. The land and 
climate seem peculiarly well adapted to the growth of the sugar beet, 
the yield being abundant and the proportion of saccharine matter 
developed in the beets being very large as compared with other 
localities. 

43 



44 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



POPULATION. 

I estimate the present population of Arizona to be approximately 
180,000. There is good reason to believe, as I pointed out last year, 
that the population of the Territory is increasing at the rate of 7 per 
cent per year. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The bulk of Arizona's foreign immigration comes from Mexico. 
Large numbers of Mexicans living in the States of Sonora, Sinaloa, 
and Chihuahua are in the habit of coming to Arizona in search of 
employment in the mines and on the railroads. Many of them return 
to their homes after accumulating something, but not a few bring 
their families and stay. It has been found that Americans seldom 
seek employment in railway construction, and almost never in work 
as railroad section hands, except for very brief periods. 

LABOR. 

The year has been one of great prosperity for all classes of labor. 
In most lines of skilled labor the demand has exceeded the supply, 
and there has been a marked shortage in the supply of unskilled 
labor. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF THE TERRITORY. 

The financial condition of the Territory this year is better than 
ever before. The cash held by the Territorial treasurer on June 30, 
1906, amounted to $279,197.60, the largest sum in our history, and 
larger by $6,521.46 than at the corresponding date last year. A 
new record was established for the general fund also, the balance on 
June 30, 1906, amounting to $88,435.84, an increase of ;21, 100.21 
over the corresponding date last year. 

The receipts from all sources during the fiscal year amounted to 
$800,644.83 and the disbursements to $794,143.37. 

The "net debt" of the Territory was $1,022,972.43, a decrease of 
$10,000 for the year, bonds representing Territorial indebtedness to 
that amount having been paid. 

The total funded debt on behalf of counties and cities was 
$2,100,302.86, an increase of $25,000. This increase does not repre- 
sent, however, an actual increase of public indebtedness. It means, 
merely that matured county bonds to the amount of $25,000 were 
paid with the proceeds of an issue of Territorial bonds of the same 
par value. 

Acting under authority of an act of Congress, it has been the policy 
of the Territory for several years to take up the bonded debts of the 
several counties as they mature, if the counties are not ready to pay, 
and exchange therefor Territorial bonds. When county bonds are 
redeemed and Territorial bonds issued in like amounts, the counties 
thus benefited are charged with the debts paid and are required to 
pay into the Territorial treasury annually sufficient money to cover 
the interest on the new bonds. By assuming the indebtedness of the 
counties, the Territory enables the counties to get the benefit of a 
lower interest rate on their indebtedness. 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 45 

In January of this year, the Territory issued its bonds in the sum 
of $25,000 for the purpose of taking up an indebtedness of Pima 
County of a like amount, which had matured a few months previously 
and which the county found it inconvenient to pay. These bonds 
bear 4 per cent interest and mature in fifty years, the Territory re- 
serving the right to discharge them at the expiration of twenty years. 
The issue was sold at par, the purchasers paying all expense of issue. 
Thus, in effect, the bonds brought a premium of about 3 per cent. 
This sale established a new record for the Territory. With the 
exception of an issue of $318,275.29 on behalf of Pima County in 
1903, this was the first instance in the history of the Territory in 
which its bonds bore a lower interest rate than 5 per cent, and in the 
case of the bonds issued for Pima County, the interest rate was fixed 
as the result of a compromise with the holders of the county bonds. 
I felt that the excellent financial condition of the Territory war- 
ranted the administration in insisting that any new bonds issued 
should not bear a higher rate of interest than 4 per cent, and the 
readiness with which the issue of $25,000 of 4 per cent bonds was 
taken fully justified that decision. 

With the exception of one, all the counties promptly meet their 
obligations to the Territory in the matter of their interest accounts. 

The exception is Pima County. In the early days of the Territory 
a debt of $150,000 was fraudulently incurred by the county of Pima 
through the rascality of its board 01 supervisors. The legislature had 
authorized the county to issue its bonds in the sum of $150,000 to aid the 
construction of a railroad through the county, the bonds of the county 
to be issued as the road was constructed. Although but a few miles 
of road were actually built (these rails being taken up subsequently) 
bonds of the county to the full amount of $150,000 were issued and 
placed in the hands of the traditional " innocent holder." Later on, 
upon seeing how they had been defrauded, the people of the county 
resisted payment of the interest on these bonds and the question was 
litigated through the Territorial and United States Supreme Courts. 
The bond issue was held by the courts to be invalid, and the people of 
Pima County thought they were entirely released from the fraudulent 
debt. Subsequently the Territorial legislature requested Congress to 
validate certain county bonds hitherto issued, the object of the legis- 
lature being to place honestly issued bonds of Yavapai County on an 
unquestionable basis. 

In compliance with the request of the legislature, Congress passed an 
act which not only validated the Yavapai County bonds but the 
fraudulent Pima County bonds as well. The far-reaching effect of the 
act was not apprehended at the time by the citizens of the Territory — 
not even by their Delegate in Congress. With the act of Congress as 
their authority, the holders of the Pima County bonds again sought to 
enforce payment, and after a prolonged litigation the Supreme Court 
of the United States declared that the bonds of Pima County had 
been made valid by the act of Congress and must be paid. When the 
court's mandate finally reached the Territorial administration the 
debt in question had grown to $318,275.29, and bonds of the Territory 
in that amount, bearing 3 per cent interest and to mature in fifty 
years, were issued, the county of Pima being charged with the issue. 

The board of supervisors of Pima County, acting under the advice 
of private counsel, profess to believe that it is yet possible to evade the 



46 ANNUAL REPOETS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

debt, and they have declined to pay to the Territory the interest 
thereon, although the Territory is regularly paying the interest to the 
bondholders on behalf of the county. 

It is manifestly unjust to the taxpayers of the other counties that 
the Territorial treasury should bear the burden of the interest pay- 
ment on these bonds, and the attorney-general instituted last spring 
in the supreme court of the Territory a suit in mandamus to compel 
the county of Pima to pay into the Territorial treasury sufficient 
moneys to regularly meet the interest payments on the bonds. The 
supreme court decided the case in favor of the Territory, but an appeal 
to the Supreme Court of the United States was taken by the board of 
supervisors of the county. 

Somewhat more than a year ago it was brought to my attention 
that some of the counties were reckless in incurring obligations 
in excess of their ability to meet them out of the resources of their 
treasuries. Claims against these counties would be audited and 
allowed and warrants issued therefor, which, upon presentation to 
the county treasurers, were not paid. These warrants purported to 
draw interest. It being not only unbusinesslike but illegal for these 
counties to incur a floating debt, I instructed the public examiner to 
inform the officials of all counties that they must adhere to a strictly 
cash basis and to issue no warrants in excess of their ability to pay 
promptly in cash. A salutary reform has been effected in this 
respect. 

As pointed out in my remarks on the question of taxation, the 
policy of assessing railroads and the large producing mines upon a 
more equitable valuation has resulted throughout the Territory in a 
material reduction of the tax rate. In some of the counties the reduc- 
tion this year will amount to more than $1 upon each $100 valuation. 

Receipts of the Territorial treasury for (he year ended June SO, 1906. 

General fund $203, 682. 02 

Agricultural college fund 25, 000. 00 

Asylum for insane fund 47, 668. 84 

Asylum for insane interest fund 1, 165. 47 

Capitol building fund 2, 100. 00 

Capitol interest fund 5. 606. 31 

Interest fund 1 60. 360. 46 

Industrial school fund 32, 935. 29 

License and inspection fund 13, 367. 69 

Northern Arizona Normal School fund 17, 144. 88 

Northern Arizona Normal School fund , section 2 207. 23 

Northern Arizona Normal Dormitory fund 6, 61 9. 44 

Prison fund 61,608.84 

Ranger fund 24, 307. 87 

Redemption asylum bonds 10, 551 . 16; 

Tempe Normal' School fund 43, 886 62 

Tempe Normal School building fund 70, 259. 33 

Territorial school fund 42, 858 ~S 

St. Louis Exposition bond interest 78. 70 

World's Fair bond interest 78. 6i 

University fund 28,053.5b 

University interest, law 3663 of 1901 2, 330. 75 

University interest, act 47 of 1903 792. 93 



Total 800,664.® 



GOVEKNOR OF ARIZONA. 47 

Disbursements of the Territorial treasury for the year ended June SO, 1906. 

General fund $182,581.81 

Agricultural college fund 30,000.00 

Asylum for insane fund 44, 309. 94 

Asylum for insane improvement fund 2, 089. 04 

Asylum for insane interest fund, act 73 of 1903 1, 000. 00 

Capitol building fund 5, 541. 97 

Capitol interest fund 5, 050. 00 

Interest fund 174,458.87 

Industrial school fund . . 24, 709. 11 

License and inspection fund 13, 762. 69 

N orthern Arizona Normal School fund 13, 978. 64 

Northern Arizona Normal 3, 120. 18 

Northern Arizona Normal dormitory fund 15, 706. 75 

Prison fund 60,259.80 

Ranger fund 19, 400. 61 

Redemption fund, asylum bonds 10, 000. 00 

Tempe Normal School building fund 71, 160. 50 

Tempe Normal School fund 37, 389. 29 

Territorial school fund 43, 969. 29 

University fund 30, 607. 1 1 

University interest, law 3663 of 1901 1, 250. 00 

University interest, act 47 of 1903 458.37 

World's Fair bond interest 1, 113. 39 

St. Louis Exposition bond interest 1, 408. 37 

Asylum for insane building fund 817. 64 

Total 794,143.37 

PUBLIC FUNDS IN THE BANKS. 

In accordance with an act of the twenty-third legislative assem- 
bly (1905), the Territorial funds are kept in various banks of the 
Territory, the bank in each instance having furnished security for 
the deposit, the security in most cases being a bond furnished by a 
surety company. The Territory receives 1 per cent per annum on 
the daily balances. Deposits in banks outside of the Territory are 
temporary only, and are made to facilitate the payment of interest 
on the funded debt. The sum on deposit during the year, aver- 
aged, was $246,000. On June 30, 1906, the Territorial deposits 
were as follows: 

The Bank of Arizona, Prescott, Ariz $50, 578. 93 

Consolidated National Bank, Tucson, Ariz 21, 284. 31 

Phoenix National Bank, Phoenix, Ariz 22,010. 82 

National Bank of Arizona, Phoenix, Ariz 19, 771. 12 

The Valley Bank, Phoenix, Ariz 13,610.11 

Prescott National Bank, Prescott, J^riz 27, 117. 84 

The Bank of Bisbee, Bisbee, Ariz : 15, 092. 19 

Miners and Merchants' Bank, Bisbee, Ariz 16, 616. 36 

Navajo County Bank, Winslow, Ariz 11, 660. 82 

Gila Valley Bank and Trust Company, Solomonville, Ariz 7, 810. 61 

Mesa City Bank, Mesa, Ariz 2, 523. 29 

Farmers and Merchants' Bank, Tempe, Ariz 2, 523. 82 

Bank of Benson, Benson, Ariz 33. 25 

The Guaranty Trust Company of New York, N. Y 67, 964. 13 

Surveyor-general's check 300. 00 

The Bank of California, San Francisco, Cal 300.00 

Total 279,197.60 



48 ANNUAL REPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Bond statement. 



Date of bond 
issue. 



15, 1888 
1, 1892 
15, 1892 
15, 1896 
1, 1898 
2, 1902 
15, 1903 

Do 

Do 

July 15,1903 
Jan. 1, 1904 
Mar. 1, 1904 
Jan. 1, 1906 



Jan. 
July 
July 
July 
June 
Jan. 
Jan. 



Account on which bonds were issued. 



Territorial indebtedness 

Territorial exhibit at World's Fair 

Territorial, county, and city indebtedness 

Territorial and county indebtedness 

Construction capitol building.. 

Improvements University of Arizona 

Territorial exhibit, Louisiana Purchase Exposition.. 

Matured bonds, Territory and counties 

Judgment indebtedness Pima County railroad bonds. 

Matured bonds, Territory and counties 

Improvements asylum for the insane 

Expenses university experiment station 

Matured bonds of Pima County 



Total bonds outstanding. 



Matu- 
rity. 



Years. 

25 

20 

20-50 

20-50 

20-50 

20 

20 

20-50 

20-50 

20-50 

20-50 

20-50 

20-50 



Interest 
rate. 



Per cent. 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
3 
5 
5 
5 
4 



Amount. 



$78, 

30, 

2,000, 

300, 

100, 
25, 
30, 
92, 

318, 
94, 
20, 
11, 
25, 



000.00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
000.00 
000.00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
275. 29 
000.00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
000.00 



3,123,275.29 



The present funded debt represents indebtedness incurred in for- 
mer years by the Territory, the several counties, and certain cities, 
as follows: 

Schedule of the funded debt, showing county, city, and Territorial indebtedness. 



Apache County $43, 473. 50 

Coconino County 159, 000. 99 

Graham County 147, 364. 70 

Gila Countv 44, 781. 36 

Maricopa County 281, 636. 43 

Mohave County 105, 363. 29 

Pima County 553, 515. 34 

Pinal County 136, 138. 08 

Y avapai County 338, 740. 07 



Yuma County $88,791.11 

Prescott city 91,261.90 

Tucson city 27,423.71 

Tombstone city 13, 812. 38 

Navajo County 38, 000. 00 

Santa Cruz County 31 , 000. 00 

Territorial indebtedness 1, 022, 972. 43 

Total 3,123,275.29 



BOARD OF EQUALIZATION. 

The Territorial board of equalization completed its equalization of 
the valuation of all the taxable property in the Territory August 17, 
1906, its action being based upon the returns made by the boards 
of supervisors of the several counties. 

The following tables show in detail the valuations found by the 
board, with the increased valuations which it ordered boards of 
supervisors to carry into effect: 

APACHE COUNTY. 



Property. 



Number. 



Valuation. 



Increase. 



Cultivated land 

Improvements... 
Uncultivated land . . . 

Improvements . . . 

Railroad land 

Town and city lots. . 

Improvements... 
Horses : 

Range 

Work 

Saddle 

Stallions 

Mules v 

Asses 

Cattle: 

Range and stock. 

Milch cows 



2,763 



.acres, 
.acres. 



22,706 
863," 889." 41 



438 

491 

7 

11 

92 

5,478 
327 



$27,976.76 

6,740.00 

31,780.00 

10, 197. 00 

365, 555. 76 
13,952.00 
40,616.00 

6,090.00 
14,952.80 

9,820.00 
370.00 
294.00 
644.00 

65,736.00 
8,175.00 



Per cent. 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 

APACHE COUNTY— Continued. 



49 



Property. 


Number. 


Valuation. 


Increase. 




58,550 
1,100 
35 
55.48 


$117,100.00 

2,200.00 

140.00 

o255,509.21 

138,866.00 


Per cent. 










Railroad, standard gauge . 


miles.. 
















Total 




1,116,714.53 











COCHISE COUNTY. 



Cultivated land acres . 

Improvements 

Uncultivated land acres . 

Improvements 

Land grants acres . 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Improvements on unpatented mines 

Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses : 

Range 

Work 

Saddle 

Stallions 

Mules -. 



Cattle: 

Range and stock. 



Milch cows. 
Bulls 



Sheep 

Goats 

Swine 

Railroad, standard gauge miles. 

Side track, standard gauge do... 

All other property 



Total . 



3,301 
55,494.19 



50,118.08 
920 



1,761 
1,403 
1,430 

16 
104 

41 

45,357 



835 
980 
220 
,103 
347 
246. 05 
51.80 



$32,905.00 

19,670.00 

142,576.97 

47,282.00 

126,225.00 

3,967,598.20 

196,522.01 

16,355.00 

1,357,431.95 

1,480,185.00 

17,725.00 

52,507.00 

30,806.00 

1,475.00 

4,195.00 

260.00 

453,570.00 

6,160.00 

25,210.00 

32,255.00 

455. 00 

6,806.00 

977.00 

1,933,769.00 

98,825.00 

3,436,124.61 



13,487,870.74 



COCONINO COUNTY. 



.acres. 



Cultivated land 

Improvements 

Railroad land: 

On reserve acres . 

Off reserve do . . . 

Patented mines 

Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses, range 

Improvements on patented mines 

Borse«: 

Work 

Saddle 

Stallions 

Mules 



Asses 

Cattle: 

Range and stock. 

Milch cows 

Bulls 



. miles . 



Sheep 

Goats 

Swine 

Railroad, standard gauge (Santa Fe), estimated .. 
Railroads: 

Grand Canyon do . . . 

Central Arizona do. . . 

Saginaw do . . . 

All other property 4 



Total. 



39,874.94 



39, 
27;; . 



709. 52 
656. 54 
11 



30, 



644 
987 

10 

11 
273 

472 
184 

34 
(525 
400 

95 
108. 73 

66.45 

15 

14 



$132,721.99 
210,775.00 

238,258.07 

68,414.13 

6,800.00 

154,702.50 

331,765.00 

17,490.00 

9,500.00 

25,760.00 
24,675.00 

1,000.00 
550.00 

1,365.00 

315,385.20 

4,600.00 

1,360.00 

312,050.00 

10,800.00 

475. 00 

634,255.00 

299,025.00 
30,000.00 
28,000.00 

744,413.71 



3,604,140.60 



Estimated. 



50 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

GILA COUNTY. 



Property. 


Number. 


Valuation. 


Increase. 


Cultivated land acres. . 


4,312.5 


$23,240.00 

8,125.00 

1,376,250.00 

423,350.00 

296,500.00 

17,550.00 

435,929.00 

•414,414.00 

9,470.00 

30,359.50 

28,935.00 

150.00 

11,700.00 

424.50 

338,770.00 

750.00 

2,410.00 

130. 00 

240. 00 

43,204.00 

1,026.50 

196,510.32 

623,803.10 


Per cent. 








95 


200 








22 




















Horses: 


947 

721 

1,406 

3 

239 

91 

33,877 
52 
106 
6 
120 
21,602 
230 
32.24 




Work 




Saddle 
















Cattle: 




Beef 








Bulls 
















Railroad, standard gauge miles. . 














Total 




4,282,240.92 











GRAHAM COUNTY. 



Cultivated land acres . 

Improvements 

Uncultivated land acres . 

Railroad land . . do . . 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses: 

ifange 

Wor'K 

Saddle 

Stallions 

Mules 



Asses, jacks 

Cattle: 

Range and stock. 

Milch cows '. 

Bulls 



Sheep 

Goats 

Swine 

Railroads: 

Standard gauge miles. 

Standard gauge (side) do. . . 

Narrow gauge do. . . 

All other property 



Total 



23,759 
25 
221 



591 

1,175 

1,946 

15 

542 

10 

42,061 

1,006 

47 

1,000 

17,027 

290 



124. 96 

1 
25.50 



$423,540.00 

370,525.00 

95,036.00 

500.00 

2,372,580.00 

1,187,480.00 

120,795.00 

240,055.00 

5,910.00 
47,000.00 
48,650.00 

1,800.00 
21,680.00 

1,000.00 

420,610.00 

25,350.00 

940.00 

2,000.00 

34,054.00 

580. 00 

734,759.00 

1,000.00 

85,300.00 

392,449.00 



,633,393.00 



MARICOPA COUNTY. 



Cultivated land acres . 

Improvements 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Improvements on unpatented mines 

Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses: 

Range 

Work 

Calves 

Horses, stallions 

Mules 



294,300 



28 



2,065 
2,798 
2,041 

33 
327 

10 



$3,642,935.00 

512,825.00 

28,250.00 

7,500.00 

11,500.00 

2,435,950.00 

2,015,860.00 

26,180.00 

114,285.00 

15,205.00 

5,750.00 

11,455.00 

830.00 






GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 
MARICOPA COUNTY— Continued. 



51 



Property. 


Number. 


Valuation. 


Increase. 


Cattle: 

Range and stock 


16,729 

1,597 

4, 894 
359 

2,820 

4,239 

1,209 
10,506 
105. 20 

1,304 


$168,170.00 

31,940.00 

122,350.00 

9,9X).00 

8,460.00 

6,435.00 

3,325.00 

15,760.00 

990,775.00 

56,700.00 

1,512,533.61 


Per cent. 


Beef 








Bulls 




Sheep 




Goats 








Stands of bees 




Railroad, standard gauf?e mites. . 








All other property 










Total 




11,754 883.61 











MOHAVE COUNTY. 



Uncultivated land acres . . 


1,070 


$1,928.67 
50,508.00 
8,489.00 
194,027.28 
106,424.00 
44, 165. 00 
35,399.45 
92,185.00 

6,850.00 

14, 150. 00 

18,200.00 

150. 00 

310. 00 

290. 00 

106,270.00 

2,700.00 

75.00 

39,594.00 

3,300.00 

405. 00 

471,979.38 
76, 500. 00 
144, 494. 85 










42,445 
160 






50 


Improvements 




Improvements on unpatented mines 












Improvements 






Horses: 


685 
283 
520 

2 

9 
57 

10,627 

108 

3 

19,797 

1,650 

91 

107.881 
21.57 




Work 




Saddle 
















Cattle: 








Bulls 




Sheep 












Railroads: 








All other property 










Total 




1,418,394.63 











NAVAJO COUNTY. 



Cultivated land 

Uncultivated land . 

Improvements . 

Railroad land 

Land grants 

Town and city lots . 

Improvements . 
Horses: 

Range 

Work 

Saddle 

Stallior^ 

Mules 



.acres. 
.do... 



.do. 



Cattle: 

Range and stock 

Milch cows 

Bulls 

Sheep - 

Goats , 

Swine : - 

Railroad, standard gauge (estimated) . 
All other property 



.miles. 



Total . 



2,782 
10,478 



721,108.57 
337,245.99 



841 
630 
308 
3 
14 
120 

5,340 
362 
4 
68,270 
720 
109 
57. 155 



$42,300.00 
21,178.00 
16.877.50 

288^443.43 

134,898.40 
85,930.66 

207,645.85 

8,410.00 
22,590.00 

7,160.00 
240. 00 
350. 00 
600. 00 

53,400.00 

7,240.00 

100. 00 

170,675.00 

1,440.00 

327. 00 

263,200.00 

346,719.08 



1,679,724.92 



52 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

PIMA COUNTY. 



Property. 


Number. 


Valuation. 


Increase. 


Uncultivated land acres . . 


61,198 


$233,887.00 

132, 177. 00 

80,335 00 

45,345.00 

16,130.00 

1,500.00 

391,390.00 

4,550.00 

1,121,895.00 

1,538,832.00 

14,220.00 

17,843.00 

12, 165. 00 

450. 00 

1,895.00 

24.00 

228,830.00 

6,840.00 

4,050.00 

3,860.00 

750. 00 

90. 00 

712,249.00 

1,016,301.00 


Per cent. 






Additions to city of Tucson 












Land grants acres . . 


17,208 








296 








Town and city lots 













Horses: 


1,415 

1)14 

013 

12 

81 

8 

22,883 

321 

202 

1,930 

500 

30 




Work 




Saddle 
















Cattle: 

Range and stock 








































Total 




5,585,608.00 











PINAL COUNTY. 



62 , 345 



'.14 



Cultivated land acres. . 

Improvements 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Improvements on unpatented mines 

Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses: 

Range 

Work 

Saddle 

Stallions 

Mules 

Asses 

Cattle: 

Range and stock 

Beef 

Milch cows 

Bulls 

Sheep 4, 000 



833 

461 

514 

6 

87 

66 



14,812 



Goats 

Swine 

Railroad, standard gauge miles. . 

All other property 



Total. 



2,804 
294 
79. 84 



$358,833.50 
40,300.00 
87,850.00 
38,409.00 
34,354.25 
37,773.25 
63,890.00 

5,613.00 
12,560.00 
8,110.00 
365. 00 
2,400.00 
325. 00 



178,364.50 

8,000.00 

5,668.00 

815. 00 

826,542.50 
217,783.44 



1,927,956.44 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 



Uncultivated land 

Improvements 

Land grants 

Improvements 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Improvements on unpatented mines. 
Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses: 

Range 

Work 

Saddle 

Stallions 



14,743 
45,235" 

£17" 



1,185 

228 

702 

7 



$35,523.00 
56,595.00 
65,614 30 
10,000.00 

149,000.00 
40,520.00 
44,455.00 

211,829.50 

276, 119. 00 

11,850.00 

8,925.00 

17,400.00 

270. 00 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 
SANTA CRUZ COUNTY— Continued. 



53 



Property. 


Number. 


Valuation. 


Increa se 




72 
136 

19,751 

81 
236 
121 
129 

52.4 


$2,590.00 
361.00 

197,510.00 

2,045.00 

4,635.00 

328.00 

425. 50 

262,000.00 

266,345.77 


Per cent. 






Cattle: 

Range and stock 




Milch cows 




Bulls 












Railroad, standard gauge miles. . 














Total 




1,664,341.07 











YAVAPAI COUNTY. 



Cultivated land 

Improvements 

Railroad land 

Land grants 

Improvements 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Improvements on unpatentr-d mines. 
Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses: 

Range 

Work 

Saidle 

Stallions 

Mules 

Asses 

Cattle: 

Range and stock 

Milch cows 

Bulls 

Sheep 

Goats 

Swine 

Railroads: 

Standard gauge (estimated) 

Congress 

Narrow gauge 

All other property 



.acres.. 112,024.23 



.acres.. 207,017. 45 
.do.... 99,445.20 



.miles.. 
.do.... 
.do... 



Total . 



1,314 



2,008 

1,655 

1,195 

8 

132 

228 

32,939 

617 

10 

48,863 

18,533 

413 



61. 552 
3.6 
27.3 



$196, 

123, 

41, 

39, 

3, 

2,123, 

1,104, 

177, 

533, 

940, 



611.88 
305. 00 
603. 49 
778. 08 
000.00 
136. 00 
008. 00 
676. 00 
666. 00 
480.00 



20,080.00 

46, 150. 00 

30,025.00 

445. 00 

3,115.00 

1,490.00 

329,390.00 

15,550.00 

330. 00 

97,726.00 

37,066.00 

1,571.00 

269,290.00 

6,550.00 

136,500.00 

1,357,835.25 



7,636,377.70 



YUMA COUNTY. 



Cultivated land 

Improvements 

Patented mines 

Improvements 

Improvements on unpatented mines . 
Town and city lots 

Improvements 

Horses: 

Range 

Work 

Saddle '. 

Stallions 

Mules 



Cattle: 

Range and stock 

Milch cows 

Bulls 

Swine : 

Railroad, standard gauge . 

Railroad rolling stock 

Pullman Co 

All other property 



.miles.. 



Total. 



71,446.83 



57 



260 
912 
159 

5 
510 

4 

1,484 

380 

5 

84 

82.5 



$387,285.00 
14,600.00 
76,200.00 
20,300.00 
19,850.00 
299,738.00 
122, 165. 00 

2,860.00 

34,258.00 

3,975.00 

1,200.00 

24,408.00 

10.00 

16,324.00 

9,500.00 

235.00 

254. 00 

816,960.19 

90,539.81 

4,689.51 

209,964.90 



2,155,316.41 



241b— 07- 



54 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Total valuation, by counties, for the year 1906. 



County. 



Apache . . 
Cochise.. 
Coconino 

Gila 

Graham. 
Maricopa 
Mohave . . 
Navajo.. 
Pima 



Valuation. 



81, 116. 714. h'6 
3, 487', 870. 74 
3, 604, 140. 60 
4,282,240.92 
6,633,393.00 

11, 754, 883. 61 
1. 41S, 394. 63 
1, 679, 724. 92 
5,585,608.00 



County. 



Pinal 

Santa Cruz 

Yavapai 

Yuma 

Total 

Less exemptions 

Total subject to taxation 



Valuation. 



$1,927,956.44 
1,664,341.07 
7,636,377.70 
2, 155, 316. 41 



62,946,962.57 
719, 329. 03 



62,227,633.54 



Statement of the aggregate amount of valuation of each class of property in the Territory for the 

year '1906. 



Property. 


DJ umber. 


Valuation. 


Cultivated land 


acres.. 


675, 434. 50 


$5, 268, 349. 13 


Improvements 


1, 306, 865. 00 


Uncultivated land 

Improvements 


acres.. 


128, 250. 19 


561,909.64 
313, 636. 50 


Railroad land 


a cres . . 


2,147,760.49 
549,252.27 


1,011,263.88 


Land grants 


do.... 


382, 645. 78 


Improvements 


14,500.00 


Patented mines 




10,773,081.48 


Improvements 




3,138,563.01 


Unpatented mines 




296, 500. 00 


Improvements 




365, 905. 25 


Town and citv lots 




6, 925, 327. 31 


Improvements 




7, 808, 556. 85 


Horses : 

Range 


14,949 
11,962 
10,271 
127 
2,128 
1,135 

281, 810 

1,957 

9,221 

1,886 

361,595 

76, 799 
3,356 
1,304 

10,506 
3,041 

1,299.358 

52.8 

- 52.8 


152, 748. 00 


Work 


441, 340. 30 


Saddle 


239, 921. 00 


Stallions 


13, 665. 00 


Mules 


84, 942. 00 




7,623.50 
2, 872, 329. 70 


Cattle: 

Range and stock 


Beef 


38, 850. 00 




231, 770. 00 


Bulls 


54, 020. 00 


Sheep 


760, 160. 00 




152,051.00 


Swine 


10,411.00 


Ostriches 


56, 700. 00 


Stands of bees 


15, 760. 00 


Calves 


15, 205. 00 


Railroads: 

Standard gauge 


miles.. 


8, 903, 102. 92 
221, 800. 00 


Side track 


do 


99, 825. 00 




10, 407, 634. 32 












62, 946, 962. 57 


Less exemptions 




719. 329. 03 










Total subject to taxation 


62, 227, 633. 54 









GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 



55 



Final valuation placed on railroad property for the' year 1906. 



Name. 



Miles. 



Rate per 
mile. 



Valuation. 



Southern Pacific 

El Paso and Southwestern 

Maricopa and Phoenix and Salt River Valley. 

Arizona and New Mexico 

New Mexico and Arizona 

Morenci Southern 

Central Arizona 

Saginaw and Manistee 

Gila Valley, Globe and Northern 

United Verde and Pacific 

Arizona Copper Co 

Grand Canyon 

Western Arizona 

Arizona and Colorado 

Congress Consolidated Mines Co 

Cananea, Yaqui River and Pacific 



Total 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Pullman Co 



392.5 
86.3 
42.49 
40 

87.80 
18 
15 
14 

124.3 
27.3 
7.5 
66.45 
21.57 
15.8 
3.6 



$11,000.00 
7,600.00 
5,750.00 
5,650.00 
5,000.00 
3,697.22 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
6,000.00 
5,000.00 
2,500.00 
4,500.00 
3, 546. 59 
2,000.00 



84,317,500.00 

655, 880. 00 

244, 317. 50 

226,000.00 

439,000.00 

66, 550. 00 

30,000.00 

28,000.00 

745, 800. 00 

136,500.00 

18, 750. 00 

299,025.00 

76, 500. 00 

31, 600. 00 

6,550.00 

2,700.00 



962. 61 
386. 734 



7, 324, 672. 50 

a 1,894, 233. 59 

100,220.61 



Total. 



1,349.344 



9, 319, 126. 70 



a Estimated. 



Valuation determined by board on railroads which are exempt from, taxation by Territorial 
statute, or rate of taxation isf.xed by act of Congress. 



Name. 



Miles. 



Rate per 
mile. 



Valuation. 



Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe <* 

Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix, exempt 

Prescott and Eastern, exempt 

Bradshaw Mountain, exempt 

Phoenix and Eastern, exempt 

El Paso and Southwestern, exempt 

Arizona Southern, exempt 



386. 734 
194. 79 
26.4 
35. 65 



18.4 



$11,000.00 
7,600.00 
5, 500. 00 
4, 500. 00 
4,500.00 
7,600.00 
5,000.00 



$4,254,074.00 
1, 480, 404. 00 
145,200.00 
160, 425. 00 
426, 600. 00 
450, 680. 00 
100,200.00 



Total 

Less estimated taxablevaluation of Atchison, Topeka and Santa 
Fe as above 



816.074 



7,017,583.00 
1,894,233.59 



Valuation of railroad property exempt from taxation 



5, 123, 349. 41 



a Pays $175 per mile by act of Congress. 
Territorial tax levy for 1906. 



Fund. 



Per $100. 



General fund, paragraph 3831, Revised Statutes, 1901 

Interest World's Fair bonds, act 103, laws of 1891 

Interest St. Louis Exposition bonds, act 86, laws of 1901 

Asylum for insane interest fund, act 73, laws of 1903 

Capitol interest fund, act 9, laws of 1897 " 

Interest fund, paragraph 2047, organic law and act of Congress of 1890 

Industrial School fund, chapter 50, laws of 1905 

Northern Arizona Normal School fund, act 71, laws of 1903 

Northern Arizona Normal School dormitory fund, chapter 41, laws of 1905 

Prison fund, paragraph 3601, Revised Statutes 

Ranger f und, paragraph 3229, Revised Statutes, 1901 

Redemption fund, act 103, laws 1891 

Tempe Normal School fund, paragraph 3702, Revised Statutes, 1901 

Tempe Normal School fund, act 38, laws of 1903 

Tempe Normal School fund, chapter 43, section 1, laws of 1905 

Tempe Normal School Building fund, chapter 43, section 4, laws of 1905. . . 

Territorial school fund, paragraph 2246, Revised Statutes, 1901 

University fund, paragraph 3652, Revised Statutes, 1901 

University interest fund, paragraph 3663, Revised Statutes, 1901 

University interest fund, act 47, laws of 1903 

Total 



$0. 1543 
.003 
.003 
.002 
.01 
.08 
.04 
.03 
.015 
.12 
.05 
.001 
.05 
.025 
.015 
.055 
.03 
.06 
.005 
.0017 



.7500 



56 



ANNUAL REPORTS OE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



Rate of taxation in the Several counties, inclusive of the Territorial tax — Comparative statement. 



County. 



Apache . . 
Cochise. . 
Coconino 

Gila 

Graham. 
Maricopa 
Mohave . . 



Total tax per 


$100. 


1905. 


1906. 


$4.00 


$3.75 


2.90 


2.65 


2.90 


2.50 


3.25 


3.22 


3.75 


2.50 


2.50 


2.10 


4.00 


4.00 



County. 



Navajo 

Pima 

Pinal 

Santa Cruz 
Yavapai... 
Yuma 



Total tax per 
$100. 



1905. 



$3.95 
3.25 
3.75 
3.95 
4.00 
4.50 



1906. 



$3.50 
2.85 
3.50 
3.70 
3.00 
3.50 



BANKS. 

The prosperous condition of business throughout the Territory is well 
reflected by the bank statements rendered to the Territorial auditor. 
The statements of June 18, 1906, abstracts of which appear herewith, 
show that the total resources of the banks on that date amounted to 
$17,356,346.70, an increase of $3,969,273.61 for the year. Deposits 
aggregated $13,955,461.19, an increase of $3,509,509.46. 

Abstract of reports of condition of Territorial banks in Arizona. 



June 30, 1905— June 18, 1906- 
22 banks. 24 banks. 



RESOURCES. 

Loans, discounts, and overdrafts 

Bonds, stocks, and other securities 

Real estate, furniture, and fixtures , 

Expense account 

Cash and due from banks 

Total 

LIABILITIES 

Capital stock 

Surplus 

Undivided profits 

Deposits and due bauks 

Bills rediscounted and bills payable 

Total 



$3,413,730.91 

670,431.40 

385,178.55 

63,989.88 

2,486,516.18 



7,019,846.92 



825,200.00 

299,935.01 

197,898.55 

5,667,003.70 

29, 809. 66 



7,019,846.92 



$4,569,483.38 

788,724.88 

507, 398. 82 

95, 776. 99 

3, 190, 556. 34 



9, 151, 940. 41 



869,500.00 

414,543.38 

259,858.45 

7,554,759.85 

53,278.73 



9,151,940.41 



Abstract of reports of condition of national banks in Arizona. 



May 29, 1905— 
13 banks. 



June 18, 1906— 
14 banks. 



RESOURCES. 

Loans, discounts, and overdrafts 

United States bonds 

Securities, etc 

Real estate, furniture, and fixtures 

Cash and due from banks 

Total 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock 

Surplus and undivided profits 

Circulation 

Deposits and due banks 

Other liabilities 

Total 

DEPOSITS. 

Territorial banks 

National banks 

Total 



$2,858,480.71 

590,546.00 

369, 186. 76 

191,177.77 

2,357,834.93 



6,367,226.17 



705,000.00 

401,491.52 

453,900.00 

4,778,952.03 

27,882.62 



6,367,226.17 



5,667,003.70 
4,778,952.03 



10,445,955.73 



$3,467,672.98 

728, 736. 26 

440,654.68 

216,484.83 

3,350,857.54 



8,204,406.29 



755,000.00 

470,579.08 

560,000.00 

6,400,701.34 

18,125.87 



8,204,406.29 



7,554,759.85 
6,400,701.34 



13,955,461.19 



GOVEENOR OP ARIZONA. 



57 



INCORPORATIONS. 

During the fiscal year July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906, articles of 
incorporation of 2,188 corporations, organized under the laws of Ari- 
zona, were filed in the office of the Territorial auditor. These 2,188 
companies have an aggregate capitalization of $2,966,767,900. The 
articles of incorporation of 18 foreign corporations, having an aggre- 
gate capitalization of $25,772,000, were also filed in the auditor's 
office during the year. 

Statement of the corporation fees received by the Territorial auditor and covered into the treasury. 



1905— Julv $3, 042. 40 

August 2, 987. 90 

September 2, 911. 70 

October 3, 425. 70 

November 2, 561. 20 

December 3,269.30 

1906— January 4, 171. 30 



1906— February $4, 235. 00 

March 5,096.20 

April 4,448.40 

May 4, 572. 20 

June 4,128.60 



Total 44,849.90 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



Col. M. H. McCord, collector of customs at the port of Nogales, 
Ariz., has furnished to me the following statistics of imports and 
exports in the customs district of Arizona during the last fiscal year: 



Period. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Domestic. 


Foreign. 


July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906 


$14, 097, 273 
13, 050, 436 


$7,225,048 
5, 687, 260 


$591, 73? 
184, 859 


July 1, 1904, to June 30, 1905 






Increase over 1905 


1,046,837 


1,537,788 


406, 873 







PUBLIC LANDS. 

All of Arizona is included within a single land district, the two dis- 
tricts into which the Territory was formerly divided having been 
consolidated last year. During the fiscal year there were 427 original 
homestead entries, covering 6,865.24 acres, an increase of 135 entries 
for the year. There were 79 final homestead entries, covering 
10,427.12 acres. There were 36 original desert entries, covering 
4,826.47 acres, an increase of 12 in the number of entries. There 
were 7 final desert entries, covering 584.75 acres. There were 43 
cash entries, covering 1,842.58 acres. There were mineral applica- 
tions to the number of 195, covering 9,572.872 acres, and mineral 
entries to the number of 200, covering 8,883.713 acres. 

The surveyor-general informs me that he received applications and 
issued orders for 162 mineral surveys. The locations embraced in 
these applications comprised 515 lode claims, 9 mill sites, and 3 placers, 
making a total of 527 locations, an increase of 112 claims over the 
previous year. These figures and the figures for former years show 
a steady increase in the number of applications for mineral patents. 

Surveys under 14 contracts, or special instructions in lieu of con- 
tracts, were approved during the year, embracing 420,350.78 acres 
of agricultural or grazing lands. 



58 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

THE INDIANS. 

While the Indians of Arizona comprise about 14 per cent of our 
total population, they comprise but 3 per cent of the convicts in the 
Territorial prison. These figures prove indubitably, I think, that 
the Arizona Indians are peaceable and law-abiding. They are only 
fairly prosperous. Some of them are far from that. The agricul- 
tural and stock-raising Indians (the Navajo, the Pima, the Mari- 
copa, and the Papago) are doing fairly well, but complaints reach 
me that many of the Apache are in want. The Government pro- 
vides rations for such Apache as are unable to work, but many of 
the able-bodied members of the tribe do not find employment. Con- 
siderable numbers of them have been employed during the year in 
connection with the construction of the Roosevelt reservoir on the 
Salt River in Gila County; others, particularly the San Carlos Apache, 
have been employed in railroad work in the Gila Valley, but the San 
Carlos Apache are better off in this respect than are the White 
Mountain Apache. The Gila Valley, Globe and Northern Railway 
crosses the San Carlos Reservation. 

The reservation of the White Mountain Apache is situated re- 
motely from the railroad, and they are compelled to travel long dis- 
tances from their homes in order to find employment. The Apache 
is not noted for his industry, and he dislikes to leave his family or to 
travel far from home. I am informed that many families of White 
Mountain Apache, are living on cactus and herbs, and are in acute 
distress for lack of food. I respectfully recommend that a careful 
investigation of their condition be made. 

All of the Indian schools are in a flourishing condition, and adult 
Indians are, from year to year, taking more kindly to the idea of 
educating Indian youth. 

THE NATIONAL GUARD. 

The National Guard of the Territory comprises 5 companies of 
infantry and 1 troop of cavalry. 

These organizations are distributed as follows : At Phoenix, Tempe, 
Mesa, Flagstaff, and Yuma, 1 infantry company each, and at Morenci, 
1 cavalry troop. 

The entire organization is fully armed and equipped and is so sup- 
plied as to be ready for field service without any additional supplies 
being sent from headquarters. 

A battalion of infantry attended the camp of instruction near 
Austin, Tex., this summer and the excellent conduct, the intelligence, 
and general equipment of the battalion won the high commendation 
of the officers of the Regular Army. The battalion consisted of the 
companies from Phoenix, Tempe, Yuma, and Flagstaff, and com- 
prised £6 officers and 188 enlisted men. 

Much interest has been taken in target practice, and it is expected 
that a creditable team will be sent from the organization to the 
target practice at Sea Girt next year. 

THE ARIZONA RANGERS. 

The work of the Arizona Rangers during the past year has again 
amply demonstrated the efficiency and value of that organization in 
preserving the peace and arresting criminals in the remoter sections 
of the Territory. 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 5y 

The report of Capt. Thomas H. Rynning, commander of the rangers, 
shows a total of 704 arrests during the year. The offenses for which 
these arrests were made comprised 187 felonies, inclusive of Federal 
charges, 513 misdemeanors, and 4 insanity cases. The felony charges 
comprised 5 of murder, 26 of felonious assault, 1 of abduction, 2 of 
arson, 4 of robbery, 18 of burglary, 9 of grand larceny, 4 of embezzle- 
ment, 6 of forgery, 21 oi swindling, 14 of horse theft, 3 of counterfeit- 
ing, 4 of desertion from the United States Army, 4 of adultery, 16 of 
violation of immigration laws, 31 of selling liquor to Indians, and 1 
of compounding a felony. 

Many of these arrests were of fugitives from other States and Ter- 
ritories, who were surrendered under extradition; and in the loca) 
cases conviction has almost invariably followed trial. 

Of the misdemeanor arrests, 34 were for assault, 26 for petit larceny, 
50 for carrying concealed weapons, 2 for violation of the game laws, 
38 for violation of live-stock laws, 5 for running gambling establish- 
ments without license, 9 for selling liquor without license, 27 for 
disturbing the peace (drunk, disorderly, etc.), and 70 for various 
misdemeanor charges not classified. 

Of these misdemeanor cases, 463 have been reported as resulting 
in conviction, 29 having been reported as acquitted, leaving but 21 
cases not disposed of. 

But two persons were killed while resisting arrest, during the past 
year: Bernardo Arviso (Mexican), at Roosevelt, October 31, 1905, 
and a Matze Ta 55" (Apache Indian), near Roosevelt, February 18, 
1906. Both were killed by a ranger in self-defense, after having been 
fired upon by them. He was completely exonerated in each case by 
coroner's juries. 

The maximum strength of the ranger force, as fixed by law, consists 
of a captain, a lieutenant, 4 sergeants, and 20 privates, although the 
governor may, in his discretion, fix the strength of the force at a smaller 
number. On account of troubles along the Mexican border in the 
spring the force was recruited to its full number. 

Aside from their work as general peace officers, the rangers are 
largely occupied in protecting the live stock interests of the Territory. 
They attend the round-ups in all parts of the Territory, keep in touch 
with the ranch owners, and visit remote parts of the Territory that 
are not usually visited by other officers. 

Although expensive to the Territory, the force is worth far more than 
its cost, and its operations have resulted in large savings to the various 
counties. 

Complaint was made to me some months ago by the Mexican author- 
ities that the Yaqui Indians, of Sonora, who have been in rebellion 
against the Mexican Government several years, were in the habit of 
purchasing arms and ammunition in Arizona. As soon as the matter 
was brought to my attention I directed the various sheriffs to be alert 
in preventing sales of arms and munition to Indians, and gave 
special instructions to the rangers to prevent, so far as possible, the 
sale of arms for use in Mexico. To what extent the Yaqui Indians 
were buying arms in this Territory it is impossible to ascertain with 
any degree of accuracy. Mexicans have the same right as other citi- 
zens to purchase arms, of course, and there is some reason to believe 
that in many cases Mexicans of the peon class have bought arms and 
delivered them to Yaquis. The Yaquis themselves are in the habit of 
coming into Arizona in considerable numbers to work in the mines and 



60 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

on the railroads, and there is so little difference in appearance between 
them and Mexicans of the lower class that it is not always easy to dis- 
tinguish between them. For this reason honest dealers in arms 
might have sold rifles to Yaquis themselves. But from all the advices 
at hand I am led to believe that, as a result of the efficiency of the 
sheriffs in the border counties and of the rangers, such traffic in arms 
as did exist for the benefit of the Yaqui Indians has practically ceased. 
Careful investigation of the whole subject has seemed to warrant the 
belief that if the Mexican authorities would exercise the same dili- 
gence on their side of the line in preventing imports of arms as is exer- 
cised on this side in preventing sales, the Yaquis would find it much 
more difficult to provide themselves with guns and ammunition. 

At present (September 1) most of the rangers are on duty near the 
headquarters at Douglas with a view to preventing any enemies of the 
Mexican Government from using Arizona as a base for hostile opera- 
tions against Mexican authority. Information reached me in August 
that citizens of Mexico were in the habit of gathering secretly in the 
neighborhood of Douglas, and from the best information obtainable it 
appeared that at these meetings the subject of a revolutionary uprising 
against the Mexican Government was discussed. I instructed the 
officers of the rangers to watch these proceedings carefully and to 
make arrests promptly should any overt acts be committed on this 
side of the line. I also laid the facts before the United States district 
attorney for Arizona, and am informed that steps have been taken 
looking to the deportation of these undesirable aliens. 

TERRITORIAL PRISON. 

The Territorial prison is situated at Yuma. The superintendent, 
Mr. Jerry Millay, reports that there were 360 prisoners in the institu- 
tion at the close of the fiscal year, a net increase of 31 during the year. 

During the year 159 prisoners were received and 128 discharged. 
Of the prisoners received there were: Mexicans, 90; Americans and 
other whites, 53 ; Chinese, 1; negroes, 10; Indians, 5. Of the prisoners 
discharged there were: Mexicans, 63; Americans, 57; Indians, 4; 
negroes, 4. 

At the close of the year the classification of the prisoners was: 
American and foreign white men, 129; American women, 1; Mexican 
men, 198; Indian men, 13; negro men, 17; Chinese men, 2. 

The ages of the 159 prisoners received ranged as follows: Under 
20 years of age, 10; from 20 to 25 years, 28; from 25 to 35 years, 36; 
from 35 to 40 years, 19; from 40 to 45 years, 15; from 45 to 50 years, 8; 
from 50 to 55 years, 5; from 55 to 60 years, 6; from 60 to 65 years, 3. 

The classes of crimes for which the 159 men admitted were sen- 
tenced comprised 22. The leading offenses were: Grand larceny, 31; 
burglary, 30; assault with deadly weapon, 21 ; selling liquor to Indians, 
11; robbery, 10; murder, second degree, 9; murder, first degree, 4; 
assault with intent to commit murder, 5. 

The prisoners were received from the various counties of the Ter- 
ritory as follows : From Cochise, 33 ; from Coconino, 8 ; from Yuma, 
4; from Graham, 10; from Gila, 7; from Mohave, 1; from Yavapai, 
17; from Maricopa, 36; from Navajo, 5; from Pima, 34; from Pinal, 
1 ; from Santa Cruz, 3. 

Of the 128 prisoners discharged during the year 116 were liberated 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 61 

because of expiration of sentence, 4 were paroled, 5 died, 1 was par- 
doned, 1 escaped, and 1 was released by order of the Supreme Court. 

Of the 360 prisoners in the institution on the 30th of June, 1906, 151 
were born in Mexico, 34 (including 17 Mexicans, 11 Indians, 1 negro, 
and 5 Americans) in Arizona, 32 in Texas, 19 in California, 13 in New 
Mexico, 8 in Missouri, 6 in Illinois, 5 in Ohio, 5 in New York, 4 in 
Wisconsin, 4 in Pennsylvania, 3 in Mississippi, 3 in Iowa, 3 in Massa- 
chusetts, and 3 in Utah. The other States had one or two each. Of 
the foreign countries, aside from Mexico, 1 was from Spain, 4 from 
England, 1 from Germany, 1 from Austria, 5 from Ireland, 1 from 
France, 4 from Canada, 1 from Hawaii, 2 from Sweden, 3 from Scot- 
land, and 1 from China. 

The net expenditures for maintenance of the prison during the fiscal 
year amounted to $54,233.43, the average number of prisoners in con- 
finement being 334. 

The report of the prison physician, transmitted by the superin- 
tendent, shows that the sanitary condition of the prison is excellent, 
all things considered. Ihere were but 5 deaths during the year, and 
but 42 cases were treated in the hospital. This showing is especially 
good, in view of the fact that many men are diseased when they enter 
the prison. The prison does not afford sufficient room for the men, 
and were it not for the excellent management the congestion would 
lead to much disease. 

The serious problem of providing sufficient employment for the 
convicts in the Territorial penitentiary is still unsolved. I am hope- 
ful, however, that the twenty-fourth legislative assembly will enact 
legislation providing work for all the convicts. The legislature of 
1905 had the question under consideration, and a bill providing for 
the employment of the prisoners in the construction of public high- 
ways in the Territory was strongly pressed, but, as finally passed, the 
bill did not meet with executive approval. It provided that the pris- 
oners should be worked in squads in the various counties from which 
they were originally sentenced. The project was wholly impracticable, 
as the expense would have been prohibitive. 

TERRITORIAL INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

The Territorial industrial school, established for the punishment 
and reform of criminal, incorrigible and wayward youth, is situated 
at Benson. 

Mr. James F. Mahoney, the superintendent, reports that there were 
58 inmates in the institution on the 30th of June, 1906, an increase of 
8 over the corresponding date in 1905. Of this number 54 were boys 
and 4 were girls. 

During the year the inmates received numbered 33. During the 
same period 13 were discharged on account of expiration of commit- 
ment, 8 were released on parole, and 4 escaped. 

The children committed to the institution are chiefly of Mexican 
nationality. 

ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 

Dr. Ray Ferguson, the superintendent of the Territorial asylum for 
the insane, reports that on June 30 last there were 266 patients in the 
institution, 215 men and 51 women. On the corresponding date last 
year there were 255 patients, of whom there were 212 men and 43 
women. 



62 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The superintendent's report is for the biennial period, as required 
by Territorial statute. During the two years 196 patients were 
admitted and 183 discharged. Of the 67 discharged as recovered, 
there were 62 men and 5 women. Eleven (9 men and 2 women) were 
discharged as improved; 3 (2 men and 1 woman) were discharged as 
unimproved; 17 (9 men and 8 women) were paroled in the care of 
relatives; 15 (all men) escaped, and 70 (59 men and 11 women) died. 

The average number of resident patients for the biennial period 
was 256. 

Of the patients admitted, 49 (31 men and 18 women) were married; 
124 (112 men and 12 women) were single; 8 (5 men and 3 women) 
were widowed; 2 (men) were divorced, and of 13 (11 men and 2 
women) the social condition was unknown. 

Of those admitted during the two years, the leading causes of insan- 
ity were: Alcoholism, 23 ; heredity, 19; injury, 10; vicious habits, 13. 

Of the occupations represented, there were: Miners, 40; laborers, 
49; housewives, 14. 

For the same period the distribution by nativity of the patients 
admitted was: American born, 84; foreign born, 112. Of the States, 
California had the highest representation, with 1 1 ; of the foreign born, 
the largest number (47) came from Mexico, 11 were from Canada, 10 
from Germany, 7 from Ireland, and 8 from England. The next 
highest was Austria, with 5. 

Of the 70 patients who died during the biennial period, 15 died 
from inanition, 10 from paresis, and 7 from tuberculosis. 

The total net expenditures on account of the institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1905, were $43,128.47; for the year ended June 30, 
1906, $42,787. The expenditure per capita in the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1905, was 44 cents; for the year 1906, 43 cents. 

The asylum is situated 3 miles from Phoenix. At present the entire 
equipment for housing and treating the patients consists of two 
detached cottages and six wards, situated in the wings of the main 
building. The institution as a whole provides enough room at pres- 
ent, and while it will compare favorably with many other as}dums in 
various parts of the country the buildings are not adapted to modern 
methods of treating the insane. It is hoped to carry into effect, to a 
considerable extent, within the near future the " cottage system" of 
treatment. A hospital with new and modern equipment is needed 
and will undoubtedly be constructed within the next year. Under an 
act of a former legislature the Territory is empowered to issue $80,000 
additional in bonds for construction purposes; but I am not disposed 
to increase the Territorial debt if it can be avoided, and probably no 
action toward new construction will be taken until the legislature has 
had an opportunity to authorize expenditures for such purpose from 
the Territorial treasury. 

The present superintendent was appointed in March last and took 
charge of the institution on the 1st of April. 

EDUCATION". 

The public school system of the Territory embraces primary, man- 
ual training, and grammar schools, high schools for the principal 
centers of population, two normal schools, and a university. 

The university is at Tucson. It is conducted by an excellent 
faculty, the president having general management of the institution, 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 63 

subject to the supervision of the board of regents. The normal 
schools are at Tempe and Flagstaff, and compare favorably with the 
best normal schools of the older States. 

The government of the schools is conducted by — 

A superintendent of public instruction (appointed by the governor), 
whose duty is to superintend the public schools of the Territory, to 
investigate all accounts of school moneys kept by Territorial, county, 
and district officers, and to apportion, subject to the approval of the 
Territorial board of education, to the several counties the amount of 
money to which each county may be entitled from the Territorial 
school fund, and to report biennially on school affairs; 

A territorial board or education (of which the governor is president), 
comprising the superintendent of public instruction, the Territorial 
treasurer, the principals of the normal schools, the president of the 
university, and two principals or superintendents of graded or high 
schools ; 

A board of education for each of the normal schools, appointed by 
the governor; 

A board of regents for the university (of which the governor and 
the superintendent of public instruction are members) , appointed by 
the governor; 

A county superintendent for each county, elected by the people in 
certain counties, and in others such by virtue of his office as probate 
judge; and 

Trustees for each district, elected by the people of the district. 

It is the duty of the Territorial board of education to devise plans 
for the increase and management of the Territorial school fund; to 
prescribe and enforce the use of a uniform series of text-books in the 
public schools; to prescribe and enforce a course of studies in the 
public schools; to adopt a list of books for school libraries; to grant 
educational diplomas, valid for six years, and life diplomas, and to 
grant first-grade Territorial certificates, when in their judgment it 
seems advisable, to graduates of universities and chartered colleges 
of similar rank. 

There is also a Territorial board of examiners, consisting of the 
superintendent of public instruction and two persons appointed by 
him. This board adopts rules and regulations governing the exami- 
nation of applicants for Territorial certificates and for the govern- 
ment of county school superintendents in conducting the examination 
of such applicants for certificates. The board also prepares questions 
for the examination of teachers and transmits the questions to the 
county superintendents for use in the quarterly examinations of 
applicants. The board grants recommendations for life and educa- 
tional diplomas, grants Territorial certificates of the first grade, valid 
for four years, and grants Territorial certificates of the second grade, 
valid for three years. It has power to revoke the certificates of 
teachers who are guilty of immoral conduct or are unfit to teach. 

A census of the children of school age (6 to 21 years) is taken in 
May of each year. This census also includes statistics of school affairs 
generally. 

The census returns for this year, transmitted to me by Mr. R. L. 
Long, superintendent of public instruction, show that the schools are 
in a nourishing and satisfactory condition. 

There are 30,230 children of school age, a gain of 940 over last year. 



64 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The number enrolled in district schools during the school year was 
23,223, a gain of 1,431. 

There are 290 school districts, a gain of 3. 

The new schoolhouses constructed during the year numbered 12. 
In the previous year there were 10 houses constructed. 

There are six high schools, a gain of 3. The normal schools, at 
Tempe and Flagstaff, furnish high-school facilities, hence there are 
no separate high schools in those cities. 

There are 377 primary schools, a gain of 11; grammar schools, 165, 
a gain of 8. 

There were 18,291 volumes in school libraries, a decrease of 736. 

The number of male teachers employed during the year was 110, 
an increase of 13; female teachers, 444, an increase of 5, the total 
number of teachers employed being 554. 

The number of teachers holding first-grade certificates was 379; 
second-grade certificates, 175. 

The average monthly salary paid men teachers was $89.41; women 
teachers, $71.10. 

Receipts for schools from all sources amounted to $579,385.36, an 
increase of $47,809.96. 

Disbursements for school purposes amounted to $581,335.49, an 
increase of $109,971.61. 

The only unsatisfactory feature of our schools, as I had occasion 
to point out in my annual report of last year, is the large number of 
Mexican children of school age who fail to take advantage of the 
splendid opportunities offered by the public schools. 

MINING. 

The past year was one of unexampled prosperity for the mining 
industry in Arizona. Copper mining particularly has had, and has, 
the proportions of a veritable "boom." The high prices prevailing 
for copper throughout the year stimulated prospecting to a remarkable 
degree, and mining properties in all stages of development have found 
a ready sale. 

From the best figures obtainable I estimate that the production of 
copper in this Territory for the present calendar year will aggregate 
300,000,000 pounds, which would be worth, at the average New 
York price, at least $54,000,000. 

As I pointed out last year, there is no method of accurately ascer- 
taining the production of gold and silver. Aside from the distinc- 
tively gold and silver mines, nearly all our copper ores carry values 
in gold and the larger producers are not disposed to give the details 
of production. I think it would be conservative to estimate a pro- 
duction of $4,000,000 in gold and $2,000,000 in silver during the 
present calendar year. 

An active demand for skilled miners continues, and in some dis- 
tricts there is complaint that a sufficient number of miners can not 
be had. 

Wages and hours of work at all the mines appear to be satisfactory, 
and amicable relations between operators and miners have been 
maintained. 

Some excitement was caused at Bisbee last spring by the agitation 
of the question of " unionizing" the mines in that district. There 
was a mass meeting of the miners at which it was decided to leave 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 65 

the question to a referendum vote of the workers. More than 3,000 
votes were cast and the result was an overwhelming majority against 
the union project. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Rains were abundant during the past year and the streams carried 
an ample water supply for all the irrigated districts. Unfortunately, 
however, extraordinary floods in the Salt River had, in the spring 
of 1905, destroyed the principal diversion dam supplying the Salt 
River Valley, and a large section of the valley was without an ade- 
quate water supply throughout the most of last year. The canal com- 
pany that owned the dam was unable to make the necessary repairs, 
and it was not until April of the present year — a full year after the 
dam had been destroyed — that the water users under the Arizona 
canal had, by cooperation, succeeded in constructing new diversion 
works. Such crops as were not affected by a shortage of water prior 
to April were abundant this year, and upon the whole this is a prosper- 
ous year for the ranchers of the Salt River Valley, which contains 
the largest area of irrigated land in the Territory. 

Negotiations between the Government and the owners of the 
various canals in the neighborhood of Phoenix have resulted in the 
purchase of the canals by the Government for the benefit of the water 
users, under the reclamation act. The construction of the great res- 
ervoir dam at Roosevelt, on the Salt River, 60 miles northeast of 
Phoenix, is under way, and two years hence the Salt River Valley 
will be one of the most perfectly irrigated sections of the United 
States, and therefore one of the most prosperous. The irrigated dis- 
tricts in Graham and Pinal counties, on the Gila River, are unusually - 
prosperous this year. 

The floods of last year destroyed the largest storage dam in Apache 
County, which entailed a great hardship on the ranchers in that sec- 
tion, but with the energy and fortitude characteristic of Arizona cit- 
izens the Apache County ranchers are overcoming their difficulties. 

I do not consider it necessary to make a detailed statement con- 
cerning the development of the various irrigating systems in the Ter- 
ritory in view of the very full data on the subject which are supplied 
by the Reclamation Service. 

Although the enormous production of wealth from Arizona's mines 
leaves the impression abroad that all other industries in the Territory 
are comparatively unimportant, it should not be forgotten that there 
are many millions of wealth produced by our ranches. Maricopa 
County, which is almost exclusively an agricultural county, is the 
most populous county in the Territory, and the property in the county 
this year has an assessed valuation exceeding $11,000,000. 

THE LIVE-STOCK INDUSTRY. 

The grazing of cattle and sheep on the public domain during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, experienced a period of uninter- 
rupted prosperity. The feed has been excellent, the cattle strong 
and healthy, and there has been a full calf crop. The rains were well 
distributeof over the greater part of the Territory, and there were no 
losses from starvation or lack of water. 

The United States Weather Bureau reports show that the average 
precipitation, throughout the Territory for the twelve months ended 



66 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

June 30, 1906, was 16.38 inches, as indicated by the reports of about 
sixty observation stations. The driest two months in the year were 
May and June, 1906, yet there was no shortage of browse and dry feed 
on the ranges during those months. Range cattle are in excellent con- 
dition, the summer rains are in progress, the hills are covered with 
green feed, and the watering places abundantly supplied. 

All classes of live stock in the Territory are now considered free 
from destructive contagious diseases. There have been three out- 
breaks of glanders in the Territory the past year, all traceable 
directly to infection brought in overland recently, but in each case 
it was soon controlled. 

The small area that has been slightly infected with fever ticks for a 
few years past has been freed of the pest during the past year, so that 
Arizona cattle are now free from all contagion, including tick fever. 
Again, during the past year all the sheep in the Territory have been 
dipped under supervision, and scabies has been entirely eradicated from 
our flocks. 

The swine of the Territory have not been affected with contagion 
during the year. 

The wool-growing industry, which is carried on quite extensively 
in the northern part of the Territory, has enjoyed the most prosperous 
year in the history of the Territory. Sheep have been in fine condition 
throughout the year, producing a heavy crop of wool and a phenom- 
enally large crop of lambs. The wool crop was sold at a good market 
price, and the proceeds of wool and mutton have returned to the own- 
ers over 50 per cent of the value of their flocks within the year. 
These periods of exceptional prosperity in the business of grazing 
live stock on the public domain are quite necessary to repair the 
losses which inevitably occur during the seasons of drought. 

The assessment rolls of the various counties show that 281,810 
head of range cattle were assessed for the year 1906, as compared with 
266,074 head for the preceding year, showing a net gain of 15,736 head. 

Sheep assessed for the year 1906 numbered 361,595, as compared 
with 339,212 for the year 1905, showing a net gain of 22,383 head. 

Goats assessed for the year 1906 numbered 76,799, as compared 
with 62,905 for the year 1905, a net gain of 13,894 head. 

Shipments of cattle to points outside of the Territory aggregated 
51,670 head, which is 4,647 less than for the preceding year, during 
which 56,317 head were shipped. 

The total number of head of cattle inspected for slaughter within 
the fiscal year was 53,083, as compared with 45,753 for the preceding 
year, a net increase of 7,330. There have been no forced shipments 
on account of drought, and cattle have been in great demand for 
breeding purposes on the range, the tendency among cattlemen 
being toward the restocking of the range where the number of head 
had been depleted during the period of drought which preceded July, 
1904. This probably accounts for the decrease in shipments to 
points outside of the Territory. 

TAXATION. 

As I had occasion to say in my last report, the subject of taxation 
is a perplexing one. The efforts of the past year to secure a more 
equal distribution of the burdens of taxation has emphasized the 
statement. At the meeting of the Territorial board of equalization in 
August, 1905, that board undertook the equalization of taxes. Our 



GOVERNOR OF ARTZONA. 67 

statute requires that the clerk of the board of supervisors of each 
count} T shall, before the third Monday of August in each year, make 
an abstract of the assessment roll of his county. The property is 
required to be classified in the returns thus directed to be made. 

Upon an examination of these returns the board found last year 
that the property, other than patented mines and railroads, had been 
assessed at from 40 to 75 per cent of its value, and that patented mines, 
together with their improvements, were assessed at not more than 
from 3 to 5 per cent of their values. 

It is conceded to be difficult to ascertain the real value of a mine. 
On a conservative estimate, however, it may be entirely safely said 
that the mines of the Territory are worth and would readily sell for 
not less than $100,000,000. 

Whether the value of the mine itself can be accurately estimated 
or not, there is no difficulty in ascertaining the value of its product. 
The production of the mines for 1904 was not less than $30,000,000 
in gold, silver, and copper. Last year it was still greater. This year 
it will exceed $50,000,000. All the mines in the Territory, and the 
improvements upon them were, in 1905, returned for taxation at a 
valuation of less than $5,000,000, notwithstanding that the produc- 
tiveness of the mines had at that time increased over that of the year 
1904. The Territorial board of equalization undertook to equalize 
these valuations. It never had been attempted before as to mines, 
but for nearly twenty years the board had exercised its powers of 
equalization by raising, in various counties, the returned values of cul- 
tivated and uncultivated lands, of town lots and improvements, of 
horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and, indeed, of every class of property 
other than mines. 

The board last year, in order to bring the patented mines at least 
more nearly to a valuation for taxation on an equality with that of 
other property, raised the valuation of patented mires in the Terri- 
tory from $2,500,000, as returned by the local officers of the various 
counties, to $11,500,000. 

It should be borne in mind that the valuation of improvements on 
these mines was not attempted to be affected. The raise was upon 
the valuation of the mines only and not upon any other property of 
the mine owners. 

The officers of some of the counties, charged by law with the duty 
of making these raises effective, refused to do so. To determine the 
legal questions raised by the action of the Territorial board, I will state 
them as they were stated in the opinion of the district attorney of one 
of the counties (it being the duty of the district attorney to advise the 
county officials upon legal matters), who, in writing, advised the local 
board to ignore the action of the Territorial board. He advised his 
board as follows: 

1. The Territorial board of equalization may, for the purpose of adjusting and equalizing, 
increase the aggregate valuation of one county and decrease that of another, but it has no 
power to increase the aggregate valuation of property above the valuation returned by the 
boards of supervisors of the several counties. 

2. The Territorial board of equalization, in equalizing and adjusting property valuations 
between the several counties, has no power to increase or decrease the valuations of certain 
kinds, classes, or grades of property within any county. The Territorial board must deal 
with the respective valuations as returned by the counties as entities, by making such 
changes in each county, as a whole, as will relatively equalize the entire property values in 
the different counties. 



68 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Practically applied, these two propositions meant, first, that, no 
matter how low property in one county might be assessed, the prop- 
erty in that county could not be raised unless property in other coun- 
ties, even though properly assessed, was lowered, so that the aggregate 
valuation of all property in the Territory should remain as originally 
returned; and, second, even if it be found in a given county that a 
mine worth unquestionably $1,000,000 was valued by the local board 
at $10,000 — that is to say, at 1 per cent of its value — and a man's house 
and lot in the same county, worth $5,000, was assessed at $4,000 — that 
is to say, at 80 per cent of its value — that the Territorial board had no 
power to place the mine to somewhat near its real value without rais- 
ing the value of the house and lot in the same ratio. That is, if the 
mine was raised to 50 per cent of its value, which required that its 
returned value must be multiplied by 50, the valuation of the house 
and lot must be multiplied by 50, making the valuation of the $5,000 
house and lot for the purposes of taxation $200,000. The absurdity 
of this interpretation needs no discussion. If our statute really meant 
that and was capable of no other construction, it ought to have been 
held void as being repugnant to all notions of justice. If it were 
capable of any other construction, it should be given to it. 

The statute created the Territorial board of equalization and charged 
it with the duty of equalizing the valuations, and for that purpose 
required the property to be classified in groups and so returned; and 
the fact appears that during the eighteen years that this law has been 
in force every class of property other than " patented mines" has been 
raised or lowered, and no one ever before questioned the powers of the 
board to so deal with classes of property. Following the first attempt 
.to raise the valuation of that kind of property included in the classi- 
fication " patented mines" the power of the Territorial board to do so 
was assailed, and, strangely enough, the district attorneys of several 
counties elected by the people and made the legal advisers for the 
benefit of the people were the first and most persistent assailants of 
this effort of the Territorial board to equalize taxes by raising the 
values of the grossly undervalued mining property, and to that extent 
relieving the property of the small but numerous taxpayers whose 
property was, relatively to the mines and railroads, grossly overvalued. 

The local board of supervisors which received the advice of the 
district attorney I have quoted and the boards of other counties, 
acting upon like advice, refused to take the steps necessary to make the 
order of the Territorial board effective. Some of the local boards 
complied with the order of the Territorial board. 

The attorney-general of the Territory, Mr. E. S. Clark, at once 
applied to the supreme court of the Territory for a writ of mandamus 
to compel the local boards that had refused to do so to take the proper 
proceedings and put into effect the order of the Territorial board 
directing the raises noted. 

The supreme court, by a majority decision, being that of Mr. Chief 
Justice Kent, Mr. Justice Sloan, and Mr. Justice Nave, decided all the 
contentions of the attorney-general in his favor. It held, first, that 
the Territorial board had power to raise the aggregate valuations of 
the property of the Territory if such raise was an incident to equaliza- 
tion, and, second, that the board had the power to equalize by increas- 
ing the valuation of undervalued classes of property, including 
patented mines. 



GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA. 69 

The court, nevertheless, denied the writ of mandamus, because it 
appeared affirmatively on the face of the petition that the board 
had not properly equalized values, as there appeared too great a 
difference between certain valuations of classes of property, and it 
did not appear upon the face of the petition that the "patented 
mines" had not been raised high enough to effect equalization. 
The decision of the supreme court having established the power of 
the Territorial board, the Territorial auditor, at the suggestion of 
the governor, in February of this year invited the assessors to meet 
the auditor and the attorney-general at Phoenix to consult relative 
to taxation generally. The meeting was well attended, and the 
results have shown a marked improvement in the assessment of the 
patented mines. In June the auditor called a meeting of the boards 
of supervisors of the several counties, who by law constitute the 
county boards of equalization, for a like consultation. 

When the board of equalization met in August of this year for 
the purpose of equalizing valuations in the several counties, it found 
that the local boards had fixed the valuations of patented mines at 
a substantial increase over that of the preceding year, the aggre- 
gate increased valuation being $3,500,000, in round numbers. This 
mcrease applied to copper mines almost exclusively. No new cop- 
per mines had entered the list of notable producers, and for all pur- 
poses of comparison these valuations were found to have been 
placed upon the same great producers which in the year previous 
had been assessed by the local boards at a valuation $3,500,000 
lower. The mines in question were not in fact worth any more 
than they were in 1905; in fact, to the extent of the ore which had 
been extracted from them meanwhile, they were worth less. 

This increase by the local boards was eloquent proof of the fact 
that the boards were at last heeding an aroused public opinion. The 
board of equalization found, however, that valuations in some counties 
were still too low, and it ordered increases aggregating $4,750,000. 

Graham County, in which a resolute assessor (Mr. John J. Birdno) 
had found the leading copper producers agreeing with him that the 
valuation fixed by the board of supervisors in 1905 was too low, 
was accepted by the board of equalization as the standard, and the 
increases ordered for the other counties were upon the basis of 
Graham County's valuation, so far as practicable. The increases 
ordered were as follows: 

Per cent. 

Cochise County 400 

Gila County 200 

Mohave County 50 

Yavapai County 33 J 

Yuma County 100 

The assessment of railroads is lodged solely with the Territorial 
board of equalization, and the board meets in June of each year 
for the purpose of fixing the value of railroads for taxation. As 
explained in my report of last year, there are two classes of rail- 
roads over which the board at present has no jurisdiction for tax- 
ing purposes, namely, the road for which the tax rate has been fixed 
by Congress (the main line of the Santa Fe system) and the roads 
which are exempt from taxation for varying terms of years under 
Territorial laws enacted for the purpose of encouraging railway 
construction. 

241b— 07 6 



70 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The Territory is traversed by two transcontinental lines — the 
Santa Fe and the Southern Pacific. As the result of enormous 
expenditure for betterments both these lines are in fine condition. 
Ballasted roadbeds, the heaviest steel rails, and steel and concrete 
bridges are the chief improvements. Both lines carry a great traffic; 
the securities of both command high prices in the markets, and 
there is no apparent reason why there should be a material differ- 
ence in the valuation of the two properties, so far as Arizona is 
concerned. 

But Congress has decreed that the Santa Fe shall pay taxes at 
the rate of $175 for each mile of its line through the Territory, which 
at the present tax rate in the counties traversed by it would amount 
to a valuation of approximately $5,500 per mile. For nearly twenty 
years the Southern Pacific, being under the jurisdiction of the Ter- 
ritorial board, had been assessed at approximately $7,000 per mile. 
Ob\iously it would be unjust to assess the Southern Pacific at a 
higher rate than the Santa Fe, if the board had the power to assess 
both; but the conclusion was unavoidable that we should deal with 
the situation as we found it. We had no power to change the tax 
rate for the Santa Fe; we did have the power to assess the South- 
ern Pacific, and it was undeniable that the Southern Pacific was 
not assessed in proportion to the assessment of the great body of 
miscellaneous property in the Territory. It was found that the net 
earnings of the Southern Pacific were $3,759 per mile. Assuming 
that investments in Arizona should earn 10 per cent, the actual 
value of the Southern Pacific in this Territory would be $37,599 per 
mile. As a matter of fact, $37,599 is far below the value of the 
property as fixed by the market for its securities. The board accord- 
ingly raised the assessed valuations of the Southern Pacific to $11,000 
per mile, an increase of $3,875 per mile over the valuation of the 
preceding year. 

Other railroads over which the board has jurisdiction were assessed 
at considerably higher figures, the total increase of railroad assess- 
ments in the Territory amounting in round figures to $2,500,000. 

The net result of the growth of wealth and the increased assess- 
ments of all classes of property is an undisputed tax roll of 
$62,000,000 this year, as against $48,000,000 last year. To be sure, 
the tax roll was nominally $57,000,000 last year, after the board of 
equalization had ordered the several increases; but, as already 
explained, certain counties, following the advice of district attor- 
neys and attorneys for the mining companies, refused to carry the 
order into effect, and owing to technical errors in the board's pro- 
ceedings its orders were inoperative in the view of the supreme 
court, although the power of the board in the premises was upheld by 
the court. 

The effect of the new policy is already manifest in all the coun- 
ties in the form of lower tax rates. 

Arizona at last, I am warranted in saying, is entering upon an 
era of more equitable assessment of property for taxation, and con- 
sequently, an era of moderate taxes. 

Respectfully submitted. Joseph H. Kibbey, 

Governor of Arizona, 

The Secretary of the Interior. 



CitiesJowns , SettJements e 

County Boundaries 
®^ Surveyor Generaland LandOfflo 
Townships not subdivided 
Forest Reserves 
Indian Reserves 
Military Reserves v- 
Private Land Grants ■*•.«—. 



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REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



71 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Executive Office, 
Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 15, 1906. 

The Territory was never in a more prosperous condition. During 
the past year there has been more activity in all lines of industry than 
ever before in the Territory of New Mexico. The three greatest indus- 
tries, upon which the welfare and prosperity of the people depend — 
the stock industry, agriculture, and mining — have all shown great 
activity. The rainfall in most parts of the Territory has been over 
the average and well distributed throughout the year, resulting in 
unusually good range conditions and in very gratifying results in many 
farming districts, both in the mountains and on the plains, where 
crops are being raised without irrigation. The good grass and abun- 
dant water supply, both in running streams and surface reservoirs, has 
resulted in a large percentage of increase in the herds of cattle and 
sheep, as well as in small loss among the grown animals. A more 
strict enforcement of the Federal and Territorial laws as to dipping for 
the prevention and eradication of disease among cattle and sheep has 
had a very satisfactory effect. The wool crop, a source of great revenue 
to the Territory, has been very large, and the market prices of both 
wool and sheep the highest they have reached for many years. The 
general depression in cattle prices and the rapid settlement of many 
parts of the Territory which have hitherto been devoted to grazing, 
have to some extent unfortunately affected the cattle business, but 
the men who own or control their own ranges are confident that there 
will soon be a change for the better. 

There has been great activity in railway construction. The Eastern 
Kailway of New Mexico, between Texico, in Roosevelt County, and 
Belen, in Valencia County, will soon be completed and in operation, 
and form a part of the transcontinental system of the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. In Colfax County two 
railways are in course of construction to handle the output of the 
rapidly developing coal fields in the vicinity of Raton. About 60 
miles of one of these roads, the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific, 
are already completed and in operation. The Denver and Rio Grande 
system has completed its branch from Durango, Colo., to Aztec and 
Farmington, opening up the splendid agricultural districts of San 
Juan County to outside markets. 

A very successful automobile line has been established between 
Roswell, in Chaves County, and Torrance, on the line of the El Paso 
and Northeastern, putting the constantly growing sections of the 
Pecos Valley in much closer communication than ever before with the 
rest of the Territory. These new lines of communication and others 
which are in prospect have caused a large influx of settlers, as will 
more fully appear in this report. A far greater amount of Govern- 

73 



74 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ment land has been entered than ever before in a single year in the 
history of the Territory. The immigration has been especially large 
in Eddy, Chaves, Roosevelt, Quay, Guadalupe, and Torrance coun- 
ties, and has exceeded that of other years in other parts of the Terri- 
The liberal provisions of the national reclamation act. one of the 
most beneficent and far-reaching measures ever passed by any nation 
at any time, will do more for New Mexico than any other act of the 
National Congress ever has done. Owing to that act not only hun- 
dreds of thousands of acres of arid land will be made productive and 
furnish homes and competencies to thousands of families, but the 
work done by the Government will encourage private individuals and 
corporations to build irrigation works in localities where the Govern- 
ment does not see fit to do so. Many of the irrigation projects 
financed by private companies in New Mexico, as in other parts of the 
United States, have proven failures from a business point of view, and 
unless the Government had come to our assistance it is not probable 
that for many years to come the large projects already initiated by 
the Government, and others that soon will be, would have been under- 
taken by private capital. Much of the water available for irrigation 
would have remained unused, and vast areas of productive lands, capa- 
ble of creating great wealth, would continue useful only for grazing 
purposes. With the corps of trained engineers working under Gov- 
ernment supervision irrigation engineering will become an exact sci- 
ence, and many of the mistakes, overestimates as to the capacity of 
water, underestimates as to cost of construction and maintenance, and 
the calamitous results inevitable therefrom will be avoided. The 
operations of the Reclamation Service will demonstrate to us what can 
be done, and will thus encourage individuals to embark in private 
irrigation enterprises which, but for such demonstrations, never would 
have been undertaken, because of the many financial failures by pri- 
vate companies in the past. This is already evident in several 
instances in New Mexico, and is not one of the least of the beneficent 
results of this law. 

In many sections of the Territory hitherto considered unproductive 
it is being demonstrated that crops can be successfully raised without 
irrigation by means of careful farming and hard work. Near Las 
Vegas and in several places in eastern New Mexico and the adjoining 
counties of Texas experimental farms are being conducted under the 
dry-farming methods of the Campbell system — a system which I 
believe will result in great benefit to the whole arid west. To how 
great an extent farming without irrigation in New Mexico will be a 
permanent success is still to be demonstrated. 

The area of the Territory is 122,469 square miles, or about 78,000,000 
acres. According to the estimates of the engineers of the Reclama- 
tion Service, as to the amount of water available for irrigation in the 
Territory, and as a result of other observations, I believe that not more 
than 1,200,000 acres of the total area of New Mexico will be ultimately 
put under irrigation. This would indeed be a very large area and sup- 
port a magnificent population, but to how great a degree the future 
prosperity of the Territory depends upon the success of growing crops 
without irrigation is apparent. There are probably 25,000,000 acres 
of land capable of cultivation in the Territory. Much of it is as fine 
land as any in any part of the richest agricultural States of the Union. 



GOVERNOK OF NEW MEXICO. 



75 



The condition of the Territory from the standpoint of law and order 
has been satisfactory during the past year, the percentage of crime, 
taking the Territory as a whole, being considerably decreased. Our 
courts labor under a drawback similar to that existing in many other 
parts of the United States, namely, that our criminal code is in many 
respects much more advantageous to the accused than it is to the 
prosecution, resulting often in greater difficulty to secure convictions 
than is warranted by the circumstances of the case. A revision of our 
criminal laws is very desirable, if not absolutely essential. 

POPULATION. 

After a careful consideration of the school census, the registration 
and the vote cast at the last general election, together with such sta- 
tistics as can be gathered as to the immigration in the last year, I 
estimate that the population of New Mexico at the present time is 
between 290,000 and 300,000 people. I am inclined to believe that 
the estimates of several previous years are slightly exaggerated. The 
principal immigration during the past year has been in Chaves, Roose- 
velt, Quay, Guadalupe, Torrance, and Colfax counties. A careful 
study of the poll books of the election of 1904 shows that of the total 
number of voters 68. 51 per cent were of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian 
descent and 36.49 per cent were of Anglo-Saxon and other origin. 
These figures may be said to approximately represent for 1904 the 
proportions of the total population who are of similar origin. Since 
then the percentage has considerably changed, as nearly all the new 
settlers are Anglo-Saxons. Many of the people with Spanish or Mex- 
ican names now use the English language entirely. About 10 per 
cent of the total population of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian descent 
use the English language in preference to Spanish. A very much 
larger percentage of this class of our population is able to converse in 
the English as well as the Spanish language. A very good illustra- 
tion of the increase of the knowledge and use of English in Spanish- 
speaking communities is the material increase in the circulation of 
English newspapers in such communities. 

The following table shows, by counties, the number of votes cast for 
Delegate to Congress at the election of 1904, the proportion of the 
voters of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian descent and the proportion of 
Anglo-Saxon and other origin: 



County. 


Total 
vote cast 
for Del- 
egate to 
Congress 
in 1904. 


Percent- 
age of 
vote of 
Spanish, 
Mexican, 
and In- 
dian de- 
scent. 


Percent- 
age of 
vote, An- 
glo-Sax- 
on and 
other 
origin. 


County. 


Total 
vote cast 

for Del- 
egate to 
Congress 

in 1904. 


Percent- 
age of 
vote of 
Spanish, 
Mexican, 
and In- 
dian de- 
scent. 


Percent' 

age of 
vote, An- 
glo-Sax- 
on and 
other 
origin. 


Bernalillo 


3,415 

1,848 
2,803 
1,815 

605 
1,767 
1,319 
1,313 

474 

629 
2,341 
1,414 

649 


54 

4 

33 

75 

1 

22 

87 

44 

6 

19 

88 

24 

44 


46 
96 
67 
25 
99 
78 
13 
56 
94 
81 
12 
76 
56 


Rio Arriba 


3,081 

582 

845 

4,884 

1,151 

2,624 

815 

2,735 

1,887 

795 

1,673 

1,527 


94 


6 




100 


Colfax 




22 
68 
90 
76 
56 
73 
79 
81 
77 
90 


78 


Dona Ana 


San Miguel 


32 


Eddy 


10 


Grant 


Santa Fe 


24 






44 






27 




Taos 


21 






19 


Mora 




23 


Otero 


Valencia 


10 


Quay 











76 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
SHEEP AND CATTLE. 
SHEEP. 

From information I have received from Mr. George Arnot, of Albu- 
querque, and other men interested in the sheep business, I find that 
me most important industry in the Territory of New Mexico for 
many years past has been that of sheep raising and wool growing. 
The climate and natural resources of the Territory have been partic- 
ularly adapted to this business. 

On the 1st of January, 1906, the United States Government 
reports showed that New Mexico had nearly ,4,000,000 head of sheep 
within her borders. On a conservative estimate of value these sheep 
were worth about $14,000,000. For the past two years the sheep bus- 
iness has probably been the most valuable of any in the West. Dur- 
ing the past two seasons the Territory has been blessed with abundant 
moisture, which has produced an excellent stand of grama grass. 
This grass is the most nutritious known, and nature cures it where it 
grows. The fact that New Mexico has been preeminently a sheep- 
growing section was demonstrated by the Spaniards when they settled 
m this Territory hundreds of years ago, as they brought into the 
country large numbers of sheep of the Spanish Merino breed. 

Great development has been made in the last ten years in improv- 
ing the sheep in this Territory. Many growers have gone to great 
expense in snipping into the Territory the finest bred Merinc and 
Rambouillet bucks that could be found in the United States. As a 
result of this breeding the quality of the wool has been improved and 
New Mexico now produces, in some sections, as fine a grade of wool as 
can be found in any State in the Union. In the number of sheep 
New Mexico ranks third in the United States, being surpassed by 
Montana and Wyoming only. As sheep are raised in every State and 
Territory in the Union, it can readily be seen how important this 
industry is in New Mexico, when only two States contain more sheep. 

The sheep raisers enter into lambing season in April of 1906 with at 
least 3,750,000 head of sheep. Fully 1,000,000 head of old ewes and 
lambs were shipped out of the Territory in the fall of 1905. The 
spring of this year was very favorable for lambing, as the ewes came 
through the winter in excellent shape, and the growers received the 
largest percentage of lambs from their ewes that they ever had in any 
one year. This average amounted to something over 90 per cent for the 
entire Territory. In some favored sections the percentage amounted 
to 115 per cent, but in no district did it amount to less than 80 per 
cent. Statistics from the different counties indicate that there were 
about 300,000 to 400,000 of yearling and aged wethers in the Territory 
when the lambing season was reached, leaving 3,350,000 head of ewes. 
Of this number, about 1,000,000 head were ewe lambs, but the increase 
on the breeding ewes aggregates close to 2,000,000 head for the year 
1906. 

The demand for New Mexican sheep by the packers and feeders 
has been far in excess of the supply. It is a well-known fact that 
sheep from New Mexico will dress out more pounds of meat than any 
stock from other sections of the United States. There is much less 
waste when sheep are killed than results from those of the northern 
Territories, and for this reason the sheep from New Mexico are pre- 
ferred to all others. The demand for New Mexico sheep this year is 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 77 

greater than it has ever been in the past. Sheep buyers are now in 
all sections of New Mexico trying to contract the 5-months' lambs 
at 4f to 5 cents per pound, which will net the growers from $2.75 to 
$3.75 per head. These prices are made for the sheep on the ranges 
where they are run. At this time buyers are in the Territory from 
Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois, who are eagerly 
competing with each other for the lambs born this season. 

The sheep growers of New Mexico are in splendid financial con- 
dition, as they have obtained fancy prices for their sheep and wool 
the past few years. The sheep are run on the open range, and it is 
never necessary to feed them hay or grain during the winter, which 
has to be done in the East and the North. It costs the growers from 
40 to 75 cents per head to pay all expenses of their business for a 
year, according to location and quality of sheep which are owned 
by them. To-day, as stated above, the minimum price on lambs 
is $2.75 per head, and these are only 5 months old. Yearling wethers 
are worth $4 per head, and breeding ewes from $4.50 to $6 per head, 
according to the weight of fleece and quality of wool which they 
will shear. As a matter of fact, the values placed upon breeding 
ewes are nominal, as it would be difficult to get any grower in New 
Mexico to part with these sheep, as these ewes produce from $1 to 
$1.75 in wool, and also yield a lamb which will easily command not 
less than $2.75 when it is 5 months old. 

Experiments which have been carried on for many years by the 
largest and most intelligent sheep raisers in the Territory, have 
proved conclusively that the Delaine Merino and the Rambouillet 
Merino breeds are best adapted for the conditions which exist here. 
Many attempts have been made to introduce what are popularly 
known as the " mutton breeds," such as the Shropshire, the South- 
downs, the Lincolns, the Cotswolds, and similar varieties of sheep. 
It has been found, however, that the Merino sheep are best adapted 
for New Mexico, as they herd better on the open range, while the 
breeds mentioned above will scatter and it is almost impossible to 
range them. 

There is only one disease common to sheep which is known in 
New Mexico, namely, scabies, which is commonly known as scab. 
The dry climate, together with favorable conditions of the range, 
exempt the sheep from diseases which are very common in the Eastern 
States and European countries, and I am pleased to say that the 
eradication of this disease will be complete within a few years. 
The creation of the sheep sanitary board of New Mexico, and the 
fact that the Department of Agriculture has taken a great deal of 
interest in the sheep business in New Mexico by the appointment 
of inspectors to supervise the dipping of the sheep, and in quaran- 
tining sections in which scabby sheep were run, has aided materially 
in eliminating this disease. 

When sheep were first introduced into New Mexico, proper atten- 
tion was not given to the breeding of these animals, and as a result, 
the standard and size of the sheep, as well as the quality of the wool, 
deteriorated. Inbreeding and indifference to this important industry 
resulted in the shee-9 becoming almost as wild as deer or other undo- 
mesticated animals. About thirty years ago, however, some of our 
pioneers who realized the advantages of New Mexico, bought high 
grade Merino sheep in California and trailed them to this Territory. 



78 ANNUAL REPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Since that time there has been a gradual and constant improvement 
in our sheep, and also in the quality of the wool produced by them. 
To-day there is sheared from • many herds of sheep as fine wool as is 
yielded by flocks in Ohio, Pennsylvania, or MontanfT, and it will only be 
a matter of time until nearly all of the clips taken from New Mexican 
sheep will rank with the finest wool grown in any State of the Union. 
The Navajo Indians, who are large sheep owners, still own animals 
which produce the coarsest wool shorn from any sheep in the United 
States. This wool, however, is particularly suitable for the manu- 
facture of the Navajo Indian blankets, which are famous throughout 
our country. In all other sections, however, it has been the aim of 
the wool growers to produce a finer quality of wool by the purchase 
of highly bred bucks, and in some cases rams have been shipped 
into New Mexico which cost the growers $100 per head. 

In New Mexico are herds of sheep which yield. not less than 12 
pounds per head, while at the same time we have other sheep which 
do not produce over 3 pounds per head. The average weight per 
fleece in New Mexico is now a trifle over 5 pounds, and the Territory 
produces from 18,000,000 to 20,000,000 pounds per annum. In 1905 
this wool netted the growers from 18 to 25 cents per pound. During 
1906 the price has been somewhat lower, owing to the fact that the 
people of the United States have been wearing worsted goods, while 
most of the wools grown in New Mexico are clothing wools and enter 
into the manufacture of woolen goods, which the popular fashions 
have not demanded for the past twelve months. However, even at 
the present lower values of wool, the growers have been able to make 
a handsome profit out of the wool alone, excluding the value of the 
lambs born in the spring. A twelve-months fleece of wool averaging 
7 pounds is worth to-day from $1.10 to $1.25, and as the total 
expense of the sheep grower is from 50 to 75 cents per head, a hand- 
some profit is netted from the wool alone. 

The desire to prepare many of the clips to the best advantage for 
the manufacturer, and to save expense in getting the wool to the 
eastern markets, has resulted in the establishment of 8 wool-scouring 
plants in the Territory of New Mexico. No State or Territory west 
of the Mississippi River possesses such a number of these plants. 
The sorting and scouring of the wools is being performed in such an 
excellent manner that the scoured product is taken freely by eastern 
manufacturers at full market value. 

The Territorial sheep sanitary board has made the following report 
of the sheep industry: 

In August, 1904, a plan of cooperation between the Bureau of Animal Industry and 
this board was adopted, by which the Bureau was to place in New Mexico a force of inspect- 
ors sufficiently large to supervise the dipping of all sheep in the Territory, inspectors of 
this board to see that sheep were brought to the dipping plants, this plan to be continued 
for two years, provided the Bureau of Animal Industry received from Congress an appro- 
priation sufficiently large with which to carry on the work. This plan was carried out 
during the summer and fall of 1904, but owing to lack of funds by the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, was not continued during 1905. The Bureau of Animal Industry in the summer 
of 1905 notified the board that it was unable to place in the field in New Mexico a force 
of inspectors sufficiently large to supervise the dipping of all sheep, but requested the 
board to place a quarantine on the upper counties and not permit sheep to be trailed 
south across a quarantine line composed of the northern line of the counties of Socorro, 
Lincoln, and Chaves without first being inspected and found clean of the disease of scabies. 
This request was received and carried into effect. A plan of cooperation was then adopted 
between the Bureau of Animal Industry and the board by which alll sheep south of this 
quarantine line were ordered clipped under supervision of Federal or Territorial inspectors. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 79 

During the winter the board continued in the field inspection with directions not to permit 
sheep to cross this line going south without being first inspected and found clean of the 
disease of scabies, and a written permit given to cross said line. A few cases of scabies 
developed south of said line during the winter, which have been either dipped or placed in 
quarantine, and it is believed that before the end of the summer all sheep below the quar- 
antine line will be free of the disease of scabies. 

The board also placed in the field, as soon as the information was received from the 
Bureau of Animal Industry that it could not place a sufficient force of inspectors in the 
field for supervising the dipping of all sheep in New Mexico, some twenty-five inspectors 
with instructions to inspect all sheep in their respective districts, being the districts above 
the quarantine line, and to order and require all sheep to be dipped, supervising the dipping 
of all scabby sheep found, giving the same two dippings ten days between dippings, and 
giving bucks three dippings. This work was carried out as carefully as possible until it 
was interrupted by inspectors of the board being called upon to supervise the dipping of 
sheep destined for interstate movement. In the summer of 1905 the board was notified 
by the Bureau of Animal Industry that no sheep above the quarantine line would be 
permitted to leave the Territory without first being dipped under supervision of a Federal 
inspector immediately prior to being shipped. At the urgent request of this board the 
foregoing notice was afterwards modified by Doctor Melvin, who had become chief of the 
Bureau since the notice was given, by which sheep were permitted to leave upon shipper 
exhibiting to Federal inspector a certificate showing that sheep had been dipped under super- 
vision of Territorial or Government inspector, providing that sheep on inspection were 
found free of scab or other contagious or infectious diseases, and had not been exposed 
thereto since dipping. This modification was of untold value to the sheep grower, as 
most of the sheep in New Mexico had been sold by weight, delivery f. o. b. cars, and to 
have required sheep to have been dipped at a station point under supervision of Federal 
inspector would have caused enormous loss in weight, and corresponding loss in values 
received as well as great delay. 

Great delay was, however, occasioned in many instances by the railroads being unable 
to furnish cars, the loss to sheep growers in New Mexico last year on this account being 
enormous. In the early fall there was a large demand for inspectors to supervise the 
dipping of sheep destined for interstate movement, which greatly interfered with the 
dipping on the range. All sheep, however, were dipped, but many were dipped without 
supervision of an inspector. 

In January the board had a conference in Denver with Doctor Melvin, Chief of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry, at which time the board urged upon Doctor Melvin that the Bureau of 
Animal Industry aid the sheep sanitary board in eradicating the disease of scabies from 
sheep in New Mexico by the Bureau placing in the field in New Mexico a force of some 
fifty inspectors to supervise the dipping of every sheep in the Territory, the board to order 
all sheep in the Territory dipped, scabby sheep to be dipped twice, and the board to appoint a 
sufficient force of inspectors to see that all sheep in the Territory were brought to the dipping 
plants. Doctor Melvin was unable at that time to make any promise, as he could not 
forsee what Congress might do regarding an appropriation for that Department, but was 
willing and anxious to assist the board in any way possible, providing Congress made an 
appropriation that would permit thereof, and promised to let this board know what he 
could do in that regard as soon as appropriation was made. 

Prices realized last fall for lambs and mutton were the highest in many years, and a 
large number of sheep, something over 1,000,000 head, were sold and left the Territory. 
The lambing this spring was the best in the history of the Territory. Prices offered for 
wool at the present time are not as ftigh as last year, and many growers are storing their 
wool waiting better prices. 

In connection with the sheep industry in this Territory, I believe 
that the situation in regard to the Navajo Indian sheep grazing out- 
side of the reservation merits the serious consideration of the Depart- 
ment. I have received various letters from the residents of San 
Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, and Valencia counties, and from the offi- 
cers of the Territorial sheep sanitary board, complaining of the fact 
that the Indians are permitted to graze their sheep upon the public 
domain in various parts of these counties; that their sheep are not of 
good quality and are badly infected with scab, and that it is very dif- 
ficult, if not entirely impossible, for either the Territorial sheep sani- 
tary board or the Bureau of Animal Industry to eradicate the diseases 
from these sheep. 



80 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Much correspondence has passed between the officers of the Terri- 
torial government and the Department of the Interior in regard to 
this matter. The officers of the sheep sanitary board and the resi- 
dents of the counties affected believe that the Indians should not be 
allowed to graze their sheep outside of the reservation; that inasmuch 
as a large area of land is set aside for the exclusive use of the Indians, 
amply sufficient for all their needs, they should be confined to that 
area. The authorities at the Indian Office say that these Indians 
who are off the reservation are permanent residents of the country 
they occupy and that their right of occupancy is recognized by the 
white settlers; that if white or native sheep men come upon such ter- 
ritory they are trespassers; that if their sheep are contaminated by 
coming in contact with the Indian sheep it is not the fault of the 
Indians. 

While the Federal Government maintains that these Indians out- 
side the reservation have the right of occupancy, it also retains the 
supervision of these Indians, and the dipping of their sheep is carried 
on under the authority of the Indian superintendents in charge of the 
northern and southern divisions of the reservation. It is true that a 
considerable amount of money has been spent for dipping vats and 
for dip used within the reservation and under the supervision of the 
superintendents outside the reservation, but this work, as far as the 
Indian sheep outside the reservation is concerned, is not done in 
cooperation either with the Bureau of Animal Industry or the Terri- 
torial sheep sanitary board, and it is alleged that the work of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry and of the sheep sanitary board can not 
become effective and the disease eradicated unless the sheep belong- 
ing to Indians are handled during the same period that the sheep 
of other growers are handled, so that all the sheep in the Territory 
may be cleaned of the disease at the same time. I am informed that 
practically all the work that may be performed by the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry and the sheep sanitary board will have to be done over 
at an early date unless the sheep belonging to the Indians are properly 
dipped and kept clean afterwards. 

The situation arising from this state of affairs is unfortunate and 
gives rise to constant disagreements, which it would be wise, for the 
best interests of the Territory and of the Indians, to avoid. Should 
it be possible for the Federal Government to confine the Indians and 
their sheep within the boundaries of the reserve, all further discontent 
on the part of the residents of the Territory would be avoided. If 
this is not feasible, it has been suggested that the Secretary of Agri- 
culture could quarantine all of the Indian sheep within the reserva- 
tion, making the quarantine line the lines of the reservation. All the 
sheep outside of the reservation would then have to be dealt with in 
accordance with the rules and regulations of the Territorial sheep 
sanitary board and of the Bureau of Animal Industry. I very respect- 
fully recommend that this matter be given the serious consideration 
of the Department. 

CATTLE. , 

The various causes affecting the price of cattle in other parts of the 
United States had a material effect on the industry in New Mexico. 
The shipments of cattle from this Territory to the markets of the 



GOVERNOB OF NEW MEXICO. 81 

Central West showed a considerable decrease. The shipments for 
the first six months of the present year ending June 30 numbered 
approximately 64,000 head, against 99,000 head shipped during the 
corresponding period in the previous years. Some of this decrease of 
35,000 head may have been due to the packing-house investigation, 
but that was by no means the only cause, as it is no doubt true in 
the early spring some of the cattlemen held their stock at so high a 
price that the packers refused to make purchases. 

However, now that the packers have agreed to the just inspection 
measure passed by the last Congress upon the recommendation of 
the President, the shipments are bound to show an increase, and the 
prospects for the ensuing year are excellent. The calf crop in New 
Mexico for the past spring averaged between 75 and 80 per cent. 

The Territorial cattle sanitary board, in its report to me, gives an 
excellent account of the conditions in the cattle industry. The 
report is as follows: 

Cattle shipments for the present year will not be as heavy as in the preceding year, those 
for the six months ending July 1 being 64,000, while for the same period of 1905 they were 
99,000. The cattle are here to ship, but several causes have contributed to keep them 
at home. 

In the early spring the young steers were held at a figure which the buyers would not 
meet, and very few sales were made on the ranges. Later on the beef-packers' investiga- 
tions came along, and the trade in stockers and feeders is absolutely at a standstill. This 
is true especially of the stock and canner stuff, which can be sold only for about what the 
hides will bring. 

The calf crop all over New Mexico was a phenomenal one. From one end of the Territory 
to the other the crop was more than an average, and probably will run about 75 or 80 per 
cent. 

The winter of 1905-6 was a fine one all over New Mexico, and losses were too small to 
figure on. 

The spring opened up well and cattle were in fine shape. June was a dry month, but in 
July came generous rains all over the Territory, and especially has the northern end of 
New Mexico been blessed with heavy rains. Water holes are full, streams booming, and 
grass luxuriant. 

Outside of the mange question New Mexico cattle are free from all diseases. The mange 
question, however, is being gradually eliminated, although it is doubtful if it is ever entirely 
eradicated on the open ranges; but it is not a serious disease at its worst, and causes little 
or no loss to the cattlemen. 

We have had one serious outbreak of glanders to contend with in Colfax County, which 
caused the board considerable expense. Three head died from the disease, and 6 were 
killed and destroyed by fire after being tested twice by the Mallein test and found by a 
committee of three competent veterinarians to be suffering undoubtedly from the disease. 

The hides inspected by the board for the six months ending July 1 number 29,194, as 
against almost 40,000 for the same period last year. 

It will be remembered, however, that last year the losses in the early spring were tremen- 
dous, and that the hides taken from these dead animals account for the unusually heavy 
hide shipments for 1905. 

FOREST RESERVES. 

It is very gratifying to be able to announce that the forest policy 
of thje Federal Government, which was until recently looked upon 
with disfavor, and in many instances openly opposed by the people 
of this Territory, is now much more thoroughly understood, and, as 
a consequence is generally favorably accepted. The supervisors of 
the various reserves are unanimous in their testimony as to this 
change in sentiment, which is also evident from the opinions expressed 
by nearly all the stockmen whose interests are most affected. One 
or two years' experience in grazing on the reserves under pasturage 
permits has proven to nearly all who have secured such permits the 
wisdom and fairness of the Government regulations. Not only do 



82 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOB. 

these regulations assure great good to the Territory by the preser- 
vation of the ranges within the reserves, but also to the cattle and 
sheep men whose stock is grazed within the Government domains. 
An abundant supply of good grass is always certain as a result of the 
enforcement of these wise rules. 

Some of the sheep men believe that the grazing fee is too high, 
but, as a rule, the fee charged is accepted as just and reasonable. 
No one acquainted with western range conditions can fail to appre- 
ciate the deplorable evil that is sure to follow from overstocking, and 
while individuals, on account of selfish interests and a desire to make 
the most possible profit in one year out of a given area of grass land, 
may close their eyes to this evil there are few of them who will not 
acknowledge the wisdom of the policy of range preservation now 
being carried on in forest reserves, and which, it is hoped, will soon 
be extended, under proper regulations, to all the public domain. 

Few people in the crowded and congested Eastern States, indeed 
but a small percentage of the population in the Rocky Mountain 
district, realize the extent of the vast domains the Federal Govern- 
ment has set aside for the preservation of the forest. Scattered 
throughout many of the States are these reservations. Here in New 
Mexico these great forests, under Government control and super- 
vision, comprise over 5,000,000 acres of woodland, an area large 
enough to embrace many of the smaller eastern Commonwealths. 
The exact area of these reservations, according to figures furnished 
by the forest supervisors in charge, is 5,211,241 acres. This great 
domain is divided as follows: 

Acres. 

Pecos River Reserve 430, 880 

Jemez Reserve 1 , 237 , 205 

Gila River Reserve 2, 823, 900 

Lincoln Reserve 545, 256 

Portales Reserve 174, 000 

Total 5,211,241 

Covering these great reservations is a mantle of timber — timber 
that can be converted into a high quality of pine lumber. While 
there are no accurate data to be had in regard to the amount of 
timber upon the Government's holdings, it is conservatively predicted 
that a cruise would show these lands to contain more than 
20,000,000,000 feet board measure. Of this amount it is estimated 
that 10,647,000,000 feet is marketable — that is, timber fit to be con- 
verted into lumber. Of course, much of this marketable timber will 
remain uncut and unsold for years because of its inaccessibility. 
Much of it is situated far away from transportation facilities, and 
therefore its value is materially lessened. Valued at the small cost 
of $2 a thousand feet, the Government's timber holdings in this Terri- 
tory have a money value in excess of $20,000,000. It must not be 
inferred that this great natural industry remains undeveloped because 
of the Government ownership. Marketable timber from the reserves 
is annually sold by the Government to private lumber companies 
operating within the Territory. 

During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1906, 205,567,064 board 
feet of lumber was purchased from the Forest Department. From 
this sale there was realized an amount in excess of $450,000, or, to 
be exact, the sum derived from the sale of timber totaled $466,188. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 83 

Counties in which the reserves are situated now profit by the sale of 
Government timber, for by a recent act of Congress the Secretary of 
the Treasury was instructed to pay into the county treasuries of 
counties in which reserves are situated 10 per cent of all the incomes 
of such reserves, including the proceeds of timber sales and pasturage 
permits. This act will contribute in no small degree toward popu- 
larizing the forest policy of the Government, for the money paid to 
the counties will more than reimburse the counties for any loss in 
taxes. Four thousand six hundred and ninety-four dollars and 
fifty-six cents will be distributed this year among the counties in 
this Territory in which reserves are situated, an amount which is 
sure to rapidly increase from year to year, so that ultimately it will 
pay a very considerable proportion of the expenses of the counties 
which are fortunate enough to have forest reserves within their 
boundaries. 

Not only are these forest reservations valuable for their market- 
able timber; they serve another purpose equally if not far more 
important. By the protection of New Mexico's forests, a permanent 
water supply is assured. Farming in New Mexico is conducted 
through irrigation. If the rivers should run dry millions of acres of 
now fertile lands speedily would be converted into barren wastes. 
No quicker or surer way is known to curtail the supply of water in 
rivers than to denude the forests at headwaters. This has been 
clearly illustrated in northern Wisconsin, the upper peninsula of 
Michigan and northern Minnesota, where the old lumber barons 
stripped the land of its fine timber covering. But in New Mexico 
the Government secured control of the forests in time to preserve 
them, and as a consequence a permanent and adequate water sup- 
ply for irrigation purposes is assured. 

While the Government protects the trees it also affords protection 
to the great grass range beneath the pines. While it does not shut 
out cattle and sheep from the reservations, it will not allow the cattle 
and sheep men to crowd its ranges to an extent that will bring about 
ultimate destruction. But it must not be inferred that the Govern- 
ment through regulation retards the cattle and sheep industry. During 
the past year there were grazed upon these forest reserves 68,282 
head of cattle and horses and 313,268 head of sheep and goats. 
From some of the reservations sheep and goats are prohibited. 

During the past year the Government has charged a small fee to 
cattle and sheep men for grazing privileges. Under a recent act of 
Congress all the agricultural lands within the forest reserves is under 
certain restrictions open to entry by homesteaders. This act has 
caused the removal of the last vestige of opposition to the reserves. 
The latest reports show that there are 14,925 acres of land in culti- 
vation within the reserves. It is estimated that there is at least five 
times this amount of land adaptable to agricultural purposes. 

Detail statements furnished to me by the supervisors in charge of 
the five reserves situated in the Territory follow : 

PECOS RIVER FOREST RESERVE. 

The Pecos River Forest Reserve was originally created January 11, 1892, and enlarged 
to its present area on May 27, 1898. It is situated about in the center of the north half 
of the Territory, covering two spurs of the Sangre de Cristo Range, known locally as the 
Santa Fe Range and the Las Vegas Range. These ranges of mountains hold a very 



84 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

important position in the watershed system of the Territory, for within their limits are 
located the sources of the Pecos and Mora rivers and the sources of numerous tributaries 
of the Rio Grande. 

This reserve contains 430,880 acres, of which approximately 200,000 acres are timbered. 
It has never been thoroughly cruised, but it is estimated that the total stand of timber on 
the reserve is in the neighborhood of 500,000,000 feet, of which 100,000,000 can be classed as 
marketable and accessible. The altitudes are high, and while all of the timber has a great 
value as a means of conserving the moisture, much of it is too stunted and difficult of 
access to be classed as merchantable. During the past year the sale of timber amounted 
to 567,064 feet board measure, for which $1,118.90 was received. 

Approximately 50 per cent of the total area of the reserve can be classed as grazing 
land. One hundred and sixty-four permits to graze cattle and horses were issued during 
the present calendar year for a total of 3,104 head of cattle and 337 head of horses. The 
total amount of grazing fees paid was $704.69, which makes the average grazing fee $4.30, 
while the average number of stock is 21. In addition, there are at least 500 head of cattle 
and horses grazed on the reserve without permit under the regulation allowing an exemption 
of 6 head of milk or work animals to settlers in and adjacent to the reserve. The ranges 
are in the very best of condition, and the range protection afforded the stock owners is 
worth a great deal more than the grazing fee amounts to. Sheep and goats are excluded 
from the reserve and have been for several years. While it was anticipated that the 
requirement of a grazing fee would cause considerable dissatisfaction, the number of appli- 
cations made this year exceeds by 25 the number made last year when no fee was required, 
and opposition has been followed by approval to a very large extent. 

Pending the preparation of a type map, it is difficult to give accurately the number of 
acres of agricultural land in the reserve, but approximately there is an area of 5,000 acres 
which could be classed as agricultural. Owing to the elevation, the growing season is 
short and the productive power of the land limited. Winter rye, wheat, and oats are the 
staple crops, and about the only ones that can be raised successfully, except along the 
extreme eastern boundary of the reserve. About 1,000 acres are now under cultivation 
and actually producing crops, but the acceptance of the corrected survey of the west line 
of the Mora grant will eliminate almost all of the cultivated land and a large percentage of 
the cultivable land from the reserve. 

The actual residents of the reserve number 250, while the population adjacent to the 
reserve and vitally interested in it is about 2,000. 

Aside from the charging of grazing fees, no radical changes have been made in the regu- 
lations governing the reserve. The authority of the local officers has been greatly increased 
and the reserve business greatly simplified, so that the residents of the reserve are not 
subjected to vexatious delays and expense in transacting their business. 

The law permitting settlement upon agricultural lands has removed the chief objection 
to the reserve, while the allotment of 10 per cent of the gross proceeds of the reserve more 
than offsets any possible loss in taxes sustained by the counties in which the reserve is 
situated. The present regulations allow full and complete utilization of the timber, grazing, 
water, mineral, and agricultural resources of the reserve, while the people engaged in 
develoDing these resources receive protection in the enjoyment of the same which they can 
not obtain on the public land outside of the reserve. 

JEMEZ FOREST RESERVE. 

The Jemez Forest Reserve was created October 12, 1905, but was not placed under 
administration until February 5, 1906. It is situated on the west side of the Rio Grande, 
and extends from the Colorado line to a point about 25 miles south of west from Santa Fe. 
It embraces within its limits several very important watersheds tributary to the Rio Grande, 
the most important tributaries being the Rio Chama and the Rio Jemez, and also the head- 
waters of one fork of the Canon Largo, a tributary of the Rio San Juan. 

The reserve contains 1,237,205 acres. Of this area 664,832 acres are covered with 
merchantable timber, 146,176 acres with nonmerchantable timber, and 275,533 acres are 
woodland. The balance is divided among burns, grass land, sage land, cut-over land, 
barren land, cultivated land, and uncultivated land. The stand of merchantable timber 
has been conservatively estimated to be 2,675,000,000 feet board measure. The non- 
merchantable timber is estimated at 145,000,000 feet board measure. During the past 
year a sale of 40,000,000 feet of timber was made, upon a basis of $2.50 per 1,000 feet board 
measure, but the work of cutting and removing the same has not yet begun. No other 
sales were made, but the preliminary work upon another sale of 50,000,000 feet was under 
way at the close of the year. 

Grazing permits to the number of 306 were issued allowing cattle and horses to graze 
within the reserve, while 178 grazing permits were issued allowing sheep and goats to be 
grazed in the reserve. Sheep and goat permits were figured upon a basis of an 80 per cent 
increase, and, as the increase was charged for at half rate, only 40 per cent of the increase 



GOVERNOE OF NEW MEXICO. 85 

is shown in the permits. As this year's increase ranged from 90 to 115 per cent, and as there 
are comparatively few dry sheep on the reserve, the total number of sheep and goats actually 
grazed within the reserve is between 40 and 50 per cent in excess of the amount shown. 

The following is a statement of the stock allowed under permit during the present calendar 
year: 

Cattle 4, 6y5 

Horses 975 

Sheep 220, 180 

Goats 8, 097 

Total of grazing fees for cattle and horses $971 . 62 

Total of grazing fees for sheep and goats 13 ; 721. 38 

Total 14,693.00 

In addition to this stock under permit a large number of work and milk animals belonging 
to residents graze on the reserve, approximately 500 head of cattle and horses and 500 head 
of goats, in all. This stock is grazed without permit under the regulations exempting 6 
head of such animals. 

Most of the reserve furnishes grazing of some character, but not to exceed two-thirds of it 
can be classed as grazing land, and much of this is timbered. The grass land in itself 
amounts to 93,056 acres; sage land, 2,611 acres. 

The amount of cultivated land within the reserve is 7,373 acres, while the cultivable land 
amounts to 10,726 acres. Most of this land is meadow land, suited to the production of 
small grains, such as wheat, rye, and oats, and where protected will cut from 1 to 2 tons of 
wild hay per acre. 

The total population of the reserve is about 1,000, while the adjacent population directly 
interested in the reserve is in excess of 5,000. 

Although the creation and administration of the Jemez Reserve is practically a matter of 
but six months ago, there has been but very little friction between the forest officers and 
the people living in and adjacent to the reserve. The reserve has swept away a great many 
old privileges and customs and has necessitated a complete rearrangement of grazing. condi- 
tions, but opposition to the reserve is not pronounced and a strong feeling of approval is 
becoming manifest. When the people residing in and adjacent to the reserve have had an 
opportunity to perceive the benefits of range protection I believe they will make as much 
of an effort to advance the welfare of the reserve as the forest officers in charge of it. 

GILA RIVER FOREST RESERVE. 

The Gila Forest Reserve of New Mexico was created by Executive proclamation March 2, 
1899, and then comprised an area of 2,327,040 acres. By proclamation of the President 
dated July 21, 1905, there was added to the reserve as originally established 496,860 acres, 
making a total area of 2,823,900 acres. 

This vast body of forest-reserve lands is situated in the southwestern part of the Territory, 
and includes parts of Grant, Sierra, and Socorro counties. The nearest railroad points are 
Silver City, Santa Rita, and Magdalena, the former and latter of which are the main shipping 
points for stock grazed on the reserve. 

It is estimated that the Gila Reserve has within its borders no less than 6,500,000,000 
board feet of merchantable timber, only about 75,000,000 feet of which is at all accessible 
with present railroad facilities, but most of it is so situated that by the building of railroads 
through the reserve it can be reached, and it is believed that with present demand for lumber 
the day is not far distant when this will be done. The removal of mature timber is essential 
to the welfare of the forest, but should be cut under the skillful and wise management of 
trained and experienced forest officers, whose duty it is to see that forest regulations 
which provide for protection against forest fires, insurance of perpetual protective forest 
cover, and the proper removal of all mature and merchantable timber without waste are 
wisely enforced. Under such a system applications for the purchase of forest reserve 
timber are invited by the Forest Service. 

Since January 1, 1906, applications for the purchase of $30,236 worth of timber to be cut 
from this reserve have been presented and will all doubtless be consummated. Those that 
have not already been, before October 1, and purchasers of a million feet or more, will be 
given from one to five years in which to cut and remove the timber. Most of this timber will 
find a ready market at Silver City and in the mining camps of Pinos Altos, Santa Rita, 
and Hanover, and a little in the Burro Mountain mining camp, all of which show unusual 
activity just at this time, and the outlook is for increased demand for lumber. 

Grazing is a most important feature of forest reserve management and the economic 
value of forage products within forest reserves is realized and regulations have been made 

241b— 07 7 



86 



ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



to allow every privilege consistent with proper care and judicious management. Over- 
stocking, however, has been by far the greatest cause of range destruction and consequent 
decrease in the number of stock raised in this part of New Mexico. In considering the 
number of stock to be admitted to graze on the Gila Reserve all these points were considered, 
together with the protection of the forest cover, and the fact that sheep and cattle do not 
thrive well upon the same area was also taken into account and the reserve divided into 
twenty-three grazing districts, and stock distributed as follows: 



CATTLE AND HORSES. 



Head. 
3,000 
5,000 
4,500 
3,000 
3,000 



District 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 6, east of line between 

ranges 14 and 15 1, 500 

No.8 3,000 

No.9 3,500 

No. 17, south of line between 

townships 10 and 11 3,000 

No. 18 3,500 

No. 19 1 3,500 

No. 20, exclusive of closed area. 3, 000 

No.21 3,000 

No.22 4,000 

No.23 500 

"Home range" in sheep grazing 
districts 13, 000 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



Head. 



District: 

No. 6, west of line between 

ranges 14 and 15 14,000 

No.7 7,000 

No. 10 21,000 

No. 11 21,000 

No. 12 9,750 

No. 13 35,000 

No. 14 14,000 

No. 15 4,250 

No. 16 11,250 

No. 17, north of line between 

townships 10 and 11 9, 750 

No. 20, goats only 7,000 

No. 21, goats only 21,000 



Total .... 175,000 



Total 60,000 

Of the number of stock provided for, only 45,287 head of sheep, 16,230 head of goats, and 
42,364 head of cattle and horses entered the reserve, due in part to the splendid season and 
grass in abundance on the public domain, and in part to the fact that for the first time since 
the creation of the reserve a small grazing fee was charged. It is the policy of the Forest 
Service to foster this leading industry in New Mexico, and it is believed that as the citizens 
become better acquainted with the benefits to be derived from a restricted grazing, the 
handling of lands in such way as that forage will not be eaten out root and branch, all 
opposition by stock owners to this grazing fee will be withdrawn and the justice and wisdom 
of a reasonable charge for a commodity furnished will be recognized — a product of the soil 
as much as the timber that grows thereon — and no citizen wanting timber for commercial 
purposes but will concede that a reasonable stumpage should be paid the Government. In 
fact, a number of the stockmen of this section now using the reserve for grazing purposes 
already concede the wisdom of this policy and express themselves as entirely satisfied with 
conditions, and will more cheerfully pay the grazing fee another year than they did this. 

With the extension of the forest reserve boundary July 21, 1905, there was included a 
section of country, grazing districts Nos. 20 and 21, in which the Angora goat business seemed 
to be of special importance to the general prosperity of the citizens of that vicinity, a region 
of country peculiarly well adapted to this live-stock industry, and notwithstanding the goat 
is considered the natural enemy of a forest reserve it was decided not to enact any severe 
restrictions before the owners could have a chance to show, as they contend they can show, 
that goats can be grazed in these districts, located in the southeast portion of the reserve, 
where there is an abundance of live oak, without seriously injuring the reserve, and all 
citizens living upon these added areas prior to their addition to the reserve July 21, 1905, 
and having vested rights in lands or range, were given year-long permits, and so far they 
are handling their stock in a very satisfactory way, and forest officers have no complaint to 
make at the presence of Angora goats in these two grazing districts. 

The act of Congress approved June 11, 1906, empowering the Secretary of Agriculture to 
examine and classify lands within forest reserves chiefly valuable for agricultural purposes 
and report same to the Secretary of the Interior with request that they be open to entry in 
accordance with provisions of the homestead laws and the act providing for their examina- 
tion and classification, will avail little in the Gila Reserve, for the reason that most of this 
agricultural land, and much that was not agricultural, was entered long before the creation 
of the reserve. After the creation of the reserve much of this land was either relinquished 
to the Government under act of June 4, 1897, and other land selected in lieu thereof from 
the public domain, or sold to speculators in Government scrip. This was done for the 
reason that ihe limited areas capable of irrigation were found insufficient to make farming a 
profitable employment. There are, howeves, some desirable agricultural lands within the 



GOVERN OB OF NEW MEXICO. 87 

Gila Reserve not yet entered, and these will no doubt be examined, classified, listed, ami 
opened to settlement in the near future, under the provisions of this act. At this time, 
however, I know of but one such application having been sent the Forester. 

It is estimated that the Gila Reserve has a resident population of 2,000. These are to be 
found in the small towns or villages of Pinos Altos, Kingston, Georgetown, Hermosa, 
Grafton, Phillipsburg, Mogollon, Cooney, Alma, Frisco Plaza, Reserve, and Luna, and 
along the main water courses of the reserve where fairly good ranches were taken up by 
citizens engaged in agricultural pursuits, such streams as the Gila, San Francisco, Tula- 
rosa, Mogollon Creek, Mule Creek, Mimbres River, and their tributaries, many of whom 
are a thrifty people and making comfortable livings for themselves and their families. 

The Forest Service established a nursery station on the Gila Reserve just north of Fort 
Bayard in May, 1905, which comprises two distinct sites about one-quarter of a mile apart. 
This nursery site is under the supervision and management of Forest Assistant W. R. Mat- 
toon, who has his headquarters at the nursery station. Forest Assistant Mattoon in his 
report dated October, 1905, states as follows: 

"The problem at Fort Bayard is eminently one of improving watershed conditions over 
the denuded basin of Cameron Creek and its tributaries. Denudation has resulted from 
excessive deforestation and overgrazing. The situation is urgent because of the destruc- 
tion due to rapid land erosion, and since the present water supply of the Military and Naval 
Hospital, located at Fort Bayard, is inadequate, both of these conditions being the direct 
result of denudation on the watershed. The deficiency in water supply during the dry sea- 
son within the past few years is reported as constituting a very serious problem in the 
proper maintenance of this important Federal institution. 

"In addition to the above, there is abundant opportunity for extending reforestation 
operations over adjacent localities, including Pinos Altos and Santa Rita mining districts, 
where provision for future timber and fuel wood supply is needed." 

The Gila Reserve is under the management and supervision of 1 supervisor, 2 forest 
assistants, 1 forest ranger, 1 deputy forest ranger, 6 assistant forest rangers, and 9 forest 
guards — forest guards to be reduced to 6 during the winter months, November 1 to March 31. 

The change in forest regulations, which allows the leasing of not to exceed 320 acres of 
land for pasturing saddle horses and holding beef steers when gathered for shipment, and 
the occasional building of a drift fence, where no objection is interposed by stock owners 
using the same range, is a wise provision, and most of the large stock owners have availed 
themselves of the benefits to be derived therefrom, cheerfully paying the minimum rental 
fee of 4 cents per acre, and purchasing of the Government timber to be used in fencing. 
This has its advantage over the leasing of a school section for the reason that it can be 
located to suit the convenience of the leaseholder and where there is water. 

Authorizing forest rangers and forest supervisor to sell timber in limited amounts has 
done much to relieve hardship, in that timber needed for emergencies may be had at once. 
Permit to operate a sawmill on private holdings within forest reserves is no longer required. 
Privileges of minor importance may now be granted by the supervisor, such as building of 
trails, roads, irrigating ditches, private reservoirs and dams, etc., all of which prevents delay 
necessitated by the sending of papers to the Washington Office and the making of long 
reports, much to the good of the service, and has done much toward bringing the Forest 
Reserve into popular favor. 

"The Use Book," regulations and instructions for the use of the national forest 
reserves, issued July 1, 1906, contains many wise provisions not yet generally known to 
the public. Technicalities that not infrequently embarrassed forest reserve administration 
have been eliminated, and it is sought to establish closer relations with the people most 
interested in forest reserve management. The efficiency of the men to be intrusted with 
the carrying out of forest rules and regulations is being improved, so that they may the better 
help the settler to know his rights, and knowing may avail himself of the benefit of every 
privilege guaranteed without unnecessary delay. 

When these new and more liberal provisions come to be generally understood, it is 
believed that the wisdom of the policy sought to be carried out by the Forest Service in 
the administration of the forest reserves of the West will be conceded by all intelligent and 
fair-minded citizens broad enough to indorse the justice of "the greatest good to the great- 
est number concerned." 

PORTALES FOREST RESERVE. 

The Portales Forest Reserve contains about 174,000 acres of land. It is all grazing land 
although about ten sections of it can be utilized for agricultural purposes. There is no 
merchantable timber upon the reserve. 

About 6,000 head of cattle are grazing within the reservation, but sheep or goats are pro- 
hibited. There are 300 acres of land under cultivation. About 75 people are living within 
the reservation. 



88 ANNUAL BEPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

LINCOLN FOREST RESERVE. 

The Lincoln Forest Reserve includes part of Lincoln and Otero counties and contains 
545,256 acres. 

The lands of the reserve yield their best return in the protection of wood and grass. 
The forests of the reserve serve their highest usefulness as protection forests, to safeguard 
against erosion and the control of streams used for irrigation. 

The live stock industry is paramount to the settlers. For this reason the entire reserve is 
properly classified as grazing land, in so far as its natural utility for that purpose is concerned. 

The estimated amount of merchantable timber upon the reserve is 372,000,000 feet B. M. 

The amount of timber sold during the past year was 150,000 feet B. M., and 541 cords 
of wood. The revenue derived from timber sales was $2,579.68. 

The number of stock grazed upon the reserve is as f olio ws :' 4,806 head of cattle. 340 
head of horses, 6,046 head of goats, and 5,845 head of sheep. 

The population within the reserve may be estimated at 1,600 people. 

There are about 4,800 acres of land under cultivation within the reserve. There is very 
little agricultural land on the reserve and that little is difficult to utilize on account of the 
scarcity of water for irrigation purposes. 

The settlers who live within and adjacent to the reserve are commencing to realize the 
fact that this body of timber has been reserved for their use, and under the new regulations 
the reserve is rapidly being put to those uses which best serve the interests of the people. 

LUMBER. 

One of the greatest business enterprises of New Mexico is the 
lumbering industry. Few people not thoroughly informed regarding 
the resources of this Territory realize that New Mexico is one of the 
big lumber-producing commonwealths of the United States. True 
it is that the production is small when compared to the great outputs 
of northern Michigan and Minnesota, but one must take into con- 
sideration that the industry here is still in its infancy. When 
developed to its greatest possibility this industry is bound to rank 
among New Mexico's great material resources. 

According to figures collected from various sources the output of 
manufactured lumber for the year just closed will total nearly 
120,000,000 feet. Of course these figures are not authentic, for there 
are many small sawmills from which it was impossible to obtain 
information regarding the amount of timber cut. I have received 
reports from the five largest lumber companies. Their production 
amounts to 100,000,000 feet each year, and it is safe to estimate the 
amownt of lumber cut by the smaller mills throughout the Territory at 
20,000,000 feet. The mills of the Territory have a daily capacity 
of approximately 600,000 feet. Of course many of the companies 
do not operate their plants during the entire year, thus reducing 
the annual production. It is estimated that private lumbering 
companies control more than 1,000,000 acres of timber land, but 
this is not an authentic figure. It is as near correct as it is possible 
to secure. 

About 2,500 men are employed in the lumbering camps and at 
the sawmills. The average wage is about $2 a day. 

From the statements of the owners and managers of the various 
lumber companies it is evident that they are doing all in their power 
to cooperate with the Government to preserve the forests. As far 
as is practical the lumbermen are attempting to protect young 
trees and to guard against disastrous forest fires. One of the lum- 
bering companies — the Alamogordo Lumber Company — has offered 
to deed its cut-over lands to the Government for the establishment 
of a Government, forest reserve. Another company is retimbering 
its lands by planting the hardy Catalpa tree. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 89 

What is being accomplished by the lumbering companies of New 
Mexico is well illustrated in two reports I received, one from the 
American Lumber Company and the other from the Alamogordo 
Lumber Company. Mr. John N. Coffin, manager of the American 
Company, said in his letter: 

We own in fee approximately 300,000 acres of land in Valencia and McKinley counties. 
We have also purchased from the Territory of New Mexico the standing timber on some 
34,000 acres of Territorial lands, the same being even-numbered sections lying between 
the sections which we own in fee. 

We have built and are operating, approximately, 35 miles of logging railroad into this 
tract, the road branching from the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway right of way at 
Thoreau. The equipment of this railway consists of 4 locomotives and 200 logging cars. 

During the years 1904 and 1905 we cut approximately 35,000,000 feet each year. This 
year our operations are somewhat larger and we will probably reach a total of some 
50,000,000 feet. 

In our operations in the woods we employ as loggers and railroad operatives an average 
of about 250 men. At times when we are doing railroad construction work we employ a 
great many Navajo Indians and we find that they make excellent laborers for this kind of 
work. In connection with our logging and railroad operations in the woods we have estab- 
lished machine shops, and at our headquarters camp have established quite a settlement of 
married men. Largely through our endeavor, and with our financial assistance, there has 
been a public school established at our headquarters camp (Ketner), at which there is an 
average attendance of from 35 to 40 pupils, made up of children of our employees and of 
the children of neighboring ranchers. 

We have had under consideration and investigation the matter of reforesting and have 
decided to experiment by planting hardy Catalpa trees and are expecting to plant some 
several hundred thousands of trees this fall, putting them out in the draws and valleys 
where there is the best soil and where the experimental tracts can be fenced for protection 
against cattle and sheep. 

Our logs are brought from Thoreau to Albuquerque on our own cars. At Albuquerque 
we have a thoroughly modern sawmill, equipped with two band saws and a band resaw. At 
the present time we are running the sawmill double turn (twenty hours) and are cutting 
an average of about 325,000 feet of lumber per day. Owing to the character of the timber 
(an excellent quality of white pine, absolutely iwithout shake, but with a large percentage 
of knots, owing to the short body of the timber below branches) and of the long freight 
haul to market, we are manufacturing approximately 75 per cent of our cut into finished 
product of sash, doors, moldings, and boxes. Our sash and door factory is one of the 
largest in the country and we are producing on an average 1,100 doors and 1,800 windows 
per day of ten hours. Our box factory produces on an average 5 to 6 carloads of box 
shook per day of ten hours. 

In our operations at Albuquerque, including sawmills and factories, we employ on an 
average 850 men and boys. About 65 per cent of the employees at Albuquerque are 
native Mexicans. At first we found some difficulty in getting satisfactory work from this 
class of employees, but we find that they are learning rapidly and seem to appreciate the 
opportunity of steady employment at good wages, and a great many of the boys and younger 
men are proving themselves apt at learning the operation of machines and are anxious for 
advancement. The community seems pleased at this source of educating the natives to 
habits of industry and saving. 

Mr. E. L. Carpenter, of the Alamogordo Company, has made the 
following report regarding the operations of his concern: 

With the fiscal year ended June 30 the Alamogordo Lumber Company cut and manu- 
factured the following number of feet of lumber: 

Selects 938,593 

No. 1 common 14,346,895 

No. 2 common 3,660,257 

Total 18,945,745 

This was cut from approximately 3,100 acres. 

The daily capacity of our mill at Alamogordo on ten hours shift is 75,000 feet per day, 
but on account of numerous delays we suffer in our logging operations we very seldom 
reach the capacity. This company owns and controls 48,443 acres of land, from which we 
have cut the timber on 19,195 acres, approximately 115,170,000 feet, of which 96,224,255 
feet were cut under the old management. The average number of men employed is 160 
per day and the average wages $2.25 per day. 



90 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 

Our operations during the past two years have been conducted in Russian Canyon. We 
are about to move from that point to our timber in Cox Canyon. Adjoining these opera- 
tions are two school sections. We would be very glad to purchase the timber of these 
sections while we are operating at this point. Our operations will last about eighteen 
months. 

In the early part of this season my principals indicated that they desired to harvest our 
timber in accordance with principles outlined by the Government. With this end in view 
a representative of the Forest Department visited our operations and is making a report 
and recommendation on the same. 

When reviewing the matter ourselves we found that the length of time necessary for 
retimbering is so long that we would prefer to harvest all of the timber on our property over 
8 inches in diameter at the butt, and thereafter deed to the United States' Government 
unconditionally this cut-over land for the purpose, if they see fit, of retimbering and 
thereby creating a forest reserve. We have now somewhere in the neighborhood of 15,000 
acres that we would be glad to turn over to the Government. 

We shall in our future harvesting try to do as little damage as possible to young trees, 
which is evidenced by the fact that we are patrolling at our own expense this cut-over land 
daily to prevent fires, and such fires as have occurred during the present season were 
entirely due to carelessness of ranchers. 

RAILROADS. 

Railroad construction during the past year has kept abreast with 
the general progression of the Territory. Several new lines have 
been projected and actual construction work on some of these has 
been started. It is estimated that there are now fully 3,288 T V miles 
of railway in New Mexico. 

The principal new railway construction has been that on the East- 
ern Railway of New Mexico, between Belen and Texico, which, when 
completed, will form part of the transcontinental line of the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway system. The principal object of this 
road is to avoid the heavy grades of the Santa Fe System in northern 
New Mexico, so that the transportation of through freight to the Pacific 
coast may be cheapened. On June 30 there were in operation on 
this new line 70 miles between Texico and Sunnyside, and 55 miles 
between Belen and Willard. Some 60 miles more were almost com- 
pleted and it is expected to have the entire road in operation in 
November or December of this year. This line will open to settle- 
ment a vast area of land in Roosevelt, Torrance, and Guadalupe 
counties, which land has hitherto been considered useful only for the 
grazing of cattle and sheep. As will more fully appear in this report, 
already large areas of this land have been entered for settlement by 
homesteaders. 

Aside from the construction of this new line, at a cost of approxi- 
mately $10,000,000, the Santa Fe System has expended during the 
year on its road in New Mexico a sum in excess of $975,000. The 
major part of this amount was spent for the renewal of light pile 
bridges with heavy steel and concrete structures and in the ballasting 
of the track. In many parts of the main line the rail has been 
replaced with heavier sections. 

The St. Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific Railway is constructing 
a line of road from Elizabethtown, in western Colfax County, to Des 
Moines, in Union County, with a branch line to Raton. This line will 
give the rich coal fields in Colfax County an outlet to market. Already 
about 40 miles of this road are in operation. Another line, called the 
Santa Fe, Liberal and Englewood, practically between the same 
places, is projected, and its construction, it is said, will soon be 
commenced. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 91 

While construction work has not been started on the Southern 
Pacific's projected line from Morenci, in Graham County, Ariz., through 
Socorro, Valencia, McKinley, and San Juan counties, to the coal 
fields of Durango, Colo., the survey, I am assured, has been com- 
pleted and it is the intention of the promoters to start its construction 
at an early date. This road will be of the greatest advantage to New 
Mexico, opening a section of country which has hitherto been cut off 
from railway communication. 

A line of road is projected from Torrance, the terminal of the Santa 
Fe Central line, to Roswell. Although as yet no definite information 
has been received which would warrant the statement, I have been 
told that the men back of the projected line will soon begin construc- 
tion. There is good reason for believing that at no great distant date 
this line will be built as a part of a line connecting Colorado points 
with the Gulf of Mexico ports. 

The El Paso and Northeastern Railway, between El Paso and Santa 
Rosa, and the Dawson Coal Lines, between Dawson and Tucumcari, 
having passed into the hands of the owners of the El Paso and South- 
western, have been greatly improved. Rock-crushing plants have 
been established along the lines of these roads, and it is the intention 
of the new owner of these lines to rock ballast the entire system. 
Already some of this work has been started. 

The Denver and Rio Grande System has constructed about 30 
miles of new road during the past year. This is a narrow-gauge sys- 
tem. While I have no authentic information, it is currently reported 
that within the next few years this system's line in New Mexico and 
southern Colorado will be replaced by a standard-gauge road. 

LABOR. 

Owing to the great prosperity prevailing in all parts of the United 
States and to the opening up of new coal deposits in the Territory 
and to other causes, the supply of labor in New Mexico is at the pres- 
ent time very short. In Colfax County the Dawson Coal Company 
has started the new town of Dawson in the midst of the coal fields 
owned by that company. They have expended about $3,000,000 in 
building the town, putting in 450 new coke ovens, power plants, elec- 
tric roads, and other equipment, and will soon have buildings enough 
to house a population of 6,000 people and insure a very large produc- 
tion of coal and coke from their mines. They are, however, seriously 
handicapped by their inability to secure anywhere near the required 
number of laborers. 

• This is also true of the other coal interests in Colfax County, who 
all together will probably employ many more men than the Dawson 
interests. What is true in regard to coal mines also applies to rail- 
roads, which are also seriousty handicapped in their new construction 
and in the repairing of the old lines by the lack of laborers. 

All these interests are using their utmost efforts to find laborers in 
the eastern cities, but so far only with slight success, and representa- 
tions have been made by them to the Department of Commerce and 
Labor looking toward obtaining permission from the Government, 
under the extraordinary circumstances, to permit them to import 
laborers from foreign countries. 

In the towns also, owing to the large amount of building, the neces- 
sary supply of skilled laborers and mechanics is very hard to obtain. 



92 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

IRRIGATION. 

The last annual report of my predecessor contained the full state- 
ment as to the various irrigation projects of the United States 
Reclamation Service in New Mexico. 

Since that report was issued work has been pushed forward rapidly 
upon the Hondo project near Roswell. The storage reservoir and 
the inlet canal have been practically completed, and it is reasonable 
to expect that this great irrigation system will be ready for use for the 
irrigation season of 1907. This will bring under cultivation 10,000 
acres of alluvial soil in the Hondo Valley adjacent to the city of 
Roswell. It will add materially to the wealth and prosperity of that 
section of the Territory. 

By an order of the Secretary of the Interior the canals, dams, and 
flumes of the Pecos Irrigation Company, in the vicinity of Carlsbad, 
in Eddy County, have been taken over by the Reclamation Service. 
If this action had not been taken by the Federal Government, a large 
farming community would have been ruined and investments of 
many thousands of dollars would have gone for naught. Work has 
been started by the Government on the Lake Avalon diversion dam, 
on the Pecos River, and upon the flume and main canal. It is con- 
fidently expected that water will be available before the next irrigat- 
ing season for the watering of approximately 15,000 acres of land. 
Ultimately a much larger area than this will be placed under irrigation. 

The first unit in the great Elephant Butte irrigation project has 
also been decided upon by the Federal Government. The Elephant 
Butte Water Users' Association made a proposition to the Secretary 
of the Interior that if the Government would advance $200,000 for the 
building of a diversion dam the members of the association would 
guarantee to refund this money to the Government within two years. 
This proposal was accepted, but it was found that the association 
was unable to carry out the refund clause in the stipulated time. 
After strong representations had been made to the Department as 
to the dire exigencies of this case and the extreme need of the people 
of the Mesilla Valley, the original agreement of the Water Users' 
Association was changed to meet the emergency. The Department 
consented to extend the refund time from two to ten years. This 
action saved the people of the valley from ruin. The project will 
ultimately result in the reclamation of the land in the vicinity of 
Elephant Buttes — a tract consisting of 180,000 acres. When the 
project is completed, Dona Ana County will have one of the greatest 
irrigation systems in the United States and will then rank as one of 
the richest counties in New Mexico. 

The Government has favorably considered the Las Vegas project, 
which, if carried out, will irrigate about 10,000 acres of land in the 
vicinity of Las Vegas, impounding the waters of the Gallinas and other 
streams. The reservoir site is one of the most remarkable in the 
Territory, and while the cost per acre of the land irrigated will be 
rather high, the success of the project, if carried to completion by 
the Government, can not be doubted. A large share of the produce 
consumed in Las Vegas is shipped into that city from Kansas and 
Colorado. With 10,000 acres of irrigated land not only this city, 
but much of the surrounding country could be supplied from near 
home with its grain, hay, and garden truck. The people of the 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 93 

community are so alive to the necessity of the building of the project 
that they have procured written agreements from a large number of 
residents and farmers to take up land under the proposed system, 
enter into a water users' association, and cultivate the land in small 
areas. I very respectfully urge that this project receive your serious 
consideration. 

Besides these four large projects there are a number of smaller irri- 
gation schemes either in construction or under contemplation. 
Among these are the Blue Water project, in Valencia County; Urton 
Lake project, in Chaves County; the Jaritas project, Colfax County, 
and several private projects. 

Large areas of land have been temporarily withdrawn from entry 
in San Juan County, in the vicinity of Aztec and Farmington, pend- 
ing further investigation on the part of the Reclamation Service of 
the feasibility of the Las Animas and La Plata projects. Owing to 
the great expense involved in securing the necessary dam site near 
the city of Durango, Colo., and the large area of magnificent farms 
that the impounded water would cover there, I understand that the 
Las Animas project has practically been abandoned. Owing to 
the limited area of irrigable lands in the Las Animas Valley below the 
Colorado line not already appropriated or not withdrawn from entry, 
and the great demand for such lands in this very beautiful and 
highly productive section of San Juan County, it would be very 
desirable if a decision could be speedily reached by the Federal Gov- 
ernment as to the practicability of both the Las Animas and La Plata 
grojects. While the people of this section greatly desire to obtain 
rovernment aid for the reclamation of their unirrigated lands, they 
are also anxious, if these projects be found to be infeasible, to have the 
lands now withdrawn thrown open to entry, so that they may be 
developed by private enterprise. 

No section in New Mexico, and few in any part of the Western 
States, offer better opportunities for intensive and profitable farm- 
ing by means of irrigation than the valleys of the Las Animas and 
San Juan rivers, in northern San Juan County. Already there are 
several thousand acres of as beautiful orchards and alfalfa fields as 
can be seen anywhere, and there is scarcely anything in the way of 
small fruits, vegetables, and cereals that will not grow there success- 
fully. The land is generally splendid and the supply of water very 
large and sure, the danger of drought being much less than in most 
irrigated sections. Several private enterprises, besides those already 
in operation, are contemplating the building of irrigation systems. 
Among these is the Eden Ditch Company, which proposes to take 
water out of the Animas near the Colorado line to irrigate some 25,000 
acres on the Crouch Mesa, a splendid stretch of rich table-land lying 
between the Animas and San Juan rivers, and as rich and well situ- 
ated a piece of land as can be found anywhere. 

What can be done by a combination of good land, an abundant 
water supply for irrigation, intelligence, hard work, and money is, 
perhaps, better illustrated in the Pecos Valley than in any other part 
of New Mexico. 

This irrigated and irrigable part of the valley begins at Roswoll, 
in Chaves County, and extends south for a distance of about 90 
miles to a point in Eddy County. 



94 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Near the city of Roswell are three immense natural springs whose 
flow is about 200 cubic feet of water per second. Soon after the 
close of the civil war this region was occupied by men mostly from 
Texas and other Southwestern States for the purpose of raising 
cattle on the immense plains covered by a luxuriant growth of grass. 
They were at first attracted by the wonderful supply of clear spring 
water for stock purposes, but soon saw the value of it for raising 
crops by irrigation, and took up most of the land which could be 
irrigated, appropriating the water, dug irrigating ditches, planted 
fruit and other trees which they brought in by wagons and ox teams 
fully 400 miles across the plains. This work, which began about 
thirty years ago, was the beginning of the great agricultural develop- 
ment by means of irrigation in the Pecos Valley. For many years it 
was about 400 miles from any railroad, and the settlers were har- 
rassed by Indians and other outlaws. They planted a few apple, 
peach, plum, cherry, and other fruit trees, demonstrated that mag- 
nificent fruits could be raised there, and furnished an object lesson to 
encourage others to undertake the raising of fruits on a large scale 
after the advent of a railroad furnished means to get fruit to market. 

Up to 1889 probably not more than 2,000 acres of land all told was 
under a rude sort of cultivation in the Roswell country, and that 
was the only irrigated land in the whole Pecos Valley. With this 
exception the whole of what is now Chaves and Eddy counties was 
one vast cattle and sheep pasture, inhabited by probably not more 
than 1,000 people, all told. But besides its good land and good cli- 
mate, it had several advantages over some other parts of the Terri- 
tory. It had no old Mexican land grants to embarrass titles. All 
the land was public domain, open to settlement by any man who 
wanted to use it. The water available for irrigation had not been 
appropriated in the dim past by people who would make little use of 
it themselves nor let more enterprising people use it. These facts 
gave an opportunity to enterprising men with capital to carry out 
plans for irrigating on a large scale. 

In 1889 the Pecos Irrigation and Investment Company was formed, 
a large sum of money was raised, overambitious plans for large 
irrigation works were formed, and work began. What is now known 
as the Northern Canal, 35 miles long and capable of carrying 120 
cubic feet of water per second, was built in 1890 and 1891. In the 
same years the great irrigation canal and storage reservoirs in Eddy 
County were built. These latter works are capable of irrigating about 
30,000 acres of land. 

In 1890 a railroad was built from Pecos City, Tex., to Carlsbad, 
N. Mex., putting the lower part of the valley into communication 
with the outer world. In 1894 this road was extended to Roswell, 
and in 1898 it was extended to Amarillo, Tex., thus giving the whole 
Pecos Valley and the country tributary to it a direct connection with 
the great northern markets, and with Colorado. Until this connec- 
tion was completed the Pecos Valley, and the irrigating schemes, 
which cost very large sums of money, had an}^thing but a happy 
financial history. But this means of exit gave it both an easy outlet 
to market for its products and an easy means for new people from the 
populous East to reach the valley. From that date, 1899, the won- 
derful development of the valley began. This was caused not only 
by the railroad but by the discovery that artesian water could be 



GOVERNOR OP NEW MEXTCO. 95 

obtained in very large quantities by putting down wells from 400 to 
1,000 feet deep. This unrivaled artesian belt begms at Roswell and 
runs south along the west side of the Pecos River a distance of 55 
miles, and is from 5 to 9 miles in width. Artesian water is also found 
in some places on the east side of the river, but most of it is on the 
west side. The wells near Roswell are from 350 to 600 feet deep, 
but in the middle and southern part of the belt they vary from 750 
feet to as deep in a few places as 1,200 feet. They vary in flow from 
300 to 2,400 gallons per minute, depending on the size of the hole and 
the density or degree of porosity of the water rock. There are proba- 
bly 400 artesian wells in the district, more are being sunk continually, 
and are most successfully being used for irrigation. Beautiful and 
profitable farms have been created by this ma°;ic touch of water on 
lands which until then were worthless. They have created thriving 
towns in places where three or four years ago were only arid wastes. 
What this artesian supply of water will finally extend to no one can 
yet tell, but its future is extremely promising. Raw lands in the 
artesian belt which five years ago could be bought for $2 or $3 an 
acre are now worth ten times as muck. 

The United States Reclamation Service has just completed works 
on the Hondo River, near Roswell, which will irrigate from 12,000 to 
15,000 acres of extremely productive land. It has also taken over 
and is now reconstructing the irrigation works near Carlsbad, which 
were so badly damaged by floods in 1904 that their owners were not 
able to repair them. 

The total irrigated and irrigable area of the Pecos Valley can be 
roughly estimated as follows: 

Acres. 

By the big springs and old ditches near Roswell 18, 000 

By the Hondo reservoir 13, 000 

By the Northern Canal 12, 000 

By the reclamation works at Carlsbad 25, 000 

By means of artesian wells, probably 30, 000 

Possibly by the latter means twice as much land in time can be cul- 
tivated. It is hardly unreasonable to expect that within ten or 
fifteen years there may be 150,000 acres of land in intense cultivation 
in the Pecos Valley. It is well known that after dry land has been 
irrigated and properly cultivated for a few years, very much less water 
is required to produce good crops. It has been found in the Hager- 
man-Felix irrigation district that' much better crops are now being 
raised with one-half the water per acre than was used ten years ago. 

Ten years ago in the whole Pecos Valley there were probably 4,000 
people and $200,000 on deposit in its two banks. There were no bear- 
ing orchards and nothing to ship out but a few cattle raised on the 
plains. There are now, as near as can be estimated, 25,000 people. 
There are nine banks with deposits of about $2,000,000. The oldest 
of these banks has $800,000 on deposit. There are very large ship- 
ments of cattle, fat sheep, fat hogs, alfalfa, wool, apples, peaches, 
pears, plums, celery, and other vegetables. One orchard shipped 
130 carloads of apples in the fall of 1905. There are 4,500 acres of 
apple trees planted, and some of them in bearing, in the Hagerman 
irrigation district alone. One station which shipped nothing only 
five years ago will ship 1,000 carloads of alfalfa to Texas this year. 
Within five years Chaves County can ship at least 1,000 carloads of 
apples from orchards now planted. 



96 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 

The distinct tendency in the Pecos Valley is for the irrigated lands 
to be divided into small farms, varying from 20 to 80 acres, and 
worked by the owner and his family. The large tracts, originally 
taken up under the desert land act, are being sold by their original 
owners, who seldom made good use of them, in small tracts to good 
farmers from the Middle and Mississippi Valley States. The latter 
are usually educated, intelligent, and industrious men who expect 
to win and do win by hard work and common sense. In no part of 
the United States is more attention paid to schools, churches, and 
other civilizing influences. They take an active and beneficial part 
in local politics, and will soon make themselves felt in the Territorial 
government. 

There are many localities in New Mexico where the history of the 
Pecos Valley can be repeated by an intelligent use of their natural 
resources. Much is to be hoped from the Government Reclamation 
Service. Very much is to be hoped from the English education of 
our Spanish-speaking people who, in many localities quite as much 
favored by nature as the Pecos Valley, own both the land and water, 
but for want of a knowledge of the modern way of doing things have 
made little or no progress, while the Pecos Valley has grown from 
almost nothing to what it now is. 

AGRICULTURE. 

It is very noticeable that both in the irrigated and nonirrigated 
parts of the Territory a much greater variety of crops is being suc- 
cessfully raised than heretofore. In the irrigated sections of the 
Pecos Valley and the Rio Grande Valley the farmers are very suc- 
cessful in the cultivation of crops which two or three years ago they 
did not believe could be raised at all. Alfalfa, Kaffir corn, milo 
maize, and a limited variety of vegetables were formerly the prin- 
cipal products of the Pecos Valley, and it was commonly believed 
that other crops could not be successfully grown. Now, however, 
oats, barley, millet, rye, Indian corn, and a much greater variety of 
vegetables are seen everywhere. 

The fall planting of small grains is being successfully carried on. 
In the nonirrigated farming sections around Tucumcari careful 
farmers have successfully raised potatoes, beans, peanuts, onions, 
Indian corn, millet, and other crops. There is no doubt but that 
in the Mesilla Valley and on the lands which will be irrigated by the 
Hondo project sugar beets will be raised with great success, insuring 
a new industry to the Territory. 

In the small mountain valleys in many parts of New Mexico, on 
Indian agencies and elsewhere, oats are raised with the greatest 
success. The amount of wheat raised along the Rio Grande Valley 
is constantly increasing, and there is no reason why a considerable 
proportion of the flour used in the Territory should not be made 
within its boundaries. 

PUBLIC LANDS. 

Much productive agricultural land, open to settlement under the 
homestead laws, lies within the Territory of New Mexico. The past 
year has witnessed a deal of this land converted from Government 
desert wastes into farms and ranches. Especially is this true of the 
country south of Santa Fe, in the Estancia Valley, where hundreds 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



97 



of settlers have found homes. Other sections of the Territory have 
also shown a great growth in settlements, as is made manifest by the 
number of homestead entries at the Clayton and Lincoln land offices. 

According to the figures furnished to me by the registers of the 
four United States land offices in New Mexico there were 6,108 
homestead entries made during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906. 
These entries' show that more than 1,000,000 acres of land were 
settled during the twelve months. Besides the homestead entries, 
840 desert claims, comprising 150,895 acres of land, were recorded. 

On July 1, 1906, there were 49,890,637 acres of Government land 
within the Territory open to settlement. Of this vast domain 
35,723,934 acres have been surveyed, while 14,116,703 acres are 
unsurveyed. The total area of all the land within New Mexico is 
78,428,800 acres, 28,500,000 of which is reserved and appropriated 
for various purposes. 

The following table shows the location of the reserved and unre- 
served Government land: 

Public lands in the Territory of New Mexico. 



District land offices. 


Area of unreserved and unappro- 
priated public land. 


Area of 

reserved 

land. 


Area of ap- 
propriated 
land. 


Total area 
of land 


Surveyed. 


Unsur- 
veyed. 


Total. 


surface in 
the land 
districts. 




A cres. 

7,076,«47 
10,371,741 

5,858,021 
12,417,325 


A cres. 
5,710,509 
2,737,018 
399,844 
5,319,332 


A cres. 
12,787,356 
13,108,759 

6,257,867 
17,736,657 


Acres. 
1,271,904 
5,164,579 
113,275 
1,895,960 


A cres. 
2,783,950 
13,195,252 
2,475,666 
1,637,374 


A cres. 
16,843,210 
31,468,590 

8,847,000 
21,270 000 










Total 


35,723.934 


14,166,703 


49,890,637 


8,445,718 


20,092,242 


78,428,800 





Land entries f 


or the year, ended June 30 


1906. 






District land offices. 


Total homestead 
entries. 


Desert-land 
entries. 


Lieu settlements. 




No. 


Acres. 


No. 


Acres. 


No. 


Acres. 


Lincoln district 


2,324 

1,466 

1,958 

360 


365,126 

224,953 

472,920 

52,576 


419 
155 
127 
139 


76,624 
25,473 
20,000 
28,798 


26 
15 


1,518 




5,807 
















Total 


6,108 


1,115,575 


840 


150,895 


41 


7,325 





The above table does not include the coal, mineral, small holding, 
nor cash entries. 

The districts are composed of the following counties:* 

Lincoln district. — Ghaves, Eddy, Guadalupe, Lincoln, Otero, Roose- 
velt, and Torrance. 

Santa Fe district. — Bernalillo, Colfax, Guadalupe, McKinley, Mora, 
Rio Arriba, Sandoval, San Juan, San Miguel, Santa Fe, Socorro, Taos, 
part of Torrance, and Valencia. 

Clayton district. — Golfax, Guadalupe, Mora, Quay, Roosevelt, San 
Miguel, and Union. 

Las Cruces district. — Dona Ana, Grant, Luna, Otero, Sierra, and 
Socorro. 

« Many of the counties are so situated that they he partly in two land office districts. 



98 ANNUAL REPORTS OP THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

According to the report of the Territorial land commissioner, there 
has been issued during the past year 222 leases of common school 
lands, netting the school fund $4,413.75. In addition to these leases 
eight leases of institutional lands were issued, netting an income 
of $192. The total income derived from Territorial lands was 
$16,597.59. 

The following table shows the receipts and disbursements made by 
the land commissioner: 



Leases of common school land,* approved by the Secretary of the In- 
terior $4, 413. 75 

Deferred payment notes, account common school land leases 2, 739. 00 

Interest on deferred payment notes, account common school land 

leases 75. 23 

Assignment fees, account common school land leases 72. 00 

Timber sales 1,600.00 

$8, 899. 98 

Leases on file in the Department of the Interior awaiting approval 514. 34 

Incomplete applications for leases 302. 20 

Leases on institutional lands 192. 00 

Deferred payment notes, account institutional land leases 60. 00 

Interest on deferred payment notes, account institutional land leases 2 72 

Right of way over university lands 100. 00 

Timber sales on institutional lands 5, 750. 35 

Rentals, account Palace building 676. 00 

M. O. Llewellyn, special disbursing agent of the United States land commission. 100. 00 



16, 597. 59 

DISBUESEMENTS. 

Deposited with Territorial treasurer 15, 78i. 05 

Cash in bank 816. 54 

Total 16, 597. 59 

UNITED STATES LAND COMMISSION. 

The following amount of land has been selected and located on the 
ground in the several United States land districts by Mr. David M. 
White, the locating agent of the United States land commission of 
New Mexico, by direction of the commission, for the benefit of Ter- 
ritorial institutions since June 30, 1905: 



Institutions. 


Date. 


United States land 
district. 


Acreage. 




Sept. 27, 1905 
Feb. 19,1906 


Santa Fe 


17, 152. 59 


Do 




6,399.00 
12,355.45 


Do 










Total... 


35,907.04 









The larger portion of this land is agricultural in character, and is so 
located as to oe susceptible of irrigation. 



COAL,. 



The vast beds of coal within the confines of the Territory of New 
Mexico constitute one of the chief resources of the Territory, and the 
coal-mining industry is fast assuming rank in the foreground of our 
industrial pursuits. The coal fields of New Mexico embrace an area 



GOVERNOR OP NEW MEXICO. 99 

of more than 1,000,000 acres, and the available quantity of coal con- 
tained therein is more than 8,000,000,000 of tons. Of the total avail- 
able resources of coal in the Territory, about 35 per cent is within the 
boundaries of Colfax County, 25 per cent in each of the counties of 
McKinley and San Juan, and the remaining 15 per cent distributed 
in the counties of Santa Fe, Rio Arriba, Lincoln, Socorro, and 
Sandoval. 

During the past fiscal year vast strides have been made toward the 
development of the coal mines of New Mexico. In Colfax County 
the Dawson Fuel Company has opened three new mines, and has built 
450 new coke ovens. This company anticipates an increase in pro- 
duction of the mines from the former output of 2,000 tons per day to 
6,000 tons per day within the next two years, as miners can be 
obtained and equipment increased. The St. Louis, Rocky Moun- 
tain and Pacific Company is opening new mines at Kohler, a new 
coal-mining camp on the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific Rail- 
road. The St. Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific Railroad is being 
built from Elizabethtown, Colfax County, N. Mex., to Des Moines, 
Union County, N. Mex., a distance of 78 miles. It will connect with 
the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad at Raton, N. Mex., and 
with the Colorado and Southern Railroad at Des Moines. This road 
will furnish an outlet for the coal production of the mines' of the St. 
Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific Company, also for the great 
quantity of timber which is found in Ponil Park and adjacent country. 

The Yankee Fuel Company, and associated companies, have 
opened extensive coal mines on Johnson and Barela Mesas, Colfax 
County. The Santa Fe, Raton and Eastern Railroad has been 
built to the mines and gives an outlet for the product over the Atchi- 
son, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The Santa Fe, Raton and Des 
Moines Railroad, now under construction, will furnish connection 
with the Colorado and Southern Railroad. An extension of this 
line, the Santa Fe, Liberal and Englewood Railroad, also under con- 
struction, will have a length of 231 miles, through Kansas and 
Oklahoma, and will open new markets to New Mexico coal and 
other products. 

The American Fuel Company, at Gallup, N. Mex., has made 
extensive development upon the Weaver and Heaton mines and has 
large reserves of coal ready for extraction to supply the Pacific coast 
markets, as well as demands of the Southwest nearer home, during the 
coming winter months. 

The mines of Carthage, Socorro County, have been reopened by the 
Carthage Fuel Company, and the New Mexican Midland Railroad, a 
road 14 miles in length, has been built to transport the coal from the 
mines to the main line of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail- 
road at San Antonio, N. Mex., whence it is shipped to the various 
towns of the Southwest. 

With the aforementioned increase in development and equipment 
of the mines it is evident that the output of the New Mexico coal 
mines will be greatly increased in the immediate future. 

During the past fiscal year there were directly employed at the 
coal mines of New Mexico 2,290 men and 64 boys, an increase of 247 
men and 12 boys over the preceding fiscal year. Indirectly four 
times that number of men are employed in the operation of the 
mines, cutting and hauling timber, maintaining hotels, boarding 



100 ANNUAL. REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

houses, and mercantile establishments aX the mines, and in transpor- 
tation of the coal to market by railroads. 

The gross production of the mines for the past fiscal year was 
1,794,228 tons; amount used in operating the mines, 67,490 tons; 
net product snipped, 1,726,738 tons; value of net product at the 
mines, $2,279,940. 

Increase of net production over preceding fiscal year, 254,636 tons; 
percentage of increase over preceding fiscal year, 17.29. 

All tonnage calculated at 2,000 pounds per ton. 

Operators of the mines are ever ready to follow instructions tend- 
ing to the safety of the miners and voluntarily solicitous for the wel- 
fare of their employees. 

There have been no strikes or disagreements of any importance 
within the Territory during the year and the operators and employees 
seem to be equally satisfied with existing conditions. 

That the coal and coke industry will grow in importance each year 
for many years to come is evidenced by the fact that the demand is 
always in excess of the supply. So great has been the demand for 
coke that thousands of tons have been shipped from Connellsville, 
Pa., and from Australia to the smelters of California, Arizona, and 
old Mexico during the past fiscal year. About 500 new coke ovens 
are in course of construction and 500 more contemplated for the 
ensuing year. To operate these ovens would necessitate an increased 
production of coal amounting to 30 per cent. 

In addition to the demand for coke there has always been a short- 
age of coal in the markets of the Pacific coast and of the Southwest 
during the fall and winter months. 

With these persistent demands for the production of the mines, and 
the increased facilities for production, the coal-mining industry in 
New Mexico has very bright prospects in the immediate future. 

GOVERNMENT COAL LANDS. 

A Government order, of great interest to the people of the entire 
country as well as to the citizens of New Mexico, was issued recently 
by the Secretary of the Interior withdrawing from entry certain 
Government coal lands. A large area of these lands lies within New 
Mexico. Just what disposition the Government is to make of the 
lands reserved is not known, but it is presumed that they are to be 
held by the Federal Government to assure the people of the country 
a permanent coal supply. 

How rich in coal these lands are is not known. Their wealth has 
never been explored; but as they lie within the great coal belt of 
New Mexico it is fair to suppose that they contain as much high- 
grade fuel as the lands adjacent to them and situated within the 
same region held by private corporations. These mines are noted 
for their richness throughout the Southwest. 

MINING. 

Mining was carried on in New Mexico long before it was carried on 
in any other part of the Territory now comprised in the area of the 
United States. It was the fabled riches of gold and silver which 
attracted the first Spanish expeditions to this country in the sixteenth 
century, and the hope of great profits ill these precious metals was 



GOVERNOE OF NEW MEXICO. 101 

the impetus which induced those early pioneers to endure the hard- 
ships connected with their expeditions into what is now New Mexico. 
Owing to the fact that the natives were practically enslaved by the 
Spaniards and made to work in the mines without remuneration of 
any kind, it is evident that much low-grade ore could be worked 
there, which under modern conditions can not be profitably han- 
dled. As in old Mexico, so, too, in New Mexico, it is astounding to 
find the number of different localities which were discovered by these 
pioneers of the Old World despite the difficulties they had to contend 
with. While they discovered and superficially worked many dif- 
ferent ore deposits, their operations here, as in old Mexico, were in 
but few instances thorough. They rarely penetrated the overlying 
porphyry or sunk deep development shafts or long tunnels, but, in 
the case of lodes, confined themselves to following the veins from 
their outcrops, however sinuous might be the course they had to 
pursue, and few of their placer workings show exhaustive work. 

Owing to the fact that so many of the mining districts of the Ter- 
ritory were thus superficially worked by the old Spaniards and to 
the fact that the surface and cheaply mined deposits were exhausted, 
there has been a general apathy among mining men in recent years 
in regard to the prospecting or working of old mines. The inaccu- 
rate and sometimes fanciful stories connected with the early produc- 
tion of these mines have often given them an entirely fictitious value, 
discouraging their further development under modern methods. 
Until quite recently large operators have been loath to take them 
up, and New Mexico has been more handicapped than aided by the 
forlner mining operations of her early settlers. It has been easier to 
secure capital for the exploitation of new and untouched regions than 
to induce it to undertake the further development of old properties, 
although there is no doubt but that many of these properties, by deep 
mining and systematic development, would prove large and steady 
producers. That such is the case is already proven in various locali- 
ties, and it is hoped that a certain prejudice which has been apparent 
against New Mexico among large mining operators during recent 
years has worn off and that from now on the vast mineral wealth 
which the Territory most certainly contains will be properly recog- 
nized in the mining world. 

Besides the most prominent mining regions in Grant and Socorro 
counties, to which especial attention is called in this report, there are 
many districts in Sierra, Lincoln, Otero, Taos, Santa Fe, Dona Ana, 
Luna, and Colfax counties which offer to the prospector and investor 
the most flattering opportunities. 

According to the report of Prof. F. A. Jones, field assistant of the 
United States Geological Survey, there has been a steadier and more 
healthful growth and tone in mining in New Mexico during the past 
year than has been experienced for a decade since the decline in the 
price of silver. This optimistic report is confirmed by the statements 
of other mining experts. 

Development work in the southwestern portion of the Territory 
and in Socorro County is especially active, and it is predicted that 
the output from these districts will gradually but steadily increase 
for many years to come. 
241 b— 07 8 



102 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Eliminating iron, the following table shows the metallic output of 
the Territory for the year 1905: 

Metallic production of New Mexico in 1905. 



Metal. 


Unit. 


Quantity. 


Price per 
unit. 


Value. 


Gold 


Fine ounces 


19, 162 

396, 082 

6, 522, 823 

5, 387, 192 

8,164,204 




$396, 112 

241, 609 

1,024,083 

253, 198 

481 688 


Silver 


do 


$0.61 
.157 
4.70 
5.90 








do 




do 








Total value 


2,396,690 











The mineral wealth by counties, always an item of great interest, 
is shown in the following tables. These figures are as near authentic 
as it is possible to obtain, as they are taken from the report of Pro- 
fessor Jones : 



Metallic 'production of New Mexico in 1905 from lode 


mines, by counties. 




County. 


Oie sold or 
treated. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Short tons. 

2,542 

84, 627 

4,200 

1,377 

20 

100 

100 

138 

1,300 

39,099 

2 


Fine oz. 
25. 83 
4,737.06 
2, 661. 88 


$534 
97,923 
55, 026 


Fine oz. 

22,773 

100, 622 

1,108 

2,526 

90 

1,800 


$13, 891 

61, 379 

676 

1,541 

55 

1,098 


Pounds. 

100,962 

5,906,427 


$15,851 
927,309 




Lincoln 










1.93 
122. 73 


40 
2,537 


3,599 


565 








5,038 


791 




54.14 
1, 656. 99 
5,713.10 


1,119 
34. 253 
118, 100 


3 

17,774 

249,256 


2 

10, 842 

152,046 






51,134 

454, 663 

1,000 


8,028 

71,382 

157 


















Total 


133, 505 


14,973.66 


309, 532 


395,952 


241, 530 


6,522,823 


1,024,083 





County. 


Lead. 


Zinc. 


Ore shipped to smelter. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Dona Ana 


Pounds. 
367,915 
1,300,468 


$17,292 
61, 122 


Pounds. 
36,000 
94, 323 


$2, 124 
5,565 


Tons. 

673 
29, 425 


$22,716 


Grant 


737, 456 








593, 192 


27,880 


350,000 


20,650 


1,377 
20 


50,071 




660 




11,000 


517 


































1,000 
3,113,617 


47 
146, 340 






165 

21, 455 

2 


20, 441 


Socorro 


7,683,881 


453, 349 


630, 428 




157 














Total 


5, 387, 192 


253, 198 


8, 164, 204 


481,688 


53, 117 


1,461.929 







County. 


Ore milled. 


Concentrates shipped 
to smelter. 


Tailings treated by 
cyanide. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Tons. 

1,869 

55, 202 

4,200 

100 

100 

138 

1,135 

17, 644 


$26,976 

415,842 

55,702 

4,152 

791 

1,121 

32, 729 

310, 629 


Tons. 
546 
9,840 


$26,039 
415, 494 


Tons. 


















25 


1,935 
























190 
1,356 


5,185 
149, 2U2 






Socorro 


15,654 


$148,599 




















Total 


80,388 


847,942 


11,957 


597,855 


15,654 


148,599 







GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 

Production of placer gold in New Mexico in 1905, by counties. 



103 



County. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Colfax . 


Fine ounces. 
1,756.74 
423. 62 
160.03 
24.29 
28.35 
33.77 
101. 30 
1,634.11 
26.12 


$36,315 

8,757 

3,308 

502 

586 

698 

2,094 

33, 780 

540 


Fine ounces. 

125 

5 


$76 
3 




Lincoln 


Otero 






K io A rriba 












Santa Fe 












Taos 












Total 


4, 188. 33 


86,580 


130 


79 





Source of gold and silver product of New Mexico in 1905, by classification of 


ore. 


Source of product. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Fine ounces. 

8, 457. 13 

6,387.80 

128. 73 

4, 188. 33 


$174, 824 

132,047 

2,661 

86,580 


Fine ounces. 

248, 438 

79, 408 

68, 106 

130 


$151,547 

48,438 

41,545 

79 












Total 


19, 161. 99 


396, 112 


396,082 


241, 609 





Average value of ore product per ton in New Mexico in 1905. 



Character of product. 



Quantity. 



Average 
value. 



Crude ore: 

Entire production 

Shipped to smelter 

Milled or concentrated 

Concentrates shipped to smelter 
Product by cyanide treatment . . 



Short tons. 
133,505 
53, 117 
80, 388 
11,957 
15,654 



$17. 30 
27.52 
10.54 
50.00 
9.49 



The above tables show a noticeable increase in the production of 
copper, due to the uncovering of large bodies of ore of a low grade 
in the Burro Mountains, chiefly at the St. Louis mine. 

During the past year there have been in operation, either continu- 
ously or spasmodically, 23 milling plants of all descriptions. In 
Grant County the completion of a 250-ton copper smelting plant, 
and a 50-ton lead stack at Deming, Luna County, have greatly 
stimulated mining operations, nearly doubling the metallic output 
of those sections. 

GRANT COUNTY. 

Grant County, in the southwestern part of the Territory, leads all 
other counties in metallic production. This lead was lost to Socorro 
in 1904, but the following year Grant again took first place in min- 
eral production. Two development projects are chiefly responsible 
for Grant resuming its time-honored position — the building of a 
narrow-gauge railroad to the Pinos Altos mines and the restoration 
of the Silver City Reduction Works. The discovery of vast deposits 
of low-grade copper ore in the Burro Mountains is significant as to 



104 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

the future of Grant County as a copper producer. According to 
Professor Jones, the whole of the county lies in the great copper 
belt of the Southwest, that is famed the world over for its output 
of the red metal. 

Pinos Altos, 9 miles north of Silver City, is the leading gold camp, 
the precious metal being discovered there in 1860 by a party of 
Forty-niners who drifted into the country from California. The 
mines are both lode and placer. The general trend of the ore bodies 
is to the northeast and the dip averages about 30° toward the north- 
west. Heavy sulphides of copper, iron, zinc, and lead, carrying 
values in both gold and silver, is the character of the ore. Zinc 
blende always shows more prominently at increased depth throughout 
the district. The placer gold evidently resulted from the disin- 
tegration of the cpiartz seams and the porphyritic dikes which 
traverse the district, and could not have been transported any 
appreciable distance. The fineness of the placer gold is 0.775. The 
production of the Pinos Altos district from the time of its discovery 
to the first of the present year will approximate $5,000,000. A 
railroad from Silver City to Pinos Altos is now in course of con- 
struction by the Comanche Mining and Smelting Company, owning 
the smelting plant at Silver City, and will be completed during the 

E resent year. This will greatly facilitate the transportation of ores 
•om the district and will permit the working of many low-grade 
properties which it has heretofore been unprofitable to operate. 

The Central district lies immediately southeast of Pinos Altos and 
7 miles east of Silver City. It embraces the subdistricts of Hanover, 
Fierro, Santa Rita, and other outlying points. Practically contem- 
poraneous with the discovery of gold at Pinos Altos this district 
sprang into existence. The copper mines at Santa Rita, however, 
were known as early as 1800. By far the most noted mine in the 
Central district, and perhaps in the United States, historically con- 
sidered, is the renowned copper mine at Santa Rita. This mine 
was discovered by an Indian in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, who afterwards revealed his secret in 1800 to Col. Manuel 
Carrasco, a commandant in the Spanish army, who had charge of 
the military posts at that time through certain portions of New Mexico. 
The present ownership of this historical mine is in the Santa Rita 
Mining Company, which company purchased the property from 
J. Parker Whitney in 1899. The estimated production of the Santa 
Rita property from the time of its discovery to date is approximately 
100,000,000 pounds of metallic copper. The principal part of the 
Santa Rita camp is owned by the Santa Rita Mining Company. 
The greater part of the mining is done by a system of leasing. 

Passing across the low divide from Santa Rita, in going west, the 
Hanover gulch is encountered, and 2 miles north is the camp of 
Fierro. Prominent among the various properties at Fierro are the 
Anson S. and Iron Head, the two latter being controlled by the Colo- 
rado Fuel and Iron Company; the Copper Queen, Modoc, and Han- 
over, owned by the Phelps-Dodge people; the Emma, Hanover No. 2, 
Nora, Dude, Holy Moses group, and many others. The Central dis- 
trict, with its numerous subdistricts and camps, is by far the most 
important mining section in New Mexico. Chiefly to this district 
is due the credit of placing Grant County at the head of the mineral- 
producing counties of the Territory. Among the most important 



GOVEKNOB OF NEW MEXICO. 105 

minerals and ores found in this section are copper, iron, zinc, lead, 
gold, and silver. Nearly three-fourths of the mineral wealth of New 
Mexico comes from Grant County, and it is no exaggeration to state 
that the greater part of this production is shipped from the Central 
mining district. 

The Lone Mountain district is properly a subdistrict of Central. 
It lies south and west of the town of Central between 4 and 5 miles. 
It is a silver camp, discovered in 1871. Very little, if anything, is 
doing in the camp at this date. 

The Mimbres district lies a few miles to the northeast of Santa 
Rita and embraces the once lively camp of Georgetown, extending 
beyond into the Mimbres Valley. The discovery of silver here dates 
back to the year 1866. The Georgetown camp in this district pro- 
duced over $3,500,000 before the depression in the silver-mining 
industry in 1893. 

Near the south end and on the west slope of the Mimbres Range 
of mountains is an isolated mining district, of which but little is 
known to the outside world, called the Carpenter district. The 
deposits are principally contacts between limestone and porphyry, 
carrying the sulphides in carbonates of zinc and lead. Considerable 
development work is being done in this district at the present time, 
and good properties are being opened up. 

Adjoining the town of Silver City on the west is claimed to be the 
place where silver was first mined in New Mexico. Approximately 
$3,250,000 in silver were taken from this circumscribed area in a com- 
paratively short time. 

Between 6 and 7 miles farther to the northwest, in the same mining 
region, is Camp Fleming, named in honor of J. W. Fleming, of Silver 
City, who was one of the pioneer miners and was one of the principal 
operators in that section. The production of this camp is not known, 
but was considerable. 

The White Signal district lies a few miles southeast of the Burro 
Mountain district and possesses merit in becoming a producer of 
turquoise, as well as gold, silver, lead, and copper. 

The Bullards Peak district is situated on the north end of the 
Burro Mountains and is the north extension of the Burro district. 
It received its name from John Bullard, who was killed in that region 
in 1871 by the Apache Indians. Native silver and argentite consti- 
tute the character of the ore, which occurs in narrow rich chutes, 
and frequently runs as high as 15,000 ounces per ton. One of the 
properties of the district, the Black Hawk mine, owned by the Solid 
Silver Mining Company, has produced nearly $600,000 in silver. 
One carload of the ore is said to have brought almost $28,000. 

On account of the Apache Indians the Burro Mountain district 
never received more than a passing notice until the later seventies 
and early eighties. The district lies about 15 miles southwest of 
Silver City, and is now one of the principal copper-producing camps 
of the Territory. A majority of the copper properties are now con- 
solidated under the management of the Burro Mountain Copper 
Company, which has a large mill plant in successful operation. The 
Comanche Mining and Smelting Company is also heavily interested 
in this district. In this district the chief metallic ore is copper, and 
the principal copper-bearing portion of the Burro Mountains covers 
an area of 3 miles in length by about 2 miles in breadth. This dis- 



106 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

trict has come prominently to the front in the last year or two, and 
extensive development work is now under way, especially by the 
larger companies. 

The Virginia and Pyramid districts lie in the Pyramid Range of 
mountains immediately south of Lordsburg. The locality was 
known as Ralston (Shakespeare) in the early days. Prospecting 
began here as far back as 1878, and a veritable boom centered in 
this region about that time. The mineral-bearing area in the dis- 
trict is about 5 by 14 miles. The ore is principally a sulphide and 
carries values in gold, silver, lead, and copper. Deep mining would 
appear to make the region prominent in copper. Extensive devel- 
opment is now going on in several properties in this district with 
the best of results. The most important property in the Pyramid 
district is the Viola group, embracing the Leidendorf mine and mill 
belonging to the Pyramid Mining Company. Another well-known 

Eroperty is the Silver Tree group. In the Virginia district lies the 
ulk of the locations of the region. At the Aberdeen mine a milling 
plant has been in operation for several years. The property has 
produced considerable values in gold, silver, and lead. The Supe- 
rior and Associated mines of the group are extensively developed; 
gold, silver, and copper are the metallic values. There are many 
other well-known properties in this district. 

The Gold I&ill district is situated 12 miles northeast of Lordsburg 
and forms another region of Grant County's numerous mining 
camps. The veins are all fissures and contact fissures. Gold and 
silver are the only values found in the ore. Occasionally some 
copper is found in a few properties. 

The Malone district is a few miles northwest of Gold Hill. Placer 
gold is plentiful in several gulches. A large quartz and concentrat- 
ing mill is now in course of erection in this camp. The placers indi- 
cate gold lodes in this region. 

About 6 miles southwest of the town of Hachita, in southwestern 
Grant County, is the old mining camp of Hachita, which flourished 
in the early days and which is again attracting much attention. 
Turquoise of a very fine quality is mined in this camp. The prin- 
cipal ore from the district is a silver-lead carbonate. 

In a southeast direction from Hachita is the Fremont mining dis- 
trict. The ores are principally a silver-lead carbonate. In some 
instances good values in copper are found associated with the pre- 
vailing type of mineral. Zinc also seems to occur rather plenti- 
fully in a few properties. 

The Kimball, or Steins Pass, district .is situated in the extreme 
southwestern part of Grant County, close to the Arizona line. The 
minerals which abound are gold, silver, copper, and lead. The 
latter mineral predominates to the south at Granite Gap, in the San 
Simon district, while silver is pronounced at the Volcano mine to 
the north, in the Kimball district. At Steins Pass the National 
Gold and Silver Mining Company is conducting an extensive and 
successful operation on the Beck group of mines. 

The California district was organized and established in 1904. It 
lies in part in southwestern Grant County, and the line between New 
Mexico and Arizona divides it. The nearest railroad point is Rodeo, 
a station on the El Paso and Southwestern Railway. 

In the extreme western part of Grant County is to be found the 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 107 

old Carlisle district, now known as Steeple Rock. The ore is bluish- 
white quartz and very hard, carrying values in gold and silver. This 
class of ore is the prevailing type over the entire district. Frequently 
sulphides of lead and copper are associated in the vein filling. Much 
development has been carried on in the district and several large 
companies organized. 

The Anderson district is about midway on a line connecting Silver 
City and Steeple Rock and on the east side of the Gila River. Gran- 
ites, greenstones, and intrusive dikes characterize the rock formation 
of the district. 

The Telegraph district is another of Grant County's numerous 
mining districts. It lies to the northwest about 6 miles and on the 
opposite side of the river from the Anderson district. The ores of 
the district are generally composed of an indurated bluish quartz, 
containing argentite with occasional cerargyrite. 

There are a number of mineral springs in the county, some of which 
have proven to possess remarkable medicinal qualities. The cele- 
brated Hudson Hot Springs, now called Faywood, located about 
midway between Silver City and Deming, 3 miles from a branch line 
of the Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe Railroad, have already achieved 
a wide reputation as a health and pleasure resort. 

The Gila Hot Springs, 50 miles north of Silver City, are also sought 
for their medicinal qualities. 

SOCORRO COUNTY. 

Next important to the great mining belt of Grant County is the 
famous Socorro region. This county leads the list of counties in the 
production of the precious metals — gold and silver. 

MOGOLLON DISTRICT. 

The entire county is divided into two districts, the Mogollon and 
the Magdalena. 

Gold and silver are the principal products of the Mogollon district. 

The veins in the mountains, from which the district takes its name, 
are well defined, exceedingly large, and, according to the judgment 
of experts, are of great depth. It is predicted that profitable mining 
in this district is only fairly started, and that the future of the region 
is assured. 

On the east side of the Rio Grande, in the Sierra Oscura and the San 
Andreas ranges, much prospecting work is being done. 

MAGDALENA DISTRICT. 

The Magdalena mining district is situated on the west side of the 
mountains from which it derives its name, 25 miles west of Socorro, 
in Socorro County. The principal mines are from 3 to 6 miles from 
Magdalena, the terminus of the Magdalena Branch of the Santa Fe 
Railroad. The district extends from the north end of the mountains 
south for 10 miles, the summit of the range being the east boundary. 
The town of Kelly is the mining center of the district. 

The Magdalena district has been the largest producer of lead-silver 
ore in the Territory. The first mining was done by officers in the 
United States Army stationed at Pueblo Springs in the later sixties, 
ore being smelted in adobe furnaces and freighted to the Missouri 
River by ox teams (lead being worth 12 cents per pound). On the 



108 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

decline in the price of lead at the close of the war the mines were 
obliged to suspend operations, nothing of consequence being done 
from 1875 until early in 1880, when a large American immigration 
came in. The district has been producing constantly since that time. 

The visible supply of oxidized lead ore (cerussite) was supposed to 
be exhausted in 1901, that ore having bottomed in lead-zinc sulphides. 

In 1902 Fitch & Brown obtained a bond and lease on the Graphic 
group of mines, which had been a very large producer of oxidized lead 
ore (the output of the Graphic and Kelly mines being about equal), 
and commenced to ship the zinc carbonates then exposed in large 
bodies in the old lead stopes, which had prior to that time been con- 
sidered worthless. 

The utilization of the supposed worthless zinc ore marked a new 
era for the camp ; owners of other mines immediately discovered that 
they had similar ores, and commenced shipping. 

The country rocks of the district are greenstone, limestone, shale, 
quartzite. and alternating layers of limestone, shale, and quartzite, cut 
by dikes, both acid and basic, the entire series aggregating about 800 
feet in thickness. 

The lower limestones, lying on the greenstones, have been highly 
metamorphosed to a coarse crystalline (limestone), nearly marble, and 
the sandstones to quartzite, and uplifted with the general formation 
of the mountain, now standing at angles from 30° to 50°, and where 
there are no local disturbances, nearly parallel to the west slope of 
the mountain range. The lower limestone, known as the " crystal- 
line " limestone, is about 100 feet thick. Nearly all of the commercial 
ore has been found in this zone. 

The uplifting of the mountain range was attended by many breaks, 
and any shifting along these breaks made faults of great or small 
throw, according to the shifting. These lines of fracture are from a 
few feet to several hundred feet apart, the throw being small where 
they are near together and larger where they are farther apart. They 
have cut the stratified rock into sections, and as each section above 
settled back farther against the mountain it now presents a series 
of giant steps. 

The stratified formation is cut by an intrusion of granite porphyry 
near the base of the mountain. 

Situated a little below the center of the crystalline limestone zone 
is the famous " silver-pipe " limestone, which is about 6 feet thick, 
forming a permanent landmark, enabling the miner to prospect the 
mineral-bearing zone intelligently. The silver-pipe limestone has for 
many years been recognized as the great ore horizon of the district, 
but until recently no explanation was offered for that fact. It is 
now generally admitted, however, that the considerable quantity of 
carbonate of magnesia (not enough to constitute dolomite) which it 
contains accounts for that general occurrence. 

The normal color of the silver-pipe limestone is a dark blue, but in 
the vicinity of stopes of ore the color changes to buff, red, and, if 
manganese is present, to a dark brown. 

The principal mining operations in the district have been carried on 
through tunnels. The Graphic mines, formerly owned by the Graphic 
Zinc and Lead Company and now owned by the Ozark Smelting and 
Mining Company, have over 12 miles of underground workings, includ- 
ing tunnels, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and stopes. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 109 

The Ozark Company is just completing a 1,600-fog.t tunnel to a 
point 200 feet under the large ore stope. The tunnel when connected 
with the level above will greatly reduce the cost of mining. 

The Kelly mines, owned by the Tribullion Mining Company, have 
two shafts, both equipped with cages, and the main entrance tunnel, 
known as the No. 3 level. Both shafts connect with No. 4 level, the 
principal level in the mines. The old shaft hoists direct from the 
fourth level. The new shaft is connected with the fourth level with 
a raise from a crosscut from the shaft. 

The next well-developed property is the Key group, owned by the 
Mine Development Company, with over 2,000 feet of development 
work, principally in tunnels. 

The ore originally mined, as stated above, was cerussite, averaging 
as shipped about 25 per cent lead and 6 ounces silver per ton, and an 
excess of iron over silica, with practically no zinc, the separation of 
the lead and zinc by oxidization having been nearly perfect, the lead 
remaining where it was originally deposited as a sulphide, and the 
zinc was carried away in solution and redeposited as a carbonate, 
sometimes replacing the limestones. 

Very fine calcites and aragonites were also encountered in the stopes 
with the cerussite. The Magdalena aragonites are considered the 
finest produced in the United States. 

The oxidized zinc ore is a carbonate (smithsonite), a few specimens 
of silicate (calamine) only having been found. 

The greater portion of the copper ore shipped has been in some of 
the oxidized forms; a little unoxidized ore (chalcopyrite) is encoun- 
tered with the other ore. 

The rare minerals, aurichalcite, chalcophanite, hydrozincite, and 
the various oxidized copper minerals also occur. 

The green smithsonites, particularly from the Kelly mines, and the 
aurichalcites and azurites from the Graphic, have acquired an inter- 
national reputation among mineralogists for their beautiful colors 
and perfect crystallization. No other district in the United States 
has so far equaled them. 

Sulphides of lead and zinc containing a little copper sulphide is 
encountered in the lower workings of most of the mines. 

A conservative estimate of the past production of the district is 
between $20,000,000 and $30,000,000. Some estimates place the 
amount around $40,000,000. The production for the past year was 
about $750,000, nearly all from zinc and copper, very little lead ore 
being shipped during that time. 

The Kelly mine is at present shipping about 120 tons of zinc ore per 
day, about equally divided between the sulphides and carbonates. 
The grade of the carbonate ore is about 35 per cent zinc, the sulphide 
about 25 per cent zinc, 10 to 15 per cent lead, and 15 to 18 per cent 
iron. The total production from the camp is about 200 tons per day. 

The general conditions are favorable for cheap mining. The 
mines are dry and require very little timbering; in fact, stopes that 
have been standing twenty years without any timbers are in good 
condition to-day. Wagon freight on ore to the railroad costs from 
50 cents to $1.50 per ton, according to location; railroad freight, 
from Magdalena to the smelters, $5 per ton. 

Only a small portion of the district has been systematically pros- 
pected. The country east and south of the old developed mines has 



110 ANNUAL. REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

the geological and mineralogical conditions that produced the large 
stopes in those mines, and if prospected on the lines that have, by 
demonstration, produced the large tonnage in the older mines, there 
is no reason why the future output of the district should not exceed 
its past production. 

It is now demonstrated that the oxidized zinc ore accompanies 
the oxidized lead ore; that the value of the zinc is, approximately, 
equal to the lead. Consequently the value of the undeveloped prop- 
erty located in the mineral belt in the district is 100 per cent more 
than before the discovery of the values in the zinc ore. 

Recent developments in the Key group show large stopes of lead 
and zinc ore (oxidized), proving that the zone of mineralization 
extends beyond the boundaries of the old mines, and that the district 
will undoubtedly be a steady producer for years. 

COLFAX COUNTY. 

As a producer of placer gold Colfax County holds first place, although 
there has been a material decrease in the amount produced during 
the past year. This slump is due to the suspension of operations 01 
the Ore Dredging Company at Elizabethtown. The company has 
been placed in the hands of a receiver, but it is said that the suspen- 
sion of the operations is not due to any decrease in the gold values 
in the gravel. 

While work has ceased at this big producer, the other placers con- 
tinue operations with their usual activity, and the output about 
Baldy Mountain, Ute Creek, Willow Creek, and from the Lowery 
hydraulics showed no decrease. 

The construction of a new line of railroad — the St. Louis, Rocky 
Mountain and Pacific — from Des Moines, through Raton to Elizabeth- 
town, will give lode mining in Colfax County a decided impetus. 
Construction work on this road is being rapidly pushed and rails 
are now laid as far as Cimarron Canyon. It is expected that the 
line will be completed to Elizabethtown before the summer of 1907. 

DONA ANA COUNTY. 

While the production of mineral wealth in Dona Ana County for 
the past year has been considerably less than during the preceding 
twelve months, there has been much mining activity in this section. 
The principal operations have been conducted in the Organ Moun- 
tain, about 18 miles northeast of Las Cruces, where large bodies of 
copper have been opened up. The Torpedo and Memphis mines 
in this district are promising properties. 

The decrease in the output in this county has not been due so 
much to a lack of activity as to the work of installing machinery 
and making permanent improvements preparatory to extracting and 
mining ores. 

EDDY COUNTY. 

During the past year there has been some active prospecting work 
done in Eddy County, and according to reports this work has netted 
some favorable results. The existence of copper in the Guadalupe 
Mountains is reported by the prospectors and, it is declared, that 
many valuable claims have been located. Up to this time Eddy 
County has never been a producer of metallic wealth. 



GOVERN OB OF NEW MEXICO. Ill 

LINCOLN COUNTY. 

In Lincoln County a decided increase in the production of gold 
has been recorded during the past year. This is the outgrowth of a 
revival of mining activity. At White Oaks, the South Homestake 
mill has been operated for the past twelve months, and the Old Abe 
mine has awarded a contract for sinking its main shaft 200 feet 
deeper. A new concentrator has been placed in operation at the 
Jicarillas for the treatment of low-grade sulphide gold ores. The 
Eagle Mining and Improvement Company, at Parsons, has operated 
the old Parsons mine successfully. The company will soon install 
a cyanide plant. 

LUNA COUNTY. 

The mining of lead and the opening of several lead deposits have 
been the features of the mining industry in Luna County during the 
year just closed. The principal lead camp is at Cooks Peak. The 
production from this camp showed an increase for the year 1905 over 
that of 1904. From the Tres Hermanos Mountains 500 tons of zinc 
carbonate were shipped to points in the East, the first zinc ever 
mined in this county. Professor Jones says Luna County eventually 
may become a large producer of zinc when the district is thoroughly 
prospected. At Deming a 50-ton lead smelter was completed during 
the year. 

OTERO COUNTY. 

Placer production has been the chief source of mineral wealth in 
Otero County. This kind of mining has been conducted in the 
Jarilla Mountains and in the drifting sand hills about the mountains. 
The mountains are mineralized, gold, silver, copper, iron, and tur- 
quoise having been found. A smelting plant is now being erected 
at Oro Grande to treat the ores. 

RIO ARRIBA COUNTY. 

Little mineral wealth has been produced in Rio Arriba County 
since the early eighties of the nineteenth century, but during the 
past year there has been some activity in the mining industry. 
Some placer work has been done about Hopewell post-office and 
Tusas Peak. These placers have been the principal soure of metallic 
value. A concentrating plant is being built at Bromide, and will 
be completed, according to present plans, before the summer of 
1907. At Chama River the placers have attracted much attention. 
There is some talk of erecting a dredging plant. 

SANDOVAL COUNTY. 

The principal lode-mining camp of Sandoval County, Cochiti, 
at one time the greatest gold and silver producer in New Mexico, has 
shown little activity during the past year, and, as a consequence, 
mining operations in that county have been rather meager. It 
was the first time in the history of Cochiti that tangible results were 
not forthcoming. However, active work is soon to be resumed at 
that property, and a specially adapted plant for the treatment of 
low-grade ores is to be installed. 



112 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The only mineral wealth produced in Sandoval was from placer 
mining, principally by panning. A little sluicing was also indulged in. 

SAN MIGUEL COUNTY. 

A leaching plant to treat low-grade copper ore has been erected at 
Las Vegas by the Blake Mining, Milling and Investment Company. 
Thus far the work done at the plant has been entirely experimental, 
but it is said to give satisfaction, and it may make possible the 
handling of the enormous bodies of low-grade ore in the vicinity of 
Las Vegas. 

SANTA FE COUNTY. 

Operations in mining in Santa Fe County during the past year 
consisted principally in working the placer fields, and even this did 
not amount to much. Professor Jones, of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, tested the cement gravel beds west of Golden, where 
it was reported that gravel carried high gold values. Although the 
tests conducted were extensive and thorough, the results were 
disappointing, the gravel being practically destitute of any gold. 

SIERRA COUNTY. 

Activity to a considerable extent has been shown during the past 
years in the Sierra districts. Especially is this true at Hillsboro and 
in the new placer fields at Pittsburg, on the Rio Grande. Two com- 
panies are conducting operations at the Pittsburg field, sluicing the 
gravel by water pumped from the river. According to reports they 
are meeting with fair success. The goM in this district runs 0.950 
fine, which is a remarkably pure product. 

There has been some increase in lode mining at Hillsboro, and a 
fair gain in the production is predicted. The Southwestern Land 
and Coal Company, operating in the Caballo Mountains, soon will 
have its plant ready for operation, and will then begin the treatment 
of low-grade ores. This plant will be operated by electricity, the 
power being generated 6 miles away from the main plant. 

Some development work is being done on copper claims about 6 
miles from the property of the Southwestern Lead and Coal Company. 

TAOS COUNTY. 

Lack of transportation facilities still is the principal cause for 
little activity in mining operations in Taos County. The only work 
of any consequence has been done at the Independence mine on Bit- 
ter Creek, near Red River. Even this work has been retarded by 
the lack of proper railroad facilities. 

VALENCIA COUNTY. 

In the Zufii Mountains the only development work done has been 
in the Copperton region. There have been some good showings of 
copper. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 113 

MINERAL LOCATIONS ON PRIVATE LAND GRANTS. 

There is one matter connected with mining in New Mexico which 
calls for the action of Congress. There is a peculiar condition exist- 
ing here which is unknown elsewhere in the United States, except in 
a very few cases in Arizona, and that is that the owner of the surface 
of the land is not the owner of the precious metals lying beneath. 
This is an anomaly in this country, where, with this single exception, 
the proprietor of the soil extends his ownership to the center of the 
earth; and it arises from a peculiar provision in the act of Congress 
of March 3, 1891, establishing the Court of Private Land Claims. 

Previous to that time all confirmations by the United States Gov- 
ernment of the titles to Spanish and Mexican land grants had been 
by act of Congress, and it was held that such confirmation carried 
with it an absolute title to everything within the limits of the grant, 
including, of course, all minerals. But when the Court of Private 
Land Claims was constituted, to adjudicate all unsettled claims to 
land grants, it was expressly provided in the act that all gold, silver, 
and quicksilver should be reserved by the United States. The result 
is that within the very large area covered by these grants the soil 
belongs to the grantee and his successors, but the three metals men- 
tioned are still the property of the United States. The owner of the 
land can not touch them, nor can they be " located" by any pros- 
pector, because tha mining laws as to locations only apply to the 
public domain. The consequence is that should the largest gold 
mine in existence be discovered within the boundaries of a grant 
confirmed by the Court of Private Land Claims there is no one who 
could legally touch one grain of the precious metal. 

Legislation is needed either providing some method by which the 
landowner can obtain the ri^ht to extract these metals from the soil 
of his property, or inaugurating a system by which other persons can 
" locate" and work the deposits of these minerals, on payment to the 
landowner of proper compensation for any damage suffered by the 
surface or crops or improvements thereon. 

TAXATION AND FINANCES. 

The subject of taxation is of vital importance to everybody in the 
Territory. The question is handled in an able manner by Charles V. 
Safford, the traveling auditor and bank examiner of the Territory, 
in his report to me. Besides his report upon taxation, Mr. Safford 
has included in his statement an elaborate account of the finances of 
the various counties of the Territory, as well as a report upon the 
condition of the Territorial and national banks. 

Mr. Safford's report follows: 

In compliance with your request for a report from this department, covering the past 
year, I respectfully submit the following: 

In making this report it has been the intention to furnish as much information as possible, 
in a condensed form, concerning the assessment of the property in the Territory for taxation 
purposes, and the financial condition of the different counties of the Territory. 

Much contention has arisen among our taxpayers as to the proportionate part of taxation 
necessary for the support of the Territorial government, borne by the different property inter- 
ests, certain classes claiming to be unjustly taxed in proportion to value of such interests as 
compared with others. Immediately following is a tabulation showing comparative values 
of different classes as returned for years 1904 and 1905, together with remarks relative 
to the percentage of value as returned, as compared with actual value. 



114 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



I also attach tabulation showijig assessed values of the different counties for the years 
1904 and 1905, accompanied by remarks concerning loss and gain in valuation. 

The concluding pages of the report are devoted to financial conditions of counties, county 
and school district bonded indebtedness, and Territorial banks. 

Under head of "Financial condition of counties" particular attention is called to 
small comparative tabulation showing increased collections and decreased expenditures, 
both of which indicate a more healthy condition during the year 1905 as compared with 
1904. 

A comparison of the past six months of the present year with the corresponding period of 
last year shows a decided improvement in financial condition of counties which, if continued 
for the balance of the year, will make it possible to lower both Territorial and county tax 
rates. 

Respectfully submitted. 

C. V. S AFFORD, 
Traveling Auditor and Bank Examiner. 

Comparative summary of the assessed valuation of the Territory for the years 1904 and 1905. 



Classification. 


1905. 


1904. 


Loss. 


Gain. 


Lands: 


$3,777,379.30 

5, 816, 637. 15 

231,165.50 

369, 847. 00 

463, 320. 50 

7,816,637.15 

4,350.00 

164,059.10 

15,409.00 
44.565.00 
93,935.00 

172,740.00 
112,633.00 

8, 760, 762. 88 
613,238.00 
104, 785. 00 
127,811.35 
173, 320. 00 


$3,953,822.18 

5,669,932.77 

325,121.50 

402,048.00 

384, 808. 50 

6,586,063.75 

4, 325. 00 

138, 462. 00 

7,500.00 
2, 720. 00 
19,800.00 

150,665.00 
55,500.00 

7,874,829.96 

636, 708. 00 

149,371.00 

147,554.00 

119,153.00 

37,245.00 

977,919.50 

81,764.00 

5,870,824.50 

2, 524, 405. 25 

179,239.00 

19,642.00 

9,082.50 

314, 553. 50 

61,237.50 

113, 474. 50 

2,060,368.00 

16, 315. 00 

92, 410. 25 

125, 782. 00 

88,342.57 

5, 655. 00 

25, 356. 00 

34,687.00 

25,091.00 

3,974.00 

94,259.00 

617, 155. 00 

885, 370. 80 

439.00 

215. 00 


$176, 442. 88 






$146,704.38 




93,956.00 
32,201.00 


Coal 






78,512.00 

673, 753. 25 

25.00 










Telephone and telegraph 

Ditches: 




25,597.10 

7,909.00 
41,845.00 
74,135.00 

22,075.00 
57,135.00 

885,932.92 












Mines: 








Railroads: 






23, 470. 00 
44, 586. 00 
19, 742. 65 


Mills 










54,167.00 




37,245.00 

27,539.50 

4,551.50 

852, 613. 50 

213,510.25 




950,380.00 

77,212.50 

5,018,211.00 

2, 310. 895. 00 

190,908.50 

20,691.90 

7,646.50 

294,091.50 

57,097.25 

105, 172. 50 

2,233,953.95 

18,005.00 

85,006.00 

144,394.00 

117,506.00 

3, 045. 00 

27, 412. 75 

41, 670. 00 

22, 749. 00 

1,195.00 

80, 215. 25 

570,659.50 

933, 805. 00 

97.50 

392. 00 

420.00 

262. 50 

5, 464. 00 

375. 00 

64, 721. 00 

4, 180. 00 

32,073.00 

890,267.05 

1,898.00 








Cattle 










11,669.50 
1,049.90 








1,436.00 

20, 462. 00 

4, 139. 75 

8, 302. 00 
















173,585.95 
1,690.00 








7,404.00 






18,612.00 
29, 163. 43 








2,610.00 






2, 056. 75 






6,983.00 




2, 342. 66 
2,779.00 
14,043.75 
46, 495. 50 
















48, 434. 20 




341. 50 


Oats 


177.00 






420.00 




28.00 
3, 176. 00 




234.50 


Hay 




2, 288. 00 


Wool 




375. 00 




88,313.00 
1,387.00 

32, 692. 50 

711, 158. 50 

5,574.00 


23,592.00 




Coal 


2,793.00 


Tools 


619.50 




179, 108. 55 




3, 676. 00 
94, 161. 75 


Increased exemptions 












Total p 


42, 617, 848. 68 
2, 532, 442. 75 


41,735,520.53 
2,438,281.00 


1,758,263.03 


2, 546, 429. 43 
1,758,263.03 










40,085,405.93 


39,297,239.53 





788, 166. 40 





GOVEKNOK OF NEW MEXICO. 
Returns by classification and percentage of returns by different classes. 



115 



Class. 


Amount. 


Per cent. 


Agricultural lands 


$3,777,379.30 
5,816,637.15 
7,259,817.00 

231,165.50 
1,118,540.50 
9,374,000.88 
5,018,211.00 
2,501,803.50 
2, 233, 953. 95 

945, 393. 25 
1,035,239.00 

933, 805. 00 

484,270.25 
1, 887, 632. 40 


8. 863 
13. 646 
17.034 
.542 
2.618 
21. 995 
11. 775 
5.871 
5.242 
2.219 
2.429 
2.191 
1.137 
4.438 


Grazing lands 


City and town lots 


Timber lands 


Coal and mineral lands 


Railroads 


Cattle 


Sheep and goats 


Merchandise 


Household goods, etc 


Horses and mules 


Bank stocks 


Implements, wagons, etc 


Other property 






42, 617, 848. 68 


100.000 





PEECENTAGE OF ACTUAL VALUE RETURNED BY THE SEVERAL CLASSES OF PROPERTY FOR 

TAXATION PURPOSES. 

Under our statutes the Territorial board of equalization is given power to fix values on 
all property belonging to railroad, telegraph, and telephone companies (sec. 2635, C. L., 
1897), and acting under this authority the board for the year 1905 fixed an average value of 
$6,000 per mile, in round numbers, on all main track and branch lines, including equipment, 
of broad-gauge roads operating in the Territory subject to taxation and an average value of 
$1,000 per mile on sidetracks and switches of such companies. On narrow-gauge lines the 
average value was fixed at $3,000 per mile for main line and branches and $800 per mile for 
sidetrack and switches. All other property, real and personal, belonging to railroads to be 
assessed as other property of a like character owned and returned by individuals. 

Estimating the value of broad-gauge lines, including equipment, at $30,000 per mile, and 
narrow-gauge lines on the same basis at $15,000 per mile, the average value as fixed by the 
board for taxation purposes would only be 20 per cent of actual cash value. 

The estimated cash value is no doubt too low. 

The Territorial board of equalization also, at the same meeting at which the values on 
railroads were fixed, placed values on agricultural lands, timber lands, coal lands, mineral 
and grazing lands, as follows: 

"Agricultural lands in actual cultivation, with permanent water rights, not less than $15 

Eer acre. Agricultural lands in actual cultivation, without permanent water rights, at not 
5ss than $7.50 per acre. Agricultural lands capable of cultivation, but not actually in 
cultivation, under ditch or artesian wells, not less than $5 per acre. 

"All timber lands within 10 miles of any operated railroad, per acre, $5; all timber lands 
not above specified, per acre, $2.50. 

"Coal lands within 10 miles of any operated railroad, per acre, $20; coal lands more than 
10 miles from a railroad, per acre, $10. 

"All patented mineral lands other than coal lands, per acre, $20. 

"Grazing lands with stock water thereon, by wells or otherwise, so located or situated 
as to utilize privileges of grazing on Government land, per acre, $1.25; grazing lands so 
situated or located as to utilize grazing privileges on Government land, without stock 
water, per acre, $1 ; grazing lands other ttaan above specified, per acre, 30 cents." 

Agricultural lands are returned at an average value of $8.40 per acre, including improve- 
ments; timber lands, $1.40; coal and mineral lands, including improvements and product, 
$20.50, and grazing lands at 73 cents per acre. 

From these figures it would appear that the values as fixed by the Territorial board of 
equalization, with the exceptions of values on timber lands, had been adhered to by county 
assessors when making assessments, and county boards when passing upon and approving 
the same. However, it is a well-established fact that a very large per cent of agricultural 
lands, timber, coal, and mineral lands are returned and assessed, and such returns and assess- 
ments passed upon and approved by county boards, as "grazing" lands, and so taxed on the 
lower valuation. With a proper assessment by county officials, the acreage and valuation 
of grazing lands would be materially decreased; but on the other hand, the acreage and valua- 
tion of agricultural, timber, coal, and mineral lands would be correspondingly increased 
in proportion to the ratio of values. Should a proper classification be made of these classes 
of property and assessment be made accordingly, the amount of the returns as now made 
would be found to be less than one-fifth of the actual value. Agricultural lands are better 
assessed than lands belonging to classes above mentioned, yet we have counties in the 



116 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Territory that fail to make returns of this class of lands, or such small returns as to be insig- 
nificant, and in all of the counties of the Territory the classification of agricultural lands is 
more or less erroneous. The classification of timber and coal lands is very bad. By refer- 
ence to preceding table, under head of "Returns by classification and percentage of returns 
by different classes," it will be seen that the value of timber lands in the entire Territory 
is given at the comparatively small sum of $231,165.50. 

It is not generally known, but there is manufactured and marketed more than 125,000,000 
feet of lumber per annum by the mills in the Territory, and this output is worth at the mill 
from $10 per thousand up, according to grade. By reference to the same table it will also 
be seen that the values of coal and mineral lands, including improvements and product, 
according to the returns, are $1,118,540.-50. This amount is divided as follows: 

Coal lands $369, 847. 00 

Mineral lands : 463, 320. 50 

Surface improvements 172, 740. 00 

Mine products 112, 633. 00 

Total 1,118, 540. 50 

Using as authority the report of the United States mine inspector for the Territory of 
New Mexico, the coal operators of the Territory are producing over 1,500,000 tons of coal 
per annum, and worth at the mine, at the low valuation of $1 per ton, more than $1,500,000. 

From these figures an inference can be drawn as to the actual value of property coming 
under these classes and the relative per cent of value returned for taxation. 

The assessment of city lots and improvements, which class of property represents a large 
percentage of the taxable wealth of the Territory, is better than other classes of property. 
This is attributed to the fact that actual values are more easily determined by assessors and, 
by reason of covering small areas, are easily checked, and it follows that a very small per cent 
escapes taxation. However, the per cent of actual value returned will not exceed 25. 

Live stock, consisting of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and mules, representing about one- 
fifth of the total assessed value of the Territory, by reason of large numbers that escape 
taxation, it is estimated, is not assessed to exceed 20 per cent of actual cash value. 

This also can be said of other classes of property not heretofore mentioned, with the excep- 
tion of a few interests representing only a small per cent of the total assessment. 

This low percentage of returns can no doubt be largely accounted for by reason of property 
owners of the Territory objecting to paying taxes on valuations greater than those fixed by 
the board of equalization on railroads, and as acreage can be readily determined, erroneous 
classification is resorted to by the realty owner and full numbers of live stock owned by the 
stock grower withheld from the assessor. While this state of affairs does not make a good 
showing, yet the assessment of the greater part of the wealth of the Territory is just about 
as equitable as can be obtained under present laws and conditions. 

The figures on the assessment of 1906 are not available at this time, but from such data as 
has already been received at this office, and judging from the general prosperous condition 
of the Territory as a whole, an increase of from 8 to 10 per cent in total valuation can be 
reasonably expected. 

Note. — Since the filing of above report the rolls for the assessment for the year 1906 
have been received and show the aggregate value of all classes of property in the Territory 
subject to taxation to be $43,242,746.31 and as compared with the valuation for 1905 — 
$40,085,405.93— a net gain of $3,157,340.38, being 7.87 per cent. 

An examination of the abstract, prepared by the traveling auditor, indicates that this 
increase is general and shared by nearly all of the counties of the Territory — twenty-one 
making good gains, and the remaining counties, four in number, but minor losses. 

LEVIES. 

The Territorial levy for the year 1905 was 15 mills, and the average county levy for the 
same year 18.81. For the current year the Territorial levy has been reduced to 14 mills, 
and in nearly all of the counties a reduction has been made in county levies. 

It might be well to call attention to the fact that while tax levies appear high, yet, taking 
into consideration the low percentage of value placed on the property of the Territory for 
taxation purposes (20 per cent) and placing the levy on the same basis, for the year 1905 
the Territorial levy would only amount to thirty hundredths of 1 per cent, and for the year 
1906 twenty-eight hundredths of 1 per cent, if property of the Territory should be returned 
at cash value. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 117 

Comparative summary of assessed valuation of the Territory, by counties, for the years 1904 and 

1905. 



County. 


Subject to tax. 


Increase. 




1905. 


1904. 


Decrease. 


Bernalillo 


$3,306,124.00 

3,078,700.00 

2, 795 .315. 00 

2, 197, 212. 50 

1,917,560.00 

2,733,050.00 

750,335.00 

970,335.00 

1,519,793.00 

963,020.00 

1,219,225.83 

1,904,455.00 

547,323.00 

1,010,541.00 

895,105.00 

762,839.00 

824,719.38 

3,827,620.00 

l,«il4,267.00 

1,225,184.00 

2,197,005.00 

616,261.65 

288,594.00 

1,633,227.00 

1,286,975.57 


$3, 163, 800. 00 

2,861,870.00 

2,823,187.00 

2,087,513.00 

1,749,741.81 

2,899,026.00 

612, 452. 00 

1,156,655.00 

1,511,598.00 

993, 263. 00 

1,014,825.00 

1,603,972.00 

577,940.44 

975,763.00 

563,900.00 

742, 279. 00 

574,881.00 

4,432,977.00 

1,750,120.00 

1,243,929.00 

1,910,355.00 

675,730.34 


$142,324.00 
216, 830. 00 








Colfax 


$27,872.00 




109,699.50 
167,818.19 


Eddy 






165,976.00 




138,502.00 




186,320.00 




8,195.00 




30,243.00 


Mora 


204,400.83 
300, 483. 00 








30,617.44 




34,778.00 
331,205.00 

20,560.00 
249,838.38 
















605,357.00 

135,853.00 

18,745.00 










Socorro 


286,650.00 




59,468.69 




288,594.00 




1,865,276.00 
1,506,185.94 


232,049.00 
219,210.37 










Total ". 


40,085,405.93 


39,297,239.53 


2,499,877.90 


1,711,711.50 





Amount subject to tax: 

1905 $40,085,405.93 

1904 39,297,239.53 



Net gain. 



788,166.40 



The county of Torrance was created by an act of the thirty-fifth legislative assembly 
and is composed of a portion each of the counties of Santa Fe, Socorro, San Miguel, and 
Valencia. Said act took effect January 1, 1905, and assessment of that year was the first 
made in that county. 

By reference to above statement it will be seen that 14 counties make a net gain 
of $2,499,877.90, while the remaining counties, 11 in number, show a total loss of 
$1,711,711.50, and leaving a net gain over the Territory of $788,166.40, as shown above. 

The counties making a lower total return for the year 1905 as compared with the year 
1904 are counties whose chief industries are agricultural pursuits and stock raising, and 
which to a large extent is accounted for by the severe drought in the fall and winter of 1904, 
and the disastrous floods in the spring and summer of 1905, both of which caused great 
loss to sheep and cattle interests and were a severe blow to agricultural land values, causing 
many thousands of acres which had heretofore been classified and assessed as agricultural 
lands to be classified under the assessment of 1905 as grazing lands and so assessed at 
the reduced value. The counties of Santa Fe, Socorro, San Miguel, and Valencia also 
were reduced in valuation by the creation of Torrance County, the county of Valencia, 
however, losing the greater part of the valuation shown to be in the new county. The 
increase in the county of Bernalillo was caused largely by increased value of city property 
in the town of Albuquerque and a better assessment on nearly all classes of property. 

In Chaves County the increase is principally accounted for by the assessment of the 
Pecos Valley Railroad and good gains in city property, farm and grazing lands, and other 
classes of property, although the loss in this county was heavy to stock interests. The in- 
crease in the county of Dona Ana is almost entirely due to the increase in value of agricultural 
lands, although other classes of property made a good per cent of gain as a whole. The in- 
creased value in the county of Eddy is also accounted for by increased realty values, but 
this was greatly reduced by loss in cattle and other live stock values. Increased values in 
Guadalupe County are accounted for by a general increase on all classes of property, although 
cattle and land values made most substantial increases. The small increase in the county of 
Luna was brought about by increased value of city property, although reduced by loss to 
cattle interests. The increase shown in the county of Mora is due almost entirely to 
increased land values, but this was reduced by loss to stock interests. The gain in Otero 
County is accounted for by reason of the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad coming in 
for taxation, which was returned for $535,260. There were also minor increases in other 
classes of property, including agricultural lands, but a large loss was reported in cattle 



241b— 07- 



-9 



118 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

interests, grazing lands, timber lands, merchandise, and unclassified property, which 
reduced materially the gross gain. It is hard to say just what interests are entitled to 
credit for the small gain in Rio Arriba County. Thirteen classes show an aggregate gain 
of $139,365.40, while 19 classes show aggregate losses of $104,857.40, leaving the small 
net gain of $34,778. 

The increased valuation in the county of Roosevelt is caused by the assessment of the 
Pecos Valley Railroad. Nearly all other classes of property made fair gains and indicates 
a good assessment. The small increase in the county of Sandoval is a net increase. 
Grazing, timber, and coal lands together with unclassified property made a gross gain of 
$354,572, which was offset by excessive losses in valuation of agricultural lands and live 
stock of all kinds and small losses in minor clasess to the amount of $334,012, leaving 
only the small increase of $20,560. The good increase in San Juan County is accounted 
for by a good average gain in value on all classes of property and indicates growth and a 
good assessment. The increased value in Socorro County is largely the result of increased 
values in agricultural, grazing, and coal lands, mines, sheep and goats, merchandise, and 
other small interests, and reduced to some extent by losses in valuation of mineral lands, 
city property, and cattle. The increase in Torrance County is by reason of being a new 
county, the first assessment having been made in 1905. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF COUNTIES. 

The finances of the counties of the Territory were never in better condition than at the 
present time. Since the last report made by this department to your predecessor one year 
ago no defaults have occurred in the ranks of the county treasurers. The year 1905, 
taken as a whole, is marked by increased collections and decreased expenditures, indi- 
cating less expensive county governments and, the inference is, better management by 
county boards. 

County treasurers have made prompt settlement with the Territorial treasurer for all 
Territorial taxes collected, and this, together with increased collection, has made it possible 
to lower the Territorial tax rate. 

The uniform system of accounting, put into force by this department in the offices of 
county treasurers, is now fully established, so far as receiving, disbursing, and accounting 
for public moneys which come to the hands of county treasurers. A strict supervision is 
exercised over these officials by this office, their accounts being thoroughly checked and 
settlements made with each treasurer on an average of twice a year or as often as may be 
deemed necessary. 

By reference to statement No. 1, attached, it will be seen that the balances on hand 
January 1, 1906, were larger by $110,322.76 than on January 1, 1905. 

Statement No. 2 is a tabulation, showing receipts by counties, and is valuable as a matter 
of comparison between counties. Following is a comparative table of collections for years 
1905 and 1904: 



Source of receipts. 


1905. 


1904. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 




$1, 383, 619. 26 
164, 412. 00 
26,261.84 
11,952.48 
36, 569. 42 
170. 63 
57, 422. 05 
38, 456. 58 


$1, 307, 415. 19 

161,574.00 

19, 685. 80 

11,891.26 

7, 415. 67 

88.55 

99,711.11 

61, 517. 91 

3, 179. 68 


$76,204.07 

2,838.00 

6,576,04 

61.22 

29, 153. 75 

82.08 












Poll tax. 












County settlements, sale of bonds, loans 


$42, 289. 06 


M iscellaneous 




23, 061. 33 






3, 179. 68 








Total 


1,718,864.26 


1,672,479.17 


114,915.16 


68, 530. 07 





Statement No. 3 shows disbursements and, as said of statement No. 2, is valuable as a 
matter of comparison between counties. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 
Following is a comparative table of disbursements for years 1905 and 1904: 



119 



Fund. 



1905. 



1904. 



Increase. 



Decrease. 



General county 

Courts 

Interest 

Wild animal bounty 

Roads and bridges 

Court-house and jail repairs. 

Territory 

Treasurers' commission 

Assessors' commission 

Municipal taxes 

Common schools 

Index and survey 

Judgments 

Defaults 

Miscellaneous 



$190, 

124, 

121, 

17, 

36, 

20, 

482, 

60, 

30, 

110, 

377, 

3, 

25, 



828.80 
527. 17 
366. 68 
703.90 
448. 31 
295.06 
309.75 
227. 15 
014. 06 
193. 67 
921. 10 
145. 45 
411.60 



$227, 568. 63 

118, 408. 35 

146, 386. 67 

17, 592. 28 

36,759.91 

34, 481. 95 

516, 872. 94 

68, 906. 84 

27, 640. 52 

133, 910. 70 

372,969.15 

3, 446. 04 



$6, 118. 82 

iii.62" 



$37,239.83 
' *25*6i9.*99 



311.60 
14, 186. 89 
34, 563. 19 
8,679.69 



2,373.54 
'4,'95i.'95 



25,411.60 



23,717.03 
"366.59 



12, 105. 54 



21,773.85 



12, 105. 54 
65,095.75 



Total. 



1,621,666.55 



1,803,919.12 



38,967.53 



221,220.10 



From above it appears that the county treasurers remitted to the Territorial treasurer, 
in settlement of Territorial taxes, more in 1904 than during 1905, and tbis is explained by 
the fact that some of the counties had failed to make full settlement for the year 1903 and 
collections of that year were not remitted until 1904. The same is also true with reference 
to municipal taxes. Less payment during the year 1905 as compared with 1904, "Treas- 
urers' commission fund," is accounted for by reason of commissions deducted by treasurers 
in 1904 and prior years and which were not allowed by this office. A court decision was 
obtained early in 1905 and sustained by the supreme court at its 1906 spring term. The 
current year's business will show a substantial amount refunded by treasurers for illegal 
commissions deducted during the year 1904 and prior years. 

Statement No. 1. — Financial transactions of the several counties for year 1905. 



County. 



Balance Jan- 
uary 1, 1905. 



Receipts for 
year. 



Disburse- 
ments for 
year. 



Balance 
January 1 
1906. ' 



Bernalillo.. 

Chaves 

Colfax 

Dona Ana.. 

Eddy 

Grant 

Guadalupe. 

Lincoln 

Luna 

McKinley. . 

Mora 

Otero 

Quay 

Rio Arriba. 
Roosevelt . . 
Sandoval.. 
San Juan.. 
San Miguel. 
Santa Fe. . . 

Socorro 

Sierra 

Taos 

Torrance... 

Union 

Valencia... 



$28,382.50 
16,657.67 
43,675.27 
30,751.26 
36,275.88 
48,837.62 
14,989.38 
19,434.35 
17,083.30 
19,450.81 
17,048.41 
19,717.00 
9,116.56 
15,639.25 
3,154.81 
7,060.09 
5,290.07 
39,277.91 
15,176.70 
23,197.87 
15,693.97 
16,583.68 



37,959.25 
42,380.74 



$222,806.94 

142,151.25 

125,923.31 

61,086.87 

103,499.24 

105,119.23 

32,017.66 

44,195.49 

61,954.76 

45,418.62 

38,690.87 

78,490.30 

26,329.99 

36,758.46 

39,918.58 

22,261.64 

33,680.50 

154,252.62 

76,573.89 

86,159.59 

39,377.81 

24,568.26 

10,728.66 

62,192.31 

57,803.70 



$205,935.15 
97,794.97 

127,878.92 
74,990.39 
98,112.79 

105,422.03 
30,568.34 
43,208.45 
55,888.80 
41,612.45 
37,602.89 
87,345.70 
25,941.58 
35,769.57 
24,115.50 
13,591.58 
28,163.60 

152,772.75 
69,756.24 
77,173.99 
41,095.10 
27,445.37 
3,734.77 
62,545.48 
53,200.14 



Total. 



542,834.35 



1,731,989.31 



1,621,665.55 



$45,254.29 
61,013.95 
41,719.66 
16,847.74 
41,662.33 
48,534.82 
16,438.70 
20,421.39 
23,149.26 
23,256.98 
18,165.15 
10,861.60 

9,504.97 
16,628.14 
18,957.89 
15,730.15 
10,806.97 
40,757.78 
21,994.35 
32,183.47 
13,976.68 
13,706.57 

6,993.89 
37,606.08 
46,984.30 



653,157.11 



120 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
Statement No. 2. — Receipts for the year 1905. 





Tax. 


Liquc 


r 


Merchan 

dise 
license. 




County. 


1901 and 
prior 
years. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


and gam- 
bling 
license. 


Poll tax. 


Bernalillo 


$665. 46 
469.02 


$631.88 

1,283.62 

780.28 

730.93 

28.17 

2,206.08 

3,819.13 

244. 39 


$802. 67 
2,383.68 

780.28 
3,186.42 
2,954.68 
9,284.37 

594.00 

656.89 
1,730.16 

461.40 
2,434.10 
3,019.60 
1,966.90 

350.76 


$76,501.30 
61,563.87 
46,003.09 
31,505.97 
37,622.37 
44,801.85 
10,714.81 
20,785.70 
24,686.76 
17,148.01 
14,123.70 
34,721.04 
10,957.11 

9,642.32 
10,306.35 

7,939.89 
12,446.66 
67,900.03 
29,566.79 
29,286.31 
32,246.00 

9,093.23 


$93,086.19 
57,549.81 
49,339.02 
13,070.50 
34,219.82 
29,883.88 

6,049.64 
15,612.67 
20,408.54 
16, 459. 51 
10,753.42 
29,948.38 

6,221.45 
15,080.94 
12,865.53 

9,216.01 


$28,426.00 
9,216.00 
12,288.00 
3,024.00 
6,768.00 
9,984.00 
5,808.00 
2,640.00 
5,520.00 
7,248.00 
4,704.00 
3,408.00 
2,776.00 
8,208.00 
5,904.00 
1.824.00 


$5,994.75 
1,191.25 
1,956.25 

819. 51 
1,251.00 
2,607.33 
534.50 
160.00 
625.75 


$1,059.00 
305.80 


Colfax 


439. 75 


Dona Ana 

Eddy 


1,005.04 
273.42 
114.67 


827.20 
255.96 




842.14 


Guadalupe 


438. 64 




93.95 


664.91 




133.40 


McKinley 


182.43 

200.06 

42.51 


126.91 

134.97 

17.19 

1,187.50 


588.00 


871.25 
992. 75 
322.50 
449.00 
915.00 
235.00 
550.00 
2,055.00 
815.50 
311.50 
937.50 
362.50 
452. 50 
890.00 
967.50 


937. 10 




922. 85 




193. 50 






230.80 








632.10 




1,298.30 
776.42 
965.36 

4,169.48 
547.04 

1,377.92 
123. 48 


20.72 

1,240.37 

1,546.36 

808. 12 

325.52 

613. 81 

94.27 


423.46 
2,199.99 
5,840.82 
2,053.47 
1,238.02 
1,630.48 

476.77 


275.96 


San Juan. 

San Miguel 

Santa Fe 


12,384.11 1 1,754.50 

58,053.66 ! 10,620.00 

26,057.71 6,756.00 

3,650.64 ! 1.843.00 


476.72 
776.80 
183.30 
455.00 




36,492.97 

8,558.68 

3,858.24 

23,091.42 

19,990.61 


8,304.00 
4,608.00 
1,932.50 
6,624.00 
4,224.00 


2,204.00 


Taos 


282.40 




142.30 




940.99 
1,483.29 


2,248.15 
491. 65 


3,967.76 
2,173.36 


22,330.12 
26, 495. 31 


289.00 




599.85 






Total 


14,728.84 


17,988.45 


50,610.04 


688,388.59 


611,903.34 


164,412.00 


26,261.84 


11,952.48 


County. 


Fines. 


Common 
school in- 
come. 


Pullman 
tax. 


County 
settle- 
ments and 
loans. 


Sale of 

bonds and 

forfeits. 


Miscella- 
neous. 


Total. 




$1,260.85 
474.00 

66.00 
535. 10 
781.35 
721.30 
458. 50 
626.40 
771.60 
619. 35 

45.00 
1,667.75 

47.00 
323.55 
548.05 
500.00 
150.00 
670. 65 

40.70 

48.00 


$5,265.51 

1,281.35 

2,432.21 

2,085.36 

796.77 

1,732.64 

1,610.29 

1,036.02 

466.36 

492. 77 

1,977.23 

348.16 

404.44 

2,301.34 

709.79 

522.00 

769.28 

3,748.01 

2,425.50 

647. 41 

2,250.53 

416.35 

404.25 

1,129.22 

1,316.63 


$3.83 
6.80 
6.94 

22.15 


$5,400.00 




$3,709.50 

3,146.05 

6,333.96 

1,791.42 

4,117.70 

2,666.57 

480.15 

203.00 

5,587.23 

2,083.61 

33.86 

3,389.94 

248.55 

171.75 

239. 45 

6.30 

932.45 

2,067.66 

126.40 

169.46 

91.98 

327.38 

16.00 

463.71 

52.50 


$222,806.94 




$3,280.00 
6,095.10 


142,151.25 


Colfax 




125,923.31 




2,483.27 


61,086.87 


Eddy 


14,430.00 
261. 12 


103,499.24 




13.28 
10.00 

9.06 
18.21 

8.43 

4.94 
12.13 

5.04 




105,119.23 


Guadalupe 


1,500.00 
1,462.50 


32,017.66 




44,290.49 




2,006.75 


61,954.76 


McKinley 




45,418.62 
38,719.63 




2,500.00 






78,490.30 




2,000.00 




26,329.99 






36,758.46 




6.46 




7,791.85 


39,918.58 






22,261.64 










33,680.50 


San Miguel 


8.27 
4.83 
5.91 
10.40 






154,252.62 
76,573.89 




3,566.09 




850.00 


39,377.81 






86,159.59 


Taos . 


225.20 

127. 50 

204.00 

9.00 






24,568.26 






3,795.37 




10,728.66 




13.95 




62,192.31 








57,803.70 










Total 


13,125.05 


36,569.42 


170. 63 


17,491.14 


39,930.91 


38,456.58 


1,731,989.31 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



121 



Statement No. 3. — Disbursements for the year 1905. 



County. 



Bernalillo.. 

Chaves 

Colfax 

Dona Ana.. 

Eddy 

Grant 

Guadalupe. 

Lincoln 

Luna 

McKinley.. 

Mora 

Otero 

Quay 

Rio Arriba. 
Roosevelt.. 
Sandoval... 
San Juan. . . 
San Miguel. 
Santa Fe. . . 

Sierra 

Socorro.... 

Taos 

Torrance. . . 

Union 

Valencia... 



General 
county. 



$8,740.74 
8,546.84 

20,227.36 

10,921.51 
9,524.94 

15,571.98 
4,603.62 
5,608.54 
8,045.95 
4,762.94 
3,132.13 

15,871.35 
3,247.81 
2,817.29 
4,765.44 
4,369.04 
3,624.85 

15,386.12 
8,334.18 
5,596.89 
8,933.44 
2,859.06 
100.00 
7,147.20 
7,589.58 



Total 190,328.80 



Court. 



$9,217.40 
6,657.93 
7,799.49 
8,054.11 
7,334.84 
9,235.18 
3,690.28 
8,780.19 
3,183.72 
1,535.09 
2,907.05 
6,361.12 
3,503.72 
3,692.62 
549.70 
413.93 
2,464.54 

11,070.92 
4,887.87 
2,778.86 

11,084.19 
2,921.40 



2,536.15 

3,866.87 



124,527.17 



Interest. 



$23,944.32 
2,415.63 
4,474.00 
2,999.74 
5,305.74 
11,686.00 
1,360.81 
2,611.50 
1,663.42 
1,754.40 
4,163.85 
4,197.78 
2,041.92 
2,884.32 
960.00 



1,163.00 
18,128.04 
6,170.50 
1,654.90 
9,154.36 
3,267.45 



2,200.00 
7,165.00 



121,366.68 17,703.90 



Wild 
animal 
bounty. 



$159.00 
4,010.39 
1,550.00 



3,225.63 
1,610.00 

206.60 
1,749.10 

862.00 



39.50 
765.00 
267.32 
507.90 
95.00 
18.00 



287.85 

6.00 

§82.00 

1,472.61 



40.00 



Road 

and 

bridge. 



$140. 36 

2,593.84 

5,407.36 

615. 10 

9,373.29 

1,232.10 

443.80 

2,479.30 

309.95 

965. 72 

566.90 

463. 47 

2.22 

473.50 



206.00 
979.92 
1,528.83 
4,231.99 
558. 15 
388.00 
398.01 



1,631.50 
459.00 



5,448.31 



housl" Territorial 
and jail. • treasurer. 



Treas- 
urer's 
commis- 
sion 



$921. 35 

3,539.73 

1,384.08 

354.00 

4,019.78 

1,277.32 

5.00 

263. 32 

685.55 

2,000.36 

452.08 

136. 75 

520.64 

381.20 

1,321.80 



439. 30 
676. 11 
1,448.74 
52.69 
279.95 
445.25 



20,295.06 



$39,618.50 

28,940.19 

36,557.29 

22,569.00 

25,108.29 

39,728.56 

5,783.91 

11,774.72 

18,916.09 

13,894.51 

9,630.09 

32,430.37 

9,375.79 

11,602.60 

5,590.10 

2,774.92 

9,062.10 

43,346.93 

18,335.81 

19,018.40 

22,499.15 

7,830.96 

1,317.67 

28,237.07 

18,466.13 



482,309.75 



$8,363.83 
5,244.38 
4,683.31 
2,275.39 

611.84 
3,990.95 
1,214.50 

702.76 
2,348.72 
1,646.98 

882.00 
4,483.17 
1,144.20 
1,347.81 

622. 45 

366. 11 
1,246.16 
5,644.02 
2,762.80 
1,883.21 
3,054.37 

923.69 

273.92 
2,310.29 
2,200.28 



60,227.15 



County. 



Assessor's 
commis- 
sion. 



Municipal 

taxes. 



Schools. 



Index and 
survey. 



Judgments. 



Miscella- 
neous. 



Total. 



Bernalillo. . 

Chaves 

Colfax 

Dona Ana. 

Eddy 

Grant 

Guadalupe. 

Lincoln 

Luna 

McKinley.. 

Mora 

Otero 

Quay 

Rio Arriba. 
Roosevelt.. 
Sandoval.. 
San Juan. . 
San Miguel. 
Santa Fe.. 

Sierra 

Socorro 

Taos 

Torrance.. 

Union 

Valencia... 

Total 



$3,025.72 

2,807.29 

2,388.73 

1,069.72 

1,625.11 

2,253.20 

319.31 

1,083.03 

1,340.43 

913.78 

807.59 

1,687.34 

359. 12 

557. 47 

712.95 

373. 12 

826.00 

2,284.27 

1,476.46 

579.84 

1,509.88 

359.27 

134.28 

988.74 

531.41 



$53,321.15 
8,522.76 
9,622.76 



1,930.19 



1,077.19 
i,"755."75 



237. 21 
15,503.04 
13,567.95 



4,655.67 



$32,316. 
23,838. 
32,445. 
24,065. 
28,964. 
17,022. 
12,896. 

8,155. 
15,665. 
11,145. 
13,033. 
18,764. 

4,102. 
10,747. 

9,390. 

4,980. 

7,891. 
34,931. 

6,451. 

7,457. 
13,920. 

8,287. 

1,867. 
16,696. 
12,881. 



$15,998.08 



$677.85 
"566.66 



885. 87 



$10,168.04 

677.00 

661.62 

2,066.56 

1,088.40 

427.94 

44.25 



2,496.33 



1,875.53 

338.31 

1,336.50 



71.35 

1,257.28 

603.50 

35.47 



2,330.88 



150. 10 



370.26 

1,916.22 

113.00 

91.00 

39.73 
757. 10 
107. 10 

89.92 

229.47 

1,582.80 

824.93 

79.50 

186.49 

2.73 

41.45 
208.34 



$205,935.15 
97,794.97 

127,878.92 
74,990.39 
98,112.79 

105,422.03 
30,568.34 
43,208.45 
55,888.80 
41,612.45 
37,602.89 
87,345.70 
25,941.58 
35,769.57 
24,115.50 
13,591.58 
28,163.60 

152,772.75 
69,756.24 
41,095.10 
77,173.99 
27,445.37 
3,734.77 
62,545.48 
53,200.14 



30,014.06 



110,193.67 



377,921.10 



3,145.45 



25,411.60 



21,773.85 



1,621,666.55 



122 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
Summary of county and school district bonded indebtedness. 



County 


County 
bonded 
indebted- 
ness. 


School 
district 
bonded 
indebt- 
edness. 


Remarks. 


Bernalillo 


$363,000 
53,000 
75,400 
71,273 
65,910 
228,000 
35,735 
41,875 


$8,500 
47,363 
21,600 
14,745 
29,500 








Colfax 








Eddy 




Grant 




Guadalupe 


8,000 




Lincoln 






4,000 
7,500 


County indebtedness, $61,326. See ch. 87, Laws 1905, 

authority to issue bonds. 
Sinking fund to redeem county indebtedness. 


McKinley 


35,000 
86,641 
57,000 
30,000 
38,400 
22,500 


Mora 


Otero 


25,500 
8,000 




Quay 










4,600 






Indebtedness, $66,000. For authority to issue bonds 
see sees. 8-10, ch. 10, Laws 1905. 




21,100 
486,800 
681,039 

55,000 
181,700 

41,400 


11,000 
61,500 
29,333 


San Miguel 




Santa Fe 


Interest on county bonds defaulted to about $;HX),000. 


Sierra 


Socorro 






Taos 






Torrance 




Authority to issue county establishment bonds. See 
ch. 2, Laws 1905. 


Union 


41,500 
104,200 


4,000 


Valencia 










Total.. 


2,816,473 


285,141 





TERRITORIAL BANKS. 



There are at the present time 17 Territorial banks under the supervision of this office. 
During the past year 5 new Territorial banks have been incorporated, with a paid-up capital 
of $85,000, as follows: 

Bank of Dayton, Dayton $15, 000 

Lida Savings, Elida 15, 000 

United States Bank and Trust Company, Santa Fe 25, 000 

Socorro State Bank, Socorro 15, 000 

Texico Savings Bank and Trust Company, Texico 15, 000 

One private bank, Andrew Morton & Co., Springer, N. Mex., reorganized under the name 
of the Bank of Springer, with a paid-up capital of $15,000. 

During the period it has not been necessary for this department to report any of our 
Territorial banks to the attorney-general by reason of being in an insolvent condition or 
illegal banking. 

There is a marked disposition on the part of New Mexico Territorial bankers to build up 
and strengthen their surplus and undivided profit accounts, in order to provide against 
possible loss in the event of changed conditions. For this they are to be commended. 

The past year shows a good increase in the deposits in the Territorial banks. This 
increase is legitimate and is the natural outgrowth of the continued prosperity of the 
Territory as a whole, and while loans have kept pace with the increased deposits, it does not 
signify that as our people become wealthier and make more money they go deeper and 
deeper into debt. A few years ago, and in fact up to within a year or so ago, our large 
borrowers frequently found it necessary to go outside the Territory for accommodations. 
To a very great extent this condition is changed and our New Mexico institutions not only 
meet the demands that are made on them by the local borrowers, but are seeking business in 
the adjoining States. 

The following is a summary of seventeen Territorial banks, taken from reports of condi- 
tion at close of business June 30: 

RESOURCES. 

Loans, real estate security $134, 675. 00 

Loans, collateral security 393, 554. 52 

Loans and discounts, all other 1, 447, 863. 89 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 123 

Bonds and stocks #24, 110. 00 

Due from other banks 796, 137. 93 

Keal estate, furniture, and fixtures 103, 844. 54 

Checks and cash items 15, 767. 66 

Cash on hand 189, 826. 73 

All other resources 40, 791. 47 

3,146,571.74 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock 510, 500. 00 

Surplus 34,700.00 

Undivided profits 69, 982. 90 

Deposits, subject to check 2, 228, 379. 28 

Deposits, time 235, 206. 00 

Due other banks 43, 615. 61 

All other liabilities 24, 187. 95 



3,146,571.74 

Summary of condition of twenty-seven New Mexico national banks at close of business 

June 18, 1906. 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and discounts $6, 620, 203. 32 

Overdrafts 231,122.45 

United States bonds 1, 171, 000. 00 

Premium United States bonds 33, 892. 19 

Securities, judgments, claims, etc 348, 530. 89 

Real estate, furniture, and fixtures 323, 342. 30 

Due from other banks 1, 058, 018. 06 

Due from approved reserve agents . . . 2, 067, 808. 17 

Checks and cash items 815, 957. 21 

5 per cent Redemption fund 50, 300. 00 

Due from United States Treasury 937. 50 

12,711,112.09 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock J 1,536,650.00 

Surplus and undivided profits 697, 736. 12 

National-bank notes outstanding 999, 995. 00 

Due other banks 927, 392. 41 

Deposits 8,507,522.61 

Notes, rediscounts, and bills payable 37, 220. 95 

All other liabilities 4, 595. 00 

12, 711, 112. 09 

Combined resources, banks of New Mexico 15, 857, 683. 83 

COURTS. 

During the past fiscal year a vast amount of business has been 
transacted in the criminal branch of the six Territorial district 
courts. -According to statements furnished by the clerks of the 
courts 1,260 cases were disposed of during the year by convictions, 
acquittals, pleas of guilty, or dismissals. The convictions numbered 
418; acquittals, 63; dismissals, 410; stricken from docket, 263; 
change of venue, 9; transferred or abated, 9, and no true bills, 88. 

It will be seen from these figures that the dismissals and the cases 
stricken from the dockets together greatly outnumber the convictions. 
It has been impossible for me to find the reason for the large number 
of cases dropped after prosecution was begun. 



124 ANNUAL EEPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

At the close of the fiscal year June 30, 1905, there were 864 cases 
pending in the courts. On June 30, 1906, the cases pending num- 
bered 1,102. During the twelve months from July 1, 1905 to June 30, 
1906, 1,493 criminal actions were instituted. 

The civil branch of the six courts also transacted much business 
during the past year. During the twelve months 1,726 cases were 
disposed of. On June 30, 1905, 1,775 cases were pending. At the 
close of the past fiscal year there were on the docket 1,967 cases. 
During the year 1,935 cases were instituted. 

In the Territorial supreme court 98 cases were disposed of during 
the year. 

The following table shows the business transacted in the criminal 
and civil branches of each of the six district courts : 



First. 



Second. 



Third. 



Fourth 



Fifth. 



Sixth. 



Total. 



CRIMINAL DOCKET. 



Criminal actions pending June 30, 1905 

Criminal actions instituted from June 30, 

1905, to July 1, 1906 

Convictions 

Acquittal s 

Dismissals 

Stricken from docket or nolled 

Change of venue 

Transferred and abated 

No true hills 

Cases pending June 30, 1906 



CIVIL ACTIONS. 



Cases pending June 30, 1905 

Cases instituted from June 30, 1905, to July 1, 

1906 

Cases disposed 

Cases pending June 30, 1906 



164 

164 
32 

4 
84 
19 

5 



161 



290 

373 

278 
385 



112 

202 
66 
24 
84 
85 
1 
4 



150 



341 

377 
303 
414 



1S2 

463 
142 
22 
46 
125 
2 



64 
246 



228 

236 
220 
244 



180 

224 

58 
5 

75 
34 

1 



24 
201 



543 

380 
432 
475 



164 

68 
1 
41 



115 



151 

329 
279 
201 



165 

276 

52 

7 



5 
'229 



222 



240 
214 



1,493 

418 

63 

410 

263 



1,102 



1,775 

1,935 
1,726 
1,967 



TERRITORIAL SUPREME COURT. 

The following is a statement of the business transacted by the 
Territorial supreme court from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906: 

Cases under advisement, July 1, 1905 19 

Cases continued from January term, 1905 1 

Cases returnable January term, 1906 12 

Cases filed during the fiscal year 66 

Total 98 

The above cases were brought into this court as follows: 



From— 



By 
appeal. 



By writ 
of error. 



Total. 



First judicial district . . — 
Second judicial district — 

Third judicial district 

Fourth judicial district . . . 

Fifth judicial district 

Sixth judicial district 

Original in supreme court . 

Total 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 125 

They were disposed of as follows during the fiscal year: 

Finally determined by affirmance 37 

Finally determined by dismissal 20 

Reversed and remanded to the district court 4 

Under advisement by the court June 30, 1106 24 

Pending on motions 3 

For hearing August, 1906 7 

Disbarment 1 

Continued to 1907 term 2 

Total 98 

During the last fiscal year there have been admitted to the bar of 
this court twenty-four new members. 

During the past year there have been 12 cases briefed, argued, and 
disposed of in the supreme court, on the part of the Territory, leaving 
on the docket at the present time 5 cases still pending in that court. 

During the year, 93 written opinions on various subjects have been 
prepared and filed, at the request of Territorial officials and members 
of Territorial boards. The office has been called upon to examine and 
prepare papers in 19 requisition cases, has prepared and passed on 
numerous official bonds, and represented the Territory in a number 
of suits and proceedings in the district court. 

The business of the office of attorney-general is rapidly increasing, 
and, as an instance, the number of written opinions filed during one 
month of the present year almost equaled the number filed during the 
entire year of 1903. 

EDUCATION. 

In handling the subject of education I can do no better than to 
quote the report of the Territorial superintendent of education, Prof. 
Hiram Hadley. In his report Mr. Hadley gives the school enroll- 
ment at 40,000. There are 76,000 children of school age in the 
Territory. To instruct the 40,000 children who attend school 900 
teachers are employed. 

Professor Hadley says in his report : 

As one result of the war with Mexico, the Territory now known as New Mexico became, 
about the year 1850, a part of the United States. Along with this acquisition of territory 
came a large and very illiterate population. The sentiment that education was for the 
masses did not exist. The people believed that education was chiefly the prerogative of 
the church. A comparatively small number of the more favored young men were sent 
to existing colleges, became well educated for the times, returned and were dominant 
factors in all kinds of administration. But the mass of the common people were illiterate. 
Such were the conditions encountered by the Americans who from 1850 began settling in 
New Mexico. 

The newcomers, comparatively few in number, in addition to contending with and over- 
coming the difficulties incident to the making of homes among a practically foreign people, 
have been compelled to plant the seed of popular education, attend to its germination, and 
nurse the plant. Favorable public sentiment had to be created, from limited individual 
resources, means for sustaining schools had to be provided, legislation had to be secured, 
and organization for administration effected. 

For the common schools until the year 1898 the National Government gave no assist- 
ance. At that time Congress gave New Mexico for support of common schools the six- 
teenth and thirty-sixth sections of land. In this country of plateaus and mountains many 
of those sections are without value. Yet, by careful management, from the leasing of these 
lands the schools are beginning to receive substantial aid, having received approximately 
$50,000 during the past year. 

During the forty years succeeding the acquisition of New Mexico educational advantages 
were almost entirely confined to schools supported by various branches of the Christian 
Church — the Roman Catholic and several Protestant denominations. 



126 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

These did a great and commendable work, but they failed to reach the masses. With all 
the difficulties named to contend with it is doubtful whether any other people has made 
more satisfactory advancement in education than the people of New Mexico have. 

Educational progress in New Mexico is confined to the past seventeen or eighteen years. 
In 1888 a few citizens of Las Cruces, by incorporation, organized Las Cruces College, but 
the entire working capital was less than $1,000. Hiram Hadley was chosen president; he 
conducted the school purely as a private enterprise until the present agricultural college 
was opened in 1890. Of this Las Cruces Cohege was the forerunner, and its students 
formed the entering class. 

By act of the legislature signed in 1889, the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 
the University of New Mexico, and the School of Mines were created. In 1893 the New 
Mexico Normal School at Silver City, the Normal University at Las Vegas, and the New 
Mexico Military Institute at Roswell were created. These have all been well equipped, have 
been organized, and developed into very creditable and well-patronized institutions. In 
addition to these a school for the deaf and one for the blind have lately been opened. 

In 1889 the common schools were so nearly nothing that they may be disregarded. In 
1891 the legislature revised the existing inefficient school law. This revision made provi- 
sion for a Territorial board of education, created the office of superintendent of public 
instruction, provided for the adoption of a uniform series of text-books, increased the 
powers and duties of county superintendents, and made provisions for raising funds for the 
support of common schools. 

At once well-organized common schools began to spring up, and the advance made since 
that date, about fifteen years ago, is both very remarkable and exceedingly cheering. In 
all of the cities and incorporated towns graded schools equal in quality to those of the States, 
under similar circumstances, are sustained nine months of the year. 

The rural schools in New Mexico, as in the States, are not satisfactory. They never 
can be. But every school district sustains a school annually from three to six months, and 
the average length of term of all schools in the Territory for the past year was 114 days. 

The English language is the legal language of all schools ; no provision is made for teach- 
ing the Spanish. In some portions of the Territory the Spanish-speaking people largely 
predominate. In such, just as in many French-speaking parishes of Louisiana, the people 
are slow to abandon their native tongue. Even in these sections comparatively few schools 
exist in which English is not the chief language used and taught. Nearly all the children 
and young people among the natives understand and use the English language. For the 
young man in this southwestern country no other educational qualification possesses so 
great immediate commercial value as a good knowledge of both Spanish and English. 

As a typical example of the progress education has made in the past fifteen years, I cite 
the city of Albuquerque. In 1890 this city had absolutely no public school property. It 
had some educational facilities, but these were chiefly furnished by different religious bodies, 
and schools were sustained by tuition and benevolent contributions. In 1905 the city owned 
4 eight-room brick ward school buildings and 1 eight-room brick high school building, all 
furnished and equipped in modern manner. Besides a superintendent and two regular 
substitute teachers, 40 teachers are employed. The school enumeration is 3,252; the 
enrollment in the schools is over 1,800; $40,000 is the annual income for school purposes, 
and the value of buildings and grounds is $150,000. In nearly all parts of the Territory 
similar advance has been made. 

Under existing laws it is Impossible to get statistics for 1906 in time for this report. But, 
making conservative allowance for the remarkable immigration, the following are not far 
from correct: 

Number of teachers employed, 900; number of pupils enrolled in schools, 40,000; enu- 
meration between 5 and 21 years, 76,000; total receipts for school purposes, $600,000; value 
of schoolhouses and furniture, $900,000. 

The fixed means for the support of common schools come from the following sources: 

A general 2-mill Territorial tax; a portion of the fees for saloon and gambling licenses; 
fines for certain crimes and misdemeanors ; a poll tax of $1 to be paid by each able-bodied 
male over 21 years of age, and from the proceeds of the leasing of school lands. Besides 
these, any school district, by affirmative vote of the legal voters in said district, can levy 
annually a special tax of not to exceed 10 mills. The income from leasing the public 
lands is constantly increasing. During the past year it has amounted approximately to 
$50,000. 

As indicative of the professional spirit of teachers, it is proper to say that the New Mexico 
Educational Association has held its twentieth annual session. It was a pioneer factor in 
developing educational spirit, having been organized in 1886. Whilst this is intended to be 
Territorial in character, in this land of great distances it is impossible to secure at its meet- 
ings general representation. Hence, in 1905 the Pecos Valley Teachers' Association was 
organized, and it held a most successful session at Artesia in November last. The teachers 
of several counties, notably those of Dona Ana, Otero, and San Juan, have organized county 



GOVEKNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 127 

associations and hold regular sessions. At these appropriate educational topics are dis- 
cussed, and local interests are considered. 

As in the States, so in New Mexico the teachers' institute is recognized as an established 
and an essential factor in. securing the greatest advantages from our schools. By law each 
county appropriates a sum ranging from $50 to $100 for the support of its institute. In addi- 
tion to this each attendant may be required to pay a small fee. Attendance of teachers upon 
these institutes is compulsory. At their close the regular examination of teachers is held. 
The institutes for this season have just closed. I personally visited eight of these, and I 
have reliable reports from all. In twenty-two out of twenty-five counties the institutes held 
were very satisfactory. A higher grade of conductors and instructors was employed; more 
definite, more earnest, and more practical work was done. The Territorial board of educa- 
tion has adopted an excellent course of study for the common schools, and in these institutes 
700 teachers received training in its use. I feel no hesitation in claiming that the institutes 
of the present season have made an advance of 100 per cent over those of any former year. 

During the past two vacations the Normal University at Las Vegas has held a summer 
term, at which special effort has been made to offer to aspiring teachers opportunities for 
increasing their professional knowledge and standing. These summer schools have been 
well attended, and in stimulating higher educational ideals their influence is perceptibly 
felt. 

The wages paid teachers is governed by two conditions — the amount of funds at the dis- 
posal of the board for this purpose and the board's idea as to what constitutes a good school. 
Low ideals are accompanied by low wages and correspondingly poor schools. In a Territory 
the development of whose institutions of every kind is in its infancy the demands for money 
are so numerous and so heavy that there is a limit to the amount that can be supplied, even 
for education. Complete information in regard to wages and length of term is not at hand, 
but the following may serve as an example: In Guadalupe County the wages average $56.40 
per month, and the length of term four and one-half months; in Quay County, $45 per 
month, and term five and one-half months; in city of Roswell, exclusive of superintendent, 
$70 per month, and length of term nine months; in Santa Fe, including superintendent, 
$67.65 per month, and length of term nine months; in Albuquerque, not including superin- 
tendent, $70 per month, and length of term nine months. 

Many of the rural districts do not own a school building, and the school accommodations 
are poor; but there are signs of progress. An increasing number of districts and incorpo- 
rated towns are making special levies or voting bonds, and from the proceeds are supplying 
modern buildings and equipments. Some of those lately erected are rare specimens of ele- 
gance, convenience, and architectural beauty. 

The proper certification of teachers is a problem difficult to solve with justice to all inter- 
ested parties. As another evidence of progress in New Mexico, at the last session of the leg- 
islative assembly an act was passed empowering the Territorial board of education " to issue 
Territorial teachers' certificates to persons whom it may deem qualified by reason of their 
moral character, academic scholarship, knowledge of the theory and art of teaching, and 
actual practice in teaching." The lowest qualifications entitling to such certificates must 
.equal the full professional course in either of the normal schools of New Mexico. This pro- 
vision seems to be appreciated by the better grade of teachers. The board has already 
issued about 65 year certificates and 15 life certificates. 

The Territorial board of education, consisting of the governor, ex officio, the superin- 
tendent of public instruction, ex officio, and five others appointed by the governor, is an 
intelligent working body, having the best interests of education in the Territory constantly 
in mind. This board meets quarterly, and usually consumes two days in its deliberations, 
during which many important points relating to educational interests are carefully con- 
sidered. 

The foregoing is a very brief summary of educational conditions in New Mexico. We 
have much to do yet, but I feel satisfied that we are earnestly and intelligently working. I 
have said nothing about the satisfactory work that is being done by our Territorial educa- 
tional institutions, as each makes for itself a separate report. 

INDIANS. 

Little material change in the condition of the Indians of New Mex- 
ico has been noted during the year just closed. While there has been 
no progress worthy of mention, there has been no great retrogression. 

In wealth the Indians have gained some during the past twelve 
months, due to large yields from their farms and a great increase in 
the price of sheep and wool. This year's harvest gives promise of 
even greater returns than that of 1905. 



128 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPAETMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The population of the Indian pueblos and reservations has not 
increased. This year's canvas by the agents showed that the Indian 
population of New Mexico numbers about 13,000 people. Of this 
number between 8,000 and 9,000 are Pueblos. Of the others are the 
Mescalero Apache, numbering 460; the Jicarilla Apache, numbering 
800, and the Navajo, numbering 3,000. 

Of the entire Indian population of this Territory, more than three- 
fourths is comprised of the pueblo or village Indians. According to a 
recent court decision, these Indians are not wards of the Government, 
but are citizens of the United States. As citizens they can buy 
liquor. 

This court decision, a declaration giving the Pueblo absolute inde- 
pendence, has had a most pernicious effect, causing a tremendous 
growth in intemperance, with a corresponding increase in disease and 
sickness. Agents in charge of the Pueblos declare that unless the 
Government places the same restrictions upon liquor traffic in the 
pueblos as it does upon reservations it will be only a question of years 
before drunkenness and immorality cause the extinction of the 
Pueblo race. 

My attention has frequently been called to the conditions existing 
among the Indians on the Mescalero Reservation, which have doubt- 
less already received the careful consideration of the Indian Office, and 
which are referred to only because of the fact that they seem to be 
very serious and worthy of further study. The Indians on that 
reservation are decreasing in number and constantly becoming more 
susceptible to tuberculosis and other disease. This the Indians 
themselves realize is clue, to a considerable degree, to the depletion of 
their physical condition on account of intermarriage, and they very 
earnestly desire that, if it be possible to do so, Indians of some other 
tribe be brought to the reservation. They say that the 460 Indians 
still on the reservation are closely related, and that unless new blood 
is introduced rapid depletion and ultimate eradication must necessa- 
rily be the result. They are strongly in favor of bringing back there 
the members of Geronimo's band, now at Fort Sill, or part of the 
Jicarilla Apache from northern New Mexico. Of the two, probably 
the Jicarilla would be preferable, could the matter be arranged 
entirely in conformity with the plans of the Indian Office, as there 
would c&ubtless be considerable sentiment among some people in 
New Mexico against the return of any of Geronimo's band, in spite 
of the long period which has elapsed since they or their predecessors 
committed their depreciations in the Territory. If it should be 
impracticable to bring either, it might be possible to arrange that 
some of the Pueblos would desire to go there. That something must 
be done to prevent the rapid extinction of this tribe seems very 
certain. 

To the plan of bringing the Jicarilla back to Mescalero there is 
much objection among some of the Jicarilla, according to state- 
ments made by Agent Johnson of the Jicarilla Reservation. I am 
informed, however, that a considerable number of them would not 
object to it. Prior to the separation of the Mescalero and Jicarilla 
there was much trouble at Mescalero. Several times the Jicarilla 
left the old reservation, contending that they had been maltreated by 
the other tribe — the Mescalero. To end the strife the Government 
finally established the reservation at Jicarilla. This reservation, 



GOVERNOB OF NEW MEXICO. 129 

containing 500,000 acres, is in the heajt of a grazing country. It is 
located upon the Continental Divide, and because of its peculiar 
situation, little of the land can be utilized for agricultural purposes. 
It is estimated that about 10,000 acres of the land can be irrigated. 
The Government is now building an irrigation project at this reserva- 
tion. When the project is completed a reapportionment of the land 
will be necessary, as much of the land now held by the Indians will not 
be under the irrigation ditches. 

According to Agent Johnson a reapportionment will give each 
Indian about 10 acres of land, capable of cultivation through irrigation. 

While the Jicarilla Reservation is not rich in farming land, it con- 
tains within its boundaries fine grazing tracts and valuable timber 
country. It is the plan of the agent in charge to sell some of the 
timber holdings. It is contended that this can be done without 
harm to the Indians, as there are at least 120,000,000 feet of market- 
able timber upon the reservation. From the proceeds of the sale, 
sheep could be purchased and the Indians started in an industry from 
which they can derive far greater profits than from attempting to 
farm land that can not be watered. 

An interesting and instructive report on the conditions of the 
Pueblo Indians and their mode of living has been furnished to me by 
Judge A. J. Abbott, special attorney for the Pueblo Indians in New 
Mexico. Judge Abbott's report has been supplemented with an 
equally interesting document from Supt. C. J. Crandall, of the United 
States Indian school at Santa Fe, who is the acting agent for all the 
Pueblos north of Albuquerque. 

As the Pueblo Indian is by a large majority the most numerous of 
the red race in this Territory, and as this Indian family, of all the 
American Indians, is perhaps the most interesting from a historic 
viewpoint, I feel that much space can be devoted with profit to the 
Pueblo in this report. 

In his report to me, Judge Abbott says : 

It is difficult for the Pueblo Indian to adapt himself to the legal requirements of the 
Territorial laws of the United States. He has had a government of his own since a time 
farther back in the past than the memory of many generations preceding the advent of Coro- 
nado in A. D. 1540. When discovered by Coronado his villages were venerable for antiquity, 
and at that time the ruins of the villages of his ancestors gave evidence of centuries upon 
centuries of age preceding the advent of white men. He had not then, nor has he now, any 
written language. Hence authentic history concerning him begins with the Spanish inva- 
sion, about the middle of the sixteenth century. There is some tradition and much specula- 
tion to the effect that he was present in the territory which now comprises New Mexico for 
a period dating as far backward from the beginning of authentic history concerning him as 
equals the period extending from Coronado's time to the present date. During all that time 
each of his villages has been, so far as its government was concerned, a pure democracy. 
During the Spanish and Mexican occupations of the Territory there was little or no authority 
exercised over them, except that those governments did lend their aid in some measure to 
protect them from the raids of the warlike nomadic tribes and were always ready to accept 
their assistance when soldiers were necessary for defense or conquest. 

They are therefore unaccustomed to the constant touch of the hand of a superior govern- 
ment, especially such a Government as ours, which holds its hand over society at all times 
for the betterment and protection of the citizen, and for his subjection to law when subjec- 
tion is necessary. 

Generally speaking, the Pueblo Indian does not desire to avail himself of all the privileges 
of citizenship. Having been accustomed for centuries to implicit obedience to his com- 
munal laws, and to regard no other law as superior to them in authority, he chafes under the 
rub and touch of Territorial law whenever it conflicts with his ancient rules and customs. 
An instance of this conflict occurred in the case of an Indian of the pueblo of Isleta. By a 
rule of that pueblo the members might be tried, convicted, and punished by imprisonment 
in the pueblo jail for willful violation of Pueblo laws. An Indian was tried, convicted, and 



130 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

imprisoned, according to Pueblo rules. He applied to the Territorial courts for a writ of 
habeas corpus and was discharged. Reverence for his ancient customs being thus rudely 
broken, he went a step farther (being instructed as to his rights by a pale-faced lawyer), and 
sued the community through its officers for false imprisonment. He procured a verdict and 
judgment for $200 to compensate for his four days' loss of liberty and his mental anguish 
and suffering. 

By this case and the necessary inferences which flowed from it the Pueblo Indians of this 
Territory learned — what was to most of them an unwelcome lesson — that they can not, by 
ancient Pueblo law, deprive even their own members of liberty nor administer corporal 
or capital punishment through their own communal government, and that to do so is crim- 
inal when tested by Territorial and Federal law. 

Another instance which occurred recently: The Pueblo have been accustomed for cen- 
turies to take an annual hunt for meat in winter time. This has been a communal event for 
centuries with these people. The round-up hunt in November, after the crops were matured 
and gathered and the winter fuel provided, has gone into history as a fixed custom among 
them; and they have been accustomed to regard the elk, the deer, the mountain sheep, and 
the wild turkey, as well as the game fish of the mountain streams, as the peculiar provisions 
of nature for their benefit. Territorial game laws have restricted them in this regard until 
no citizen of the Territory can kill more than one deer in a year, and that must be a deer with 
horns. The open season for deer hunting in this Territory (when there has been an open 
season) has been the months of November and December, until the year 1905. The Indians 
had come to know that all the privileges allowed them for deer hunting were to be enjoyed 
during these months. 

Prior to 1905 the Territorial statutes provided that notice of the game laws and of the 
open season should be given to the Indians of the Territory by some one or more of the 
Territorial officers. 

In March, 1905, the law was so changed that the open season was made to begin Septem- 
ber 15 and to close October 31. No provision was made for notification of this change, as 
had been done concerning the changes made in 1903. In November and December, 1905, 
the Indians went hunting as usual, with the result that about thiity of them were arrested 
for killing deer out of season. Ignorance of the law not being a defense, and it being true 
that deer had been killed by some of them out of season, fifteen pleas of guilty were entered 
and one conviction was procured on the evidence. As to the others, the prosecutions were 
dismissed. The sentences which the court must necessarily pronounce under the law were 
suspended, and the Indians were allowed to go, under promise of future good behavior and 
with the warning from the court that further violations would set the law in operation as 
to the suspended sentences, as well as to provoke other prosecutions and incur heavier 
penalties. 

The Pueblo Indians are not criminally inclined. During the last four years not a single 
arrest has been made among them for any of the lower and especially disgusting crimes, 
such as rape and incest. In this regard they are an example for both the Caucasian and the 
African. Three Indians from the pueblo of Jemez were arrested on a charge of interrupt- 
ing the carrier of the United States mail as he was passing through their village on a day 
devoted annually to one of their secret dances; but the prosecution failed for want of evi- 
dence. The litigation in the civil courts which most affects the Pueblo Indians is that which 
arises from trespasses upon their lands by the native Mexican people of the Territory, in 
their apparent efforts to acquire portions of the same by encroaching beyond their own 
boundary lines into the Indian lands, and that which arises by trespasses upon their anciently 
acquired water rights. The legislature of the Territory has in the past undertaken to de- 
prive the Pueblo Indian of the right to vote at acequia or ditch elections, although it is worthy 
of note that many of the oldest and best irrigating ditches of the Territory were constructed 
and had been for many years in use before Caucasians had settled in the vicinity of the 
Indian villages. As far as my information extends, obtained by conducting many of these 
suits for the Indians, and by observation before it was my duty to do so, these differences 
have been uniformly decided in favor of the Indians under the rights acquired by their prior 
appropriation and use. The Territorial laws which have been enacted for the purpose of 
depriving the Pueblo Indians of the right to vote at general and special elections have never 
been tested by the courts. It is believed that whenever that is done such laws will be found 
to be either unconstitutional or invalid. 

At the time of Coronado's visit, there were in all about 30,000 of the pueblo or village 
Indians within the territory which now belongs to the United States. Now there are about 
10,000. About 8,000 of these are in New Mexico. They are grouped in nineteen villages or 
pueblos, each village having a separate communal government in which a governor and the 
other communal officers are elected on the 1st day of January of each year. 

The question is frequently asked, "Are the Pueblo Indians increasing or decreasing in 
numbers?" To this question it may now be safely answered, "The decrease has been 
arrested, and it is probable that an accurate census would show an increase." 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



131 



The population of the nineteen pueblos of the Territory is about as shown in the following 



list: 

Taos 550 

Picoris 220 

San Juan 500 

Santa Clara 300 

San Udefonso 300 

Pojaque 25 

Nambe 200 

Tesuque 250 

Cochiti 500 

Santo Domingo 1, 000 



San Felipe 600 

Santa Ana 125 

Sandia 80 

Zia 100 

Isleta 1, 000 

Laguna 750 

Jemez 534 

Acoma 400 

Zuiii 1,250 



Aggregating in all 8,584, which it is believed is about correct. For reasons best known to 
the Indians, it is very difficult to procure a perfectly accurate census. 

A prejudice exists among the native Mexican people of the Territory which makes it diffi- 
cult to procure a fair and impartial jury trial where Indians are parties to proceedings. 
For this reason we avoid jury trials as much as possible and appeal to the equity side of the 
court whenever it is practicable to do so. It is the constant purpose of the special attorney 
for the Pueblo Indians to keep these people out of litigation except where litigation is actu- 
ally necessary for the protection of their rights. It is especially pleasing to be able to say 
that in the cases where the Indians have been brought into court their testimony has been 
frank, open, and truthful; and in counsel with their attorney they have reposed implicit 
confidence in his judgment and have not manifested treachery or suspicion according to 
what might be expected from reputed Indian character. 

Within the year last past some very important litigation has been amicably adjusted in a 
manner exceedingly favorable to the Indians. At this time the number of court cases in 
which the Pueblo are interested pending in the criminal, civil, and land courts is 12, about 
30 having been recently disposed of as above stated. 

Superintendent Crandall has the following to say regarding the 
pueblos : 

In addition to the work connected with the Indian industrial school at Santa Fe, of 
which I am the superintendent, and which has passed a very successful year, I am also the 
acting agent for some 12 pueblos north of Albuquerque. A very careful census has 
been taken of all of the pueblos, showing a total number of 3,422. Each family has been 
listed, and a quarterly report of births and deaths is being received, which shows that 
during the past six months there has been an increase of 9. While this is small, it must be 
remembered that during the winter months, from January to the 1st of April, a large 
number of deaths occur from pneumonia and other causes, and that probably from July 1 to 
December 31 will show even a greater increase. 

All of the pueblos under my jurisdiction, with the exception of two, are now provided 
with medical services. Some attention is being paid to sanitary matters, and the Indians 
are vaccinated, and epidemics carefully guarded. 

The Pueblo are making no great strides in agriculture, but are tilling their small tracts 
of land much the same as they have done for many years, raising enough for their immediate 
wants. 

A spirit of progress is being developed along other lines, and many Indians from the 
different pueblos are now going out to work. A large number of them found employment 
this year in the beet-sugar fields of Colorado, in the lumber mills of northern New Mexico 
and southern Colorado, and for the various stock men throughout the Territory. This is 
indeed encouraging, as the money earned is brought back and used in the purchase of 
wagons, and in the improvement of their homes. 

The Department has authorized the employment of an irrigation engineer for the pueblos, 
and a sum not to exceed $10,000 will be expended in the improvement of the acequias, or 
ditches, in the pueblos most in need of same. Day schools have been maintained in nine 
of my pueblos, and there is a growing disposition to patronize them. The legal rights of 
the pueblos have been carefully guarded and looked after by A. J. Abbott, special attorney 
for the pueblos. 

While it is true that these Indians were more advanced in all lines than any other of the 
North American Indians, still it is also true that they are less inclined to adopt and accept 
our civilization and manners than other Indians. They cling tenaciously to their old 
form of government, and while they outwardly profess to be Roman Catholics, they at the 
same time maintain and teach their old pagan religion. While they conform to the laws 
of the United States and the Territory of New Mexico, they at the same time maintain and 
teach a government of their own. Thus we have a people who are in a sense leading a dual 



132 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

life, clinging religiously to the religion and government of their ancestors and slowly and 
reluctantly accepting the Christian religion and the American civilization. The only hope of 
breaking down this barrier to citizenship lies in the school, and in increasing the financial 
condition of this people. This is being accomplished slowly, but will take many genera- 
tions to accomplish the desired results. 

At the present writing the United States courts hold that the Pueblo Indians are citizens, 
and as such are entitled to all of the rights and privileges given to other citizens. The 
United States statutes making it a misdemeanor to take intoxicating liquor into an Indian 
country, and to sell and give liquor to Indians, is held not to apply to the Pueblo. Thus 
the Pueblo Indian finds himself for the first time a free moral agent, and intemperance is 
growing among this people. Unless a different interpretation is placed upon the law by a 
higher court, or the Territory of New Mexico shall enact stringent laws against the selling 
of liquor to these Indians, it is but a matter of a few years when the few remaining Pueblo 
will become extinct and a matter of history only. 

All of the efforts put forth by a magnanimous Government in attempting to educate and 
civilize the Pueblo Indians is being offset by the liquor traffic. 

MESCALERO RESERVATION. 

The census of June 30 last shows the population of the Mescalero 
Reservation to be as follows : 

Males 18 years and over 107 

Males under 18 years 96 

Females 14 years and over - 171 

Females under 14 years 86 

Total 460 

Children between 6 and 16 years Ill 

The physical condition and environment of the Mescalero Apache 
foreshadows the extinction of the tribe. Isolated from other bands 
of the Apache nation for more than a quarter of a century, they have 
intermarried to such an extent that children of the present generation 
have not constitutions strong enough to withstand disease in any 
form. They are especially susceptible to tuberculosis. Man's 
humanity to man suggests the necessity of applying for a remedy. 
The tribe should be amalgamated with some other tribe — preferably 
another tribe of the Apache — or else encouraged to intermarry with 
the mixed bloods who live adjacent to the reservation. 

From an agricultural standpoint the past year was the most 
successful ever experienced on this reservation. The oat crop, 
which is the principal farm product, amounted to about 400,000 
pounds. By reference to the annual reports of this office from the 
establishment of the agency to 1901, it will be seen that in no year 
of this period did the yield of oats exceed 60,000 pounds. The 
yield of wheat was somewhat less than in previous years; but the 
decrease in this crop may be attributed to the fact that wheat is 
sown on irrigable lands along the Rio Tularosa, and because of the 
injunction restraining the Indians from using the waters of this 
stream for other than domestic purposes these lands could not be 
sufficiently irrigated. 

The sheep industry was never before so promising. From sales 
of wool and wethers the Indian sheep owners realized $11,853.91 
during the past year. If it were possible to make of every Indian of 
the tribe a successful sheep raiser, these people could, within a few 
years, accumulate considerable means. But this is not practicable. 
For reasons which should be obvious, the industry has drifted into 
the hands of a few Indians. The majority of the tribe reap no 
benefit whatever from this source. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 133 

The grazing permit system is still in force. The income from this 
source amounted to $5,294 during the past year. The rates for 
grazing having been increased by the department, the revenue 
should correspondingly increase, provided none of the permittees 
retire, or reduce their holdings. 

A few good mineral specimens were found on the reservation 
since the last report was submitted. The northeast corner of the 
reservation has every surface indication of a mineral country. If 
prospecting throughout this section were legalized, and mining per- 
mits were issued on a royalty basis, it is possible that some valuable 
properties would be developed, and the income of the Indians mate- 
rially increased. With the mineral laws extended to the reservation, 
it is not thought that there would be further demand for its opening 
to public settlement. 

The regulations governing marriage and divorce have been ob- 
served. No crimes have been committed. The court of Indian 
offenses has had but little to do in its official capacity, but members of 
the court, as individuals, have wielded a good influence among the 
tribe. 

The total enrollment of the school for the past year was 136, while 
the average attendance was 129. The results attained in the several 
departments were highly satisfactory. When the session opened 
quite a number of the Apache children were found to be physically 
disqualified for admission. This deficiency was supplied by admit- 
ting some mixed bloods (Pueblo extraction) who live adjacent to the 
reservation and in communities having no school or church advan- 
tages. The admission of these outside children, all of whom are fond 
of dancing, music, and all social pleasures, wrought a complete change 
in the Apache children. Formerly social gatherings of the girls and 
boys were a bore — a hopeless drag; now it is refreshing to attend 
them. In the literary department a spirit of friendly rivalry was 
manifest, a condition never before observed, at least at this school. 

JICARILLA RESERVATION. 

The census of the Jicarilla tribe, taken June 30, 1906, which is sub- 
i mitted herewith, is summarized as follows : 

] Indians of all ages (males, 393; females, 391) 784 

! Males over 16 years of age 205 

1 Females over 14 years of age 227 

I Children between ages of 6 and 16 years 217 

There are 239 children of school age. It is estimated that not more 

I than 165 of the above number are physically and mentally capable of 

: receiving education. Taken as a whole the children of this tribe are 

very frail, and it requires unusual watchfulness and care to preserve 

the health of the pupils while in school. 

The fact that the general condition of the tribe has improved in the 
i past few years will become manifest in a few years through stronger 
and more vigorous offspring. 

It is gratifying that some steps are now being taken in the matter of 
I a readjustment of the allotment problem to meet the changed condi- 
tions resulting from the construction of irrigation reservoirs and 
ditches. 

A very good crop was harvested last year, and seed enough was 
saved, so that this year's acreage is more than double that of a year 
241b— 07 10 



134 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ago. This year's crop is now practically assured, although not yet 
ready to harvest. 

Last spring 35 individual Indians were induced to plant crops of 
their own where they could have the benefit of water for irrigation 
and where they could be advised and instructed daily by one of the 
agency farmers. Past failures, owing to lack of irrigation, made many 
reluctant to take hold of the above proposition, and several did so 
simply because requested to do so. It is gratifying to note that results 
have made all of them enthusiastic. As the storage of flood water is 
depended upon for irrigation purposes, it will be easily seen that the 
problem of irrigation is a very serious one. 

During the past year about 12 miles of new road has been built. 
About 30 per cent of the tribe is on the regular ration roll. This may 
seem to be an unduly large proportion of the Indians, but each indi- 
vidual case has been investigated, and any reduction in the roll would 
have resulted in the suffering of the needy and helplessT 

In the past twelve months the Indians have sold to various buyers 
about 500 head of ponies at an average price of $8 per head. This 
may appear to be a small price, but the tribe has so many ponies from 
which it derives no benefit that sales of a portion of this stock at any 
price is advisable. 

A few of the more progressive Indians have small herds of sheep, 
and they are handling them with considerable profit to themselves. 

The income of the Indians from their own efforts, while not large, 
has exceeded that of any year in the past and is as follows : 

From sale of stock of all kinds $8, 000 

From sale of farm products 2, 000 

From sale of baskets and curios 4, 000 

Earned by Indians as laborers on ranches, at sawmills, etc 2, 000 

Labor on reservation, in lieu of rations 11, 000 

Total 27,000 

The training school opened for work on September 8. The highest 
enrollment for the year was 140, which is 15 more than the rated 
capacity of the school plant. The average attendance for the year 
was 132.89. 

The industrial building just completed is a valuable addition to the 
school plant. The most urgent needs of the school are a school build- 
ing and assembly hall large enough to accommodate the entire school. 
A barn is also very badly needed. The building now in use as a barn 
is too small and is poorly adapted to the purpose. No systematic 
training along agricultural lines can be accomplished until suitable 
equipment is provided. 

ALBUQUERQUE INDIAN SCHOOL. 

The buildings in general are in fair condition, but a few of them are 
old and in bad repair. During the past year a new brick laundry was 
built and is now in operation. It is a substantial structure and is a 
credit to the plant. 

The warehouse was destroyed by fire last November, thus causing 
considerable loss and great inconvenience. A contract has been 
awarded for the erection of a new warehouse, which will be completed 
in October. A new kitchen and dining room and a new dormitory for 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 135 

the boys will be built during the coming year, and these will add 
materially to the comfort and convenience of the children. 

The farm, which consists of about 66 acres, seems to be poor soil 
and poorly adapted to the growing of crops, although the first crop of 
alfalfa this season was very good. If an adequate supply of water can 
be secured that can be depended on at all times good crops of alfalfa, 
vegetables, etc., can be raised. 

The present water system supplies enough water for domestic pur- 
poses, but is entirely inadequate for irrigation and for fire protection. 
Flans have been submitted for a new water system, which will give 
good fire protection. Plans are also being considered for a pumping 
plant, which will supply water needed for irrigating the whole farm. 

The pupils of this school were collected mostly from the surround- 
ing pueblos and from among the Navajos who are living off their 
reservation. 

The outing system has been carried on to quite an extent, and it 
has in general been satisfactory. There have been during the past 
year 100 boys and 14 girls outing. The boys under the supervision 
of the outing agent, Charles Dagenett, have worked on the railroad 
and in the beet fields in Colorado and the girls have worked in 
private families in the city. The total amount of earnings of the 
outing pupils for the past fiscal year was $10,671.13. 

There are six pueblos, viz, Acoma, Isleta, Laguna, Santa Ana, San 
Dia, and San Felipe, and a band of Navajos at Canoncito under the 
supervision of the superintendent of this school. Their populations 
are 3,990 Pueblo and 157 Navajo. The births were 186 and deaths 
81, showing an increase during the year of 105. 

There are 9 day schools among these Indians, as follows: Two 
among the Acoma, 1 in Isleta, 5 among the Laguna, and 1 in San 
Felipe. 

San Dia is a very small pueblo, and most of the children attend 
the Catholic schools at Bernalillo and Santa Fe. Santa Ana has had 
most of the children of school age in this school during the past three 
years. 

The Pueblo Indians are taking more interest in the education of 
their children, and the attendance at the day schools is usually very 
good, but is often broken by religious ceremonies and customs of the 
people. Their old ceremonies and superstitions are gradually being 
dropped as the influence of civilization and education are increasing. 

ZUNI TRAINING SCHOOL. 

In looking over the work of the past year one feels as if very little 
progress had been made, but in comparing the general condition of 
the Indians of few years past with the present one can not help 
seeing great change in their advancement to civilization. The build- 
ing of the dam at Black Rocks has given employment to all those who 
could be spared from their farms and attending to their sheep. 

The high price of wool and sheep, in addition to the money earned 
working on the dam, has given the Indians means to build new houses, 
purchase new wagons, buggies, harness, etc., which shows plainly 
that these people are progressing in civilization. 

The new school at Black Rocks will open the 1st of September. 
When another year rolls around it is expected to make a favorable 



136 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

showing in educational lines as well as industrial. The irrigation 
system will be completed at Black Rocks in the course of a year; 
then there will be no excuse for not having a model farm for the 
school. The records made by this school the past year are very 
fair. For a time the attendance exceeded the capacity nearly 2 to 1. 
The work of each employee has been maintained uniformly well 
throughout the year. The sanitary condition of the pueblo during 
the past year has been fairly good. 

Agricultural pursuits have been carried on as formerly. The 
present season started out with bright prospects for a big yield in 
everything, but as the season advanced the grasshoppers made their 
appearance at Pescado and Ojo Caliente, destroying practically all 
the wheat and garden vegetables. The cutworm did considerable 
damage to the corn, which necessitated many of the Indians to 
replant. The Indian women at the pueblo have fine gardens, but 
nearly their whole time is spent in irrigating them, carrying all the 
water by hand from the creek. 

The present unsettled and unsatisfactory condition of the reserva- 
tion lines may lead to serious trouble, unless the reservation is sur- 
veyed and plainly marked. 

The missionary work at the agency is carried on by Rev. Andrew 
Vanderwagon and wife, of the Christian Reformed Church of Hol- 
land, Mich. These missionaries have been laboring among the Zufii 
for nine years, and the good accomplished by them can be readily 
seen. 

CLIMATE. 

A report on conditions in the Territory would be incomplete with- 
out a statement as to New Mexico's healthful climate — the finest 
climate in the world. According to information furnished me by 
the United States Weather Bureau, I find that at Santa Fe the mean 
temperature for the year was 49° above zero. At Las Vegas the 
mean temperature was 50.2°, Roswell 58.6°, and at Mesilla Park 
59.6°. These are considered ideal averages. The precipitation at 
these four points was: Santa Fe, 14.35 mches; Las Vegas, 18.99 
inches; Mesilla Park, 9.86 inches, and Roswell, 15.76 inches. The 
number of clear days at Santa Fe for the year were 189, partly cloudy 
133, cloudy 43, with rain 46; Roswell, clear 206, partly cloudy 91, 
cloudy 68, with rain 43; Las Vegas, clear 227, partly cloudy 115, 
cloudy 23, with rain 67; Mesilla Park, clear 249, partly cloudy 60, 
cloudy 56, with rain 42. The relative humidity at these points was: 
Santa Fe, 46 per cent; Roswell, 43 per cent; Las Vegas, 50 per cent; 
Mesilla Park, 47 per cent. 

New Mexico's fine climate is the mecca for hundreds of tubercu- 
losis patients who come to this Territory yearly, many of whom are 
eith *r permanently cured or are greatly benefited in health. The 
report of the Government hospital at Fort Bayard shows what can 
be accomplished in this Territory in the war upon tuberculosis. 

The post at Fort Bayard was turned over to the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Army in 1899 for use as a sanitarium in the treatment of 
cases of tuberculosis arising in the Army, Navy, and Soldiers' Homes. 
The method of treatment has always been almost purely hygienic, 
comprising out-door air, abundant food, and relative or absolute 
rest, as the individual case might warrant. The number of patients 



GOVERNOE OP NEW MEXICO. 



137 



has steadily increased, with a somewhat corresponding growth in 
the equipment. At the present time the chief buildings in use are 
an infirmary for advanced cases; receiving hospital for classification 
and instruction of new cases, and a series of wards for use of patients 
who do not require to be confined to their beds. For this class of 
patients are used thirty-six hospital tents and a ward with open 
court, so designed as to facilitate sleeping out of doors. The old 
barracks, formerly used by the line of the Army, are also used for a 
limited number of patients. Accommodations for officer patients 
consists of an infirmary for more serious cases, and a dormitory for 
the patients who are able to be about. 

The following statistics were compiled for the calendar year 1905, 
statistics for 1906 not being available as yet. 

The number of cases under treatment December 31, 1904, was 335, 
on December 31, 1905, 346. The total number of cases treated dur- 
ing the calendar year, excluding minor ailments occurring among men 
on duty, was 682. There were two cases of abscess of the liver and 1 
of tuberculous nephritis. The remaining 679 cases were cases of 
pulmonary tuberculosis. 

The following table shows the results obtained in treatment of all 
cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which were present one month or 
more. The classification is that of Turban: 



Class on admission. 


Num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Apparently 
cured. 


Arrested. 


Improved. 


Unimproved. 


Died. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent. 




54 
260 
314 

18 


18 
23 


33.33 

8.85 


21 
90 
51 


38.89 
34.62 
16.24 


9 

84 
99 


16.67 
32.30 
31.53 


6 
62 
138 


11.11 
23.85 
43.95 






Class 2 


i 

26 
18 


0.38 


Class 3 


8.28 








100.00 






















Total 


646 


41 


6.35 


162 


25.08 


192 


29.72 


206 


31.89 


45 


6.95 







The advantages of sanatorium treatment can not be fairly tested 
in cases which reach a fatal termination shortly after admission nor 
in those of patients whose stay has been brief. The following table 
shows the result of treatment in all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis 
which remained six months or more : 



Class on admiesion. 


Num- 
ber of 
cases. 


Apparently 
cured. 


Arrested. 


Improved. 


Unimproved. 


Died. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent. 




37 

174 

211 

2 


18 
22 


48.65 
12.64 


12 
70 
46 


32.43 
40.23 
21.80 


3 

44 
68 


8.11 

25.29 
32.23 


4 
37 

89 


10.81 
21.26 
42.18 






Class 2 


1 
8 
2 


0.58 


Class 3 


3.79 








100.00 






















Total 


424 


40 


9.43 


128 


30.19 


115 


27.12 


130 


30.66 


11 


2.60 







Forty-eight deaths occurred in the year 1905. Of these 2 resulted 
from abscess of the liver. The remainder were from tuberculosis, 45 
dying of pulmonary tuberculosis, complicated or uncomplicated by 
tuberculosis of other organs, and 1 of tuberculous nephritis without 
pulmonary involvement. It will be observed from the subj oined table 



138 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

that 36 deaths occurred within the first six months after admission or 
readmission : 





Weeks. 


Months. 


Years. 


Total 




1. 


2. 


3. [ 4. 


2-G. 


7-12. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


Time of death of 40 cases of tuberculosis under con- 


4 
2 


3 


1 


6 


18 
3 


6 

1 
1 


2 


i 





40 


Time of death of 6 cases not under continuous treat- 
ment: 


6 










2 


2 


1 


(6) 














Total 




















40 

























This table is instructive, as showing that almost all cases, except 
those which arrived extremly ill, seem able to live indefinitely under 
the conditions that obtain at this institution. 



APPROPRIATION FOR LEGISLATURE. 

I respectfully recommend that at the next session of the National 
Congress a law be passed appropriating $15,000 for the contingent 
expenses of the New Mexico Territorial legislature over and above 
the $24,250 already appropriated by the last appropriation act for 
the expenses of this Territory. 

In spite of the act of Congress of May 28, 1896, providing that no 
officer of the legislative assembly of this Territory shall be paid out 
of any moneys appropriated by the legislative assembly of the Terri- 
tory, it has been the custom at each session of the legislature to appro- 
priate and pay out large sums of money for this purpose. 

The subordinate officers of all Territorial legislatures are employed 
and paid under the provisions of an act of Congress of June 19, 1878 
(20 Stat. L., 193), which reads as follows: 

That the subordinate officers of each branch of said Territorial legislatures shall consist 
of one chief clerk, who shall receive a compensation of six dollars per day; one enrolling 



and engrossing clerk, at five dollars per day; sergeant at arms and doorkeeper, at five 

.ay each; 
chaplain, at one dollar and fifty cents per day. Said sums shall be paid only during the 



dollars per day; one messenger and watchman, at four dollars per day each; and one 



sessions of said legislatures ; and no greater number of officers or charges per diem shall be 
paid or allowed by the United States to any Territory. 

This act, then, makes provision for six subordinate officers in each 
branch of the assembly, whose salaries aggregate $51 per day, or 
$3,060 for the entire session. It will be observed, however, that in 
reality there are but two active clerical positions among the six 
allowed to each house, namely, those of chief clerk and enrolling and 
engrossing clerk. 

The act just cited is further restricted by an act of Congress 
approved May 28, 1896 (29 Stat. L., 161), applicable to New Mexico 
alone, as follows: 

That no other officer of either house of said legislative assembly shall be elected or 
appointed, or paid out of any moneys appropriated by the Congress of the United States 
or by the legislative assembly of said Territory than such as may be provided for by the 
laws of the United States, except a translator and an interpreter. 

Thus the New Mexico legislature is confronted with that anomalous 
condition of affairs which obliges it to transact all business with the 
aid of eight employees in each branch, four of whom at least are not 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 139 

active workers (a number obviously insufficient), or supply a number 
sufficient to meet the actual exigencies by evasion or the Federal 
Statutes. 

The method under which these statutes may be technically evaded 
was originated and put in practice in 1901, through the passage of a 
joint resolution providing for the payment of " Interpreters, trans- 
lators, and contingent expenses, under the provisions of which 
$15,875 were drawn from the Territorial treasury. 

In 1903 similar resolutions resulted in an expenditure of $22,849 
for like purposes, while in 1905 similar resolutions passed by means of 
legislative trickery again opened the way for an expenditure amount- 
ing to $23,000. According to the way these resolutions were drawn, 
any amount of money might have been drawn out of the Territorial 
treasury for this purpose upon the mere order of the chairmen of the 
finance committees of the council and house of representatives. 

It is undeniably true that a good many of the extra employes thus 
provided for by the several legislative assemblies were such as are 
necessary for the proper and expeditious transaction of business, 
being clerks, stenographers, typewriters, committee clerks, pages, etc. ; 
but it is also true that this irregular system of paying these employes 
leads to great abuses and to the employment of many unfit and 
incompetent persons for purely political purposes, and to many 
unnecessary ones if they were not unfit or incompetent. 

The Federal appropriation of $24,250 is absolutely inadequate to 
supply funds for paying the necessary extra employees, even if such 
payment were not prohibited by the act of June 19, 1878, cited above. 
These funds are distributed about as follows: 

Salaries, subordinate officers $3, 060 

Salaries, members 8, 880 

Mileage, members 2, 500 

Stationery, rent, light, and miscellaneous 2, 500 

Printing laws, journals, bills, etc 3, 750 

Total legislative 20,690 

Salaries, expenses, etc., secretary's office 3, 560 

24,250 

The Territorial secretary in a letter to me on this subject remarks: 

The close relations which exist between this department and the Territorial legislature in 
respect to what may be called the mechanical side of its transactions, together with the 
familiarity of its fiscal needs, derived from handling such funds as are appropriated by 
Congress for its use, have given me a fair insight of its general needs as to clerical assistance. 
It appears to me fair to say that additional employees are really needed about as follows : 

COUNCIL. 

For the session. 
Assistant chief clerk, assistant enrolling and engrossing clerk — 3, at $5 per 

day $900 

Assistant sergeant-»t-arms, doorkeeper, assistant doorkeeper, and reading 

clerk— 4, at $4 per day 960 

Three stenographers, at $4 per day 720 

Seven committee clerks, at $4 per day 1, 680 

Two messengers, 2 pages — 4, at $2 per day 480 

President, 3 clerks for ten days after session to close up business 500 

$5, 240 



140 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



Three clerks as above, at $5 per day $900 

Four clerks as above, at $4 per day 960 

Five stenographers, at $4 per day 1, 200 

Ten committee clerks, at $4 per day 2, 400 

Five messengers, 5 pages — 10, at $2 per day 1, 200 

Speaker, 3 clerks ten days extra 500 



For the session. 



$7,160 



For postage, telegrams, and other miscellaneous items not allowed by 

United States 2,600 

$15, 000 

If, then, Congress will appropriate about $15,000 more than is now 
allowed, to be used to pay these employees, the difficulty will be 
solved, and I have therefore the honor to strongly recommend that 
such an appropriation be made. 

ANTIGAMBLING BILL. 

At the last session of the Congress of the United States a bill pro- 
hibiting gambling in the Territories was introduced and passed the 
House of Representatives, but failed to pass the Senate. The passage 
of this bill would do as much for the welfare and permanent advance- 
ment of the people of New Mexico as any single measure that could 
be enacted by the Congress. It would be welcomed by a large major- 
ity of the people of this Territory. The demand for its passage is 
not confined to any one class of people, but it is generally conceded 
by nearly every class, except those who run the gambling establish- 
ments, that to wipe out gambling and its attendant evils would result 
in vast good from every point of view to the whole Territory. 

The people of New Mexico look to the Federal Government, as 
long as it retains its supervisory power over them, to abolish flagrant 
evils in the Territory when the time for their abolition has arrived, 
and they believe that there is no doubt but that the time for the aboli- 
tion of licensed gambling has arrived. I very urgently recommend 
the passage of the bill. 

REPORTS OF TERRITORIAL OFFICIALS. 



J. W. RAYNOLDS, TERRITORIAL SECRETARY. 

[Note. — The executive record and the accounts appertaining to United States funds are transmitted 
direct to the authorities at Washington.] 

COMMISSIONS. 

During the fiscal year 1906 commissions were issued to 4 commissioners of deeds for other 
States and countries, to 275 notaries public in the several counties, and to 442 territorial 
officials, members of boards, and delegates to various public congresses. 

Commissioners of deeds for New Mexico in other States and countries. 



Name. 



Post-office. 



Term 
expires. 



Charles Edgar Mills. . 

John A. Peck 

Charles Hall Adams. 

J. Burke Hendry 

Samuel L. Taulor 

Joseph B. Braman... 

Alfred Mackay 

James L. King 

Edwin F. Corey 

Silas S. Willard 

Simeon W. King 

Charles S. Bundy.... 

Isidor J. Pocher 

Thomas J. Hunt 

Fergus F. MacWilkie. 
W. J. De Gress 



New York City 

St. Louis, Mo 

Boston, Mass 

London, England 

Philadelphia, Pa 

New York City 

do 

San Francisco, Cal 

New York City 

Chicago, 111 

do 

Washington, D. C 

New York City 

Philadelphia, Pa 

do 

City of Mexico, Mexico . 



Jan. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
May 
Apr. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
May 
May 
July 



22, 1907 

3, 1907 

23, 1907 

8, 1907 

24, 1907 

1, 1907 

15, 1907 

17, 1907 

23, 1907 

27, 1907 

30, 1907 

7, 1907 

4, 1907 

7,1908 

22, 1909 

18,1909 



GOVEENOB OF NEW MEXICO. 



141 



ITINERANT VENDORS. 

Under the provisions of chapter 128, laws of 1905, 9 licenses were issued to itinerant 
vendors who paid into the treasury the sum of $225. The receipts from this source are 
insignificant, and it appears to be very doubtful if there is any benefit derived from this act, 
either in the matter of local protection or production of revenue. 

CORPORATIONS. 

A substantial increase is to be noted in the number of corporation charters filed during the 
year, although there was a material decrease in the total authorized capital. This, in turn, 
resulted in a slight decrease in the amount of fees collected for the Territorial treasury! 
Upon the whole, however, conditions show a promising outlook, as the increase in the 
number of Territorial banks and among the general industrial corporations capitalized at 
moderate figures indicates a very steady and substantial growth. Comparative statistics 
upon this subject for the years 1905 and 1906 will be found in Tables I, II, and III. 

Table I. — Corporation filings far fiscal years 1905 and 1906. 





1905. 


1906. 


Place of origin. 


Number. 


Authorized 
capital. 


Number. 


Authorized 
capital. 


Foreign: 

Arizona 


5 


$12,600,000 


4 
2 
11 


$1,850,000 
500,000 
670,000 


California 


Colorado 


4 
1 

1 


10,280,000 

500,000 

15,000 


District of Columbia 


Michigan 






Minnesota 


1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 


300,000 

250,000 

100,000 

8,100,000 

2,350,000 

200,000 

1,602,500 

1,000.000 

255,000 

250,000 

500,000 

100,000 


Missouri 


2 


505,000 


Nebraska 




2 


1,500,000 


New York 


Ohio 


1 
2 

1 
1 
2 

1 


10,000 

350,000 

1,000,000 

100,000 

250,000 

50,000 

1,000,000 


Oklahoma 


South Dakota 


Texas 






Wyoming 




Total 


24 
166 


28,160,000 
83,096,200 


36 
212 


18,027,500 
62,313,000 


Domestic 






Grand total 


190 


111,256,200 


248 


80,340,500 





Table II. — Character of corporation charters issued for the fiscal years 1905 and 1906. 





1905. 


1906. 


Character. 


Num- 
ber. 


Capital. 


Mile- 
age. 


Num- 
ber. 


Capital. 


Mile- 
age. 


Banks and trust companies 


3 

18 


$75,000 
55,000 

(«) 
(a) 

9,367,200 

22,611,500 
52,797,500 

26,350,000 


*2,"666" 


8 
19 
12 
47 
14 

67 
53 

22 
6 


$195,000 

62,500 

930,000 

11, 242, 500 

4,588,500 

8,437,000 
36,009,000 

1,611,000 
M7, 265, 000 




Benevolent and charitable institutions 

Live stock and ranching companies 




General industrial enterprises 






Irrigation, land, and improvement companies. 

Mercantile, manufacturing, and publishing 

companies 


11 

96 
53 




Mining, milling, and smelting companies 

Real estate, abstract, and town-site compa- 
nies 




Railway companies 


9 


589 






Total 


190 


111,256,200 


2,000 


248 


80,340,500 


589 







a These companies were listed under the heading of manufacturing and other industrial pursuits in 
1905. 

b $565,000 of this capitalization represented by increase of capital stock without corresponding increase 
in mileage. 



142 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
Tabije III. — Incorporation fees paid Territorial treasurer for fiscal years 1905 and 1906. 



Quarter. 


1905. 


1906. 


First 


$1,040.00 
3, 160. 00 
3, 490. 00 
4,270.00 


$1,151.50 
1,939.00 




Third 


4, 000. 00 


Fourth 


3,174.00 








Total 


11,960.00 


10,264.50 





J. H. VAUGHN, TERRITORIAL TREASURER. 

The Territorial bonded indebtedness on June 1, 1906, was $853,000, and on this same 
date there were in the various bond sinking funds $100,067.98 available to redeem bonds 
for which the funds were created, leaving the net Territorial debt $752,932.02. These 
sinking funds are deposited in the regularly authorized Territorial depositories, on which 
the Territory realizes 3 per cent interest per annum. All fixed appropriations have been 
promptly met and paid, and no delinquencies exist in any of the regular appropriations. 
In making up the report I have endeavored to make it as complete and comprehensive as 
possible, and by careful comparison it will be seen that the Territorial financial condition 
is most gratifying. 

Payments by counties of Territorial tax for the year ended June 1, 1906. 



County. 



Fifty-sixth flcsal year. 



Third Fourth 

quarter. quarter. 



Fifty-seventh fiscal 
year. 



First 
quarter. 



Second 
quarter. 



Total pay- 
ments. 



Bernalillo . . 

Chaves 

Colfax 

Dona Ana . 

Eddy 

Grant 

Guadalupe. 

Lincoln 

Luna 

Mora 

McKinley. . 

Otero 

Quay 

Rio Arriba. 
Roosevelt.. 
San Juan.. 
Santa Fe.. 
San Miguel . 

Sierra 

Socorro 

Sandoval.. 

Taos 

Torrence . . . 

Union 

Valencia... 



$16,843.19 

17,780.22 

16,213.68 

9,722.13 

11,439.56 

20,850.34 

2,124.78 

6,192.67 

9,853.17 

4,201.35 

6,224.86 

8,424.74 

4,506.94 

3,684.88 

3,865.10 

3,251.03 

8,206.48 

18,657.31 

8,581.92 

9,955.61 

1,859.22 

2,466.97 



7,594.96 
8,751.77 



$850. 75 

3,648.04 

2,081.02 

2,442.10 

1,608.21 

2,719.36 

2, 146. 51 

476. 75 

302. 45 

756.37 

17.62 

1,567.72 

301.06 

1,160.62 

909.20 

1,829.23 

1,118.99 

2,588.94 

1,284.80 

1,167.15 

522.06 

1,240.48 



3,246.43 
1,026.28 



$20,699.68 

23,883.75 

18,919.85 

13,927.73 

13,128.75 

20,676.54 

4,163.58 

6,927.54 

11,067.62 

5,140.80 

6,577.20 

12,361.42 

4,046.27 

7,463.29 

5,474.30 

4, 40 r >. 10 

9,592.79 

19,645.44 

7,836.03 

12,917.73 

3,202.86 

3,680.45 

1,993.33 

12,071.88 

8,446.27 



$1,188,66 
1,437.14 
2,021.07 
2,187.47 

913. 23 

887.29 
1,041.89 
1,050.18 

232.57 

1,055.68 

97.85 

927.58 

933. 47 
539.72 
806.00 
978. 81 

1,620.81 
2,006.01 

680. 48 
1,176.32 

182. 49 
350. 75 
244.69 

1,164 09 
485. 53 



$39,582.28 
46,74S.15 
39,23-S i2 
28,27^.43 
27,089.75 
45,133.53 

9,476.76 
14,647.14 
21,455.81 
11,154.20 
12,917.53 
23,281.46 

9,787.74 
12.848.51 
11,054.60 
10,464.17 
20,539.07 
42,897.70 
18,383.23 
2', 716. 81 

5,766.63 
. 7,744.65 

2,238.02 
24,077.36 
18,709.85 



Total. 



211,252.88 



35,518.14 



258,250.20 



25,209.78 



529,231.00 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



143 



Receipts from sources other than taxation for the year ended June 1, 1906. 



Source from which received. 



J. H. Vaughn, Territorial treasurer, inter- 
est on deposits 

Sale of compiled laws 

A. A. Keen, commissioner of public lands. 

H. O. Bursum, superintendent New 
Mexico penitentiary, convicts' earnings. 

Arthur Trelford, superintendent New 
Mexico penitentiary, convicts' earnings . 

Clerks of district courts 

J. W. Raynolds, Territorial secretary, 
fees from office 

W. C. Barnes, secretary cattle sanitary 
board 

J. H. Sloan, insurance commissioner 

United States annual appropriation for 
agricultural college a 

A. A. Keen, capitol custodian commis- 
sion, from J. W. Raynolds, secretary. . . 

James G. McNary, public printer, refund. 

W. G. Sargent, Territorial auditor 

Pullman Car Co 



Total. 



Fifty-sixth fiscal year 



Third Fourth 

quarter. quarter. 



$1,284.20 

59.50 

17,498.03 

8,596.05 



3,012.96 

4,270.00 

3,117.00 
4,950.00 

25,000.00 

1,200.00 
104.32 



69,092.06 



$1,810.90 

93.50 

22,555.56 

10,470.56 



2,793.39 

1,151.50 

2,469.20 
421.00 



41,765.61 



Fifty-seventh fiscal 
year. 



First 
quarter. 



$1,602.05 

178.50 

35,429.13 

8,108.30 



3,2b7.15 
2,164.00 



10,796.20 
22,333.01 



530.06 



84,378.40 



Second 
quarter. 



$2,012.11 

59.50 

7,349.11 

3,636.58 

1,685.73 
3,266.40 

4,000 00 

587.25 
2,329.58 



461.08 



25,387.34 



Total 
receipts. 



709.26 
391.00 
831.83 



685. 73 
309.90 



11,585.50 



969. 65 
033. 59 



2V000.00 

1,200.00 
104. 32 
530.06 
461.08 



220.323.41 



RECAPITULATION. 



From counties, tax levy . . . 
Source other than taxation. 



Total. 



$211,252.88 
69,092.06 



280,344.94 



$35,518.14 
41,765 61 



77,283.75 



$258,250.20 
84,378.40 



342,628.60 



$24,209.78 
25,387.31 



49,597.12 



$529,231.00 
220, 623. 41 



749.854.41 



o Transmitted by Treasurer of the United States through Territorial treasurer to college and not 
being Territorial funds, not reported to auditor 

Balances in hands of treasurer June 1, 1905, receipts, transfers, and disbursements during 
the last half of fiscal year ended December 1, 1905, and first half of fiscal year 1906, and 
balances in treasurer's hands June 1, 1906. 



Fund or account. 


Balances, 

June 1, 

1905. 


Receipts 
during 
year. 


Transfers 
to funds. 


Transfers 
from 
funds. 


Payments 
during 
year. 


Balances, 

June 1, 

1906. 




$28, 726. 71 




$60,232.09 




$47,790.00 
4. 702. 08 

767. 23 

18, 454. 61 

101.83 

7,945.52 

1,050.00 

11,684.35 

1,054.09 

480.00 

2,612.62 


$41,168.80 




1,586.53 

417. 45 

766. 73 

26.71 

1,622.83 


$6,709.26 
1,221.02 


$2, 760. 56 
703.00 


833. 15 


Interest and sinking fund, certifi- 
cates of indebtedness 




168. 24 




18,535.21 
81.30 


847. 33 


Deficiency fund 






6.18 


Income fund 


6,352.69 
1,050.00 




30.00 










Agricultural college 


457. 05 
133. 53 


11,774.90 




547.60 




1,024.56 
480.00 




104.00 










Reform school fund 


T, 962. 85 

9.60 

108. 92 

145.40 

1,350.72 

525. 39 

36.00 

573. 76 

74.00 

108. 92 

70.80 

1, 740. 62 


3,965.66 




3, 315. 89 
394. 41 




384. 81 
514.22" 






6,560.53 




6,275.41 

659. 62 

1,350.72 

12, 767. 76 

436. 74 

3, 269. 38 

531. 58 

1,824.97 

533. 68 

51,964.91 

575. 62 

662. 86 
13,240.41 
36,014.33 
40, 178. 18 

897. 92 
13,875.58 

430.15 


394. 04 










1,656.32 
13,541.39 




1,656.32 








1,299.02 




400.74 






Deaf and dumb asylum : 


2,823.90 




128. 28 




457. 58 






Miners' hospital fund 


5,781.61 


1,656.32 


2, 409. 24 


Income fund 


508. 10 

"575." 62" 

446.39 


45.22 


New Mexico Insane Asylum 


52, 147. 44 




1,923.15 






Penitentiary: 


216. 52 
704. 05 
1,573.87 
651. 31 
898. 37 
527. 53 
71.08 






.05 




14, 627. 21 

37, 437. 68 

8,000.00 




2,090.85 


Maintenance fund 




2,000.00 


997. 22 


Convicts' earnings fund 


32, 497. 22 


970. 35 
.45 


New Mexico Military Institute 

Income fund 




13, 547. 92 




199.87 


359.07 







144 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Balances in hinds of treasurer June 1, 1905, receipts, transfers, and disbursements during 
the last half of fiscal year ended December 1, 1905, and first half of fiscal year 1906, and 
balances in treasurer's hands June 1, 1906 — Continued. 



Fund or account. 



Balances, 

June 1, 

1905. 



Receipts 
during 
year. 



Transfers 
to funds. 



Transfers 
from 
funds. 



Payments 
during 
year. 



Water reservoir permanent fund . . . 

Compilation fund 

Normal school, Silver City 

Income fund 

Normal school, Las Vegas 

Income fund 

Special purposes 

Special tax fund, fiftieth fiscal year. . 

Common school income fund 

Proceeds 5 per cent United States 
land sales, permanent 

Charitable institutions 

Sheep sanitary fund 

Cattle indemnity fund 

Compensation of assessors 

Sala ry fund 

Supreme court fund 

Miscellaneous fund 

Militia fund 

Capitol contingent expense fund 

Capitol contingent bond sinking 
fund 

Capitol building bonds, sinking fund 

Provisional indebtedness, sinking 
fund 

Geological survey * 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition 

fund, fifty-fourth fiscal year 

Fifty-fifth and fifty-sixth fiscal 
years 

Scenic route 

United States land commission 

Maintenance, board of public lands. 

The Palace income fund 

Southwestern and International 
Express Co 

Territorial purposes: 

Fifty-fourth fiscal year 

Fifty-fifth fiscal year 

Fifty-sixth fiscal year 

Fifty-seventh fiscal year 

Territorial Institutions : 

Fifty-fourth fiscal year 

Fifty-fifth fiscal year 

Fifty-nixth fiscal year 

Fifty-seventh fiscal year 

Improvement Rio Grande, income.. 

Orphan Children's Home, Belen 

Water reservoir, income for irriga- 
tion purposes 

Public buildings at capitol, income . . 

Casual deficit bonds, sinking fund. . 

Current expense bonds, sinking fund 

Improvement Rio Grande, perma- 
nent 

Insurance fund 

Artesian wells, district No. 1 

United States annual appropriation 
for agricultural college 

Territorial institutions bonds, sink- 
ing fund 

Capitol rebuilding bonds, sinking 
fund 

Military institute bonds, sinking 
fund 

Insane asylum bonds, sinking fund. 

Deficiency fund 

Camino real fund 

United States land fees fund 

Mounted police fund 

Elephant Butte Water Users' Asso- 
ciation of New Mexico 

Territorial library fund 

Capitol insurance fund 

Pullman car tax fund 



$60.00 

137.50 

593. 22 

489. 46 

598.02 

78.51 

1,772.76 

7.97 

7,229.01 

14,581.57 

4, 497. 60 

554. 68 

2, 551. 68 

3,224.98 

19,278.77 

598. 89 

4,912.28 

18.25 

18.78 

13.37 
1, 721. 19 

39,987.39 
42.31 

90.08 

529.32 

667. 80 

2,646.72 

746. 01 

17.80 

63.29 



269. 76 
120. 49 

2,891.10 

1,226.19 

354. 83 

20, 177. 55 

1,982.84 
1,075.90 



$391. 00 
"329." 25' 



$14,223.54 
i4,'282.'68 



$396.00 



329. 24 
81.29 



$14, 570. 44 

711. 11 

14,676.68 

407. 75 



358. 00 
7.97 



41, 188. 12 

5,093.80 
25,032.65 

9,596.16 
28, 849. 36 
21,998.61 
12,309.90 



37,614.64 



454.43 
12.29 



1,200.00 



12, 123. 40 



9,044.25 
81.88 



130. 22 
8,639.68 



1,135.00 



1,950.90 

5,375.99 

99,581.08 

116, 427. 32 

1,138.16 

4, 569. 38 

67, 329. 93 

90, 514. 69 

4.322.62 



5,595.62 

949. 55 

2,627.68 

29, 199. 99 

11,864.91 

30,033.59 

1, 476. 00 

25,000.00 

493. 82 

493. 82 

329.20 
329. 20 
4,937.16 
4, 114. 25 
1,974.81 
8,228.57 



461. 08 



72, 478. 66 
457. 30 

23,372.37 
1,865.84 
7,818.10 



447. 85 



19,077.99 

9,591.25 

26, 603. 52 

22, 452. 49 

76, 122. 14 

453. 23 

22,238.61 

1,699.55 

8,067.92 



13.37 
1,225.00 



12, 196. 86 



1.54 



124.19 

205.73 

2,272.38 



5,500.00 
746.01 



746. 01 



6,661.00 
6, 167. 80 
2,203.56 

"'517.' 52' 



7,326.89 
102. 98 



1,339.39 

"2, 497.' 40 

356.00 



1,950.90 

5,375.99 

106,907.97 

116. 530. 30 

1, 138. 16 

4,569.38 

67, 329. 93 

91,854.08 

432. 26 



586. 55 
'276*66 



216. 54 
2. 451. 82 



5.219.84 



2,635.97 



1, 186. 49 



4,991.63 
1, 456. 80 



25,000.00 



.46 

.46 

.31 
.31 
4.61 
3.84 
1.85 
7.68 

2,205.30 
2,947.09 
2, 555. 36 



230. 54 



3,571.71 

403.38 

80.00 

6, 182. 82 

1,413.85 
498. 35 

2,099.45 
230. 54 



Total. 



180,915.10 749,854.41 411,284.93 



411,284.93 620,618.91 310,150 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



145 



RECAPITULATION. 

Balance, June 1, 1905 $180, 915. 10 

Receipts during year 749, 854. 41 

Total to be accounted for 930, 769. 51 

Payments during year 620, 618. 91 

Balance, June 1, 1906 310,150.60 

Banks in which Territorial funds are deposited. 



Name of bank. 


Amount 

applied 

for. 


Amount 
of bond. 


Interest 
paid on 
deposit 

for year. 


Balances 
June 1, 1906. 










$4,943.13 
28, 151. 64 
30,213.71 
30,221.31 
30,220.00 
30, 220. 82 
15,036.20 
11, 727. 70 




$28,000.00 
30,000.00 
30,000.00 
30,000.00 
30,000.00 
15,000.00 


$56,000.00 
60,000.00 
60,000.00 
60, 000. 00 
60,000.00 
30,000.00 


$706. 44 
747. 81 
751. 70 
754. 75 
754. 87 
376. 38 












National Bank of Commerce, New York 




20,000.00 
20, 000. 00 
20,000.00 
20, 000. 00 
25, 000. 00 
20,000.00 


40,000.00 
40, 000. 00 
40,000.00 
40,000.00 
50,000.00 
40,000.00 


491.60 
486.50 
497. 43 
439. 46 
680. 66 
21.66 


20, 110. 02 
20, 104. 25 
20, 111. 48 
19,994.95 
25, 191. 67 
20,021.66 
3,341.54 

540.52 










American National Bank of Silver City 




New Mexico Savings Bank and Trust Co., Albuquer- 


















Total 


288,000.00 


576,000.00 


6,709.26 


310, 150. 60 





a Funds not available. 



L46 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



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GOVERNOR OP NEW MEXICO. 



147 



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148 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
List of fire companies which have complied with chapter 49, laws of 1897. 



Name of company. 



Location. 



Amount of 
deposit. 



Securities. 



Aachen and Munich Fire Insur- 
ance Co. 
American Central Insurance Co.. 



Aix La Chapelle, 

Germany. 
St. Louis, Mo 



Aetna Insurance Co . 
Atlas Assurance Co. 



British- America Assurance Co. . . 

Commercial-Union Assurance Co. 
Connecticut Fire Insurance Co . . . 



Continental Insurance Co 

Firemen's Fund Insurance Co. 



Fire Association of Philadelphia. . 
German- American Insurance Co. . 

Germania Fire Insurance Co 



Hartford, Conn. . . 
London, England. 

Toronto, Canada . 

London, England. 
Hartford, Conn... 

New York, N. Y. . 

San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Philadelphia, Pa.. 
New York, N. Y.. 

....do 



Hartford Fire Insurance Co 

Home Fire and Marine Insurance 
Co. 

Insurance Company of North 
America. 

Liverpool, London, and Globe In- 
surance Co. 

London Assurance Corporation of 
London. 

London and Lancashire Fire In- 
surance Co. 

National Fire Insurance Co , 



Niagara Fire Insurance Co 

North-British and Mercantile In- 
surance Co. 

Norwich-Union Fire Insurance 
Society. 

Northern Assurance Co , 



Orient Insurance Co 

Palatine Insurance Co., Limited, 

of London. 
Queen Insurance Co. of America. . . 
Royal Insurance Co 



St. Paul Fire and Marine Insur- 
ance Co. 

Scottish Union and Rational In- 
surance Co. 



Springfield Fire and Marine Insur- 
ance Co. 

Union Assurance Society of Lon- 
don. 



Hartford, Conn. . . 
San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Philadelphia, Pa. . 



Liverpool, Eng- 
land. 

London, England. 

Liverpool, Eng- 
land. 
Hartford, Conn... 

New York, N. Y.. 

London and E din- 
burg, England. 

Norwich, Eng- 
land. 

London, England. 

Hartford, Conn. . . 
London, England. 

New York, N. Y.. 
Liverpool, Eng- 
land. 
St. Paul, Minn.... 

Edinburgh, Scot- 
land. 



Springfield, Mass 
London, England 



$10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 

11,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 

10,000.00 
10,000.00 



United States bonds. 

Certificate of deposit, First Na- 
tional Bank of Las Vegas, N. 
Mex. 

Capital rebuilding bonds of Terri- 
tory of New Mexico. 

$1,000 provisional indebtedness. 
$3,000 refunding, $6,000 general 
refunding bonds of Territory of 
New Mexico. 

Capitol rebuilding bonds of Terri- 
tory of New Mexico. 

United States bonds. 

General refunding bonds of Terri- 
tory of New Mexico. 

Provisional indebtedness bonds of 
Territory of New Mexico. 

Certificate of deposit, First Na- 
tional Bank of Albuquerque, N. 
Mex. 

Real estate mortgage. 

Refunding bonds of Territory of 
New Mexico. 

$5,000 refunding, $5,000 general re- 
funding bonds of Territory of 
New Mexico. 

Real-estate mortgage. 

Certificate of deposit, First Na- 
tional Bank of Las Vegas, N. 
Mex. 

$2,000 provisional indebtedness, 
$8,000 Grant County refunding 
bonds. 

$5,000 refunding bonds of Terri- 
tory of New Mexico, $5,000 Ber- 
nalillo County refunding bonds. 

United States bonds. 

Do. 

Silver City, N. Mex., gold refund- 
ing bonds. 

Provisional indebtedness bonds of 
Territory of New Mexico. 

Territorial institutions bonds of 
Territory of New Mexico. 

$5,000 United States bond, $5,000 
capitol rebuilding bonds of Ter- 
ritory of New Mexico. 

Certificate of deposit, First Na- 
tional Bank of Santa Fe, N. Mex. 

United States bonds. 
Do. 

Do. 

Refunding bonds of the Territory 
of New Mexico. 

Grant County, N. Mex., refunding 
bonds. 

Certificates of deposit, $5,000 San 
Miguel National, Las Vegas, 
N. Mex., $5,000 First National 
Bank of Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

Valencia County, N. Mex., refund- 
ing bonds. 

General refunding bonds of the 
Territory of New Mexico. 



Total . 



311,000.00 



THE PUBLIC PRINTER. 



The report of the public printer shows that $9,563.76 were the receipts of that officer . 
The following is a recapitulation of these receipts, the largest items among them being 
$4,189.88 to the bureau of immigration and $2,603.05 to the Territory of New Mexico. 

The Territory appropriates about $5,500 for the expenses of the bureau of immigratioD 
and the salary of the secretary. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



149 



RECAPITULATION . 



Auditor $34. 00 

Adjutant-general 108. 19 

Attorney-general 129. 50 

Board of equalization 40. 25 

Bureau of immigration 4, 189. 88 

Cattle sanitary board 166. 25 

Commissioner of public lands 327. 50 

Coal-oil inspector 63. 00 

Fish and game warden 42. 75 

Library 2. 50 

New Mexico mounted police 7. 00 

New Mexico historical society ... 52. 53 



Public printer $3. 00 

Penitentiary 179. 25 

Supreme court 90. 00 

Superintendent of insurance 194. 83 

Superintendent of public instruc- 
tion 381.53 

Territory of New Mexico 2, 603. 05 

Traveling auditor 218. 25 

Treasurer 58. 00 

Weather bureau 672. 50 



Total 9,563.76 



A. P. TARKINGTON, ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

I was appointed adjutant-general February 3, 1905. The office was not formally turned 
over to me by my predecessor, and it was necessary for me to look to the records of the 
office for information relating to the department. 

The system of handling stores, both Government and Territorial, did not appear to me 
to be adequate, and I adopted a system of issuing stores to officers practically as they are 
handled in the Regular Army, that is by receipts and invoices. I have found that while this 
system causes a great deal more work in the adjutant-general's office, it is nevertheless per- 
fectly safe, although it also throws more work upon company commanders. However, as 
caring for stores is to my mind a very important item, I consider that the extra work involved 
is very necessary. The greater part of six or eight months after my appointment was spent 
in checking up the stores on hand and scattered throughout the Territory. It was neces- 
sary to appoint boards of survey at every point where an organization was stationed, as well 
as a board to check the stores on hand in the storehouse at Santa Fe, in which all extra 
stores are kept. As the work of such boards was thorough, a great deal of time was used 
before an idea could be formed as to what was on hand. The annual report which the 
War Department requires of the governor, and which is prepared by the adjutant-general, 
had not been made up for the year 1904, and the work of preparing this report naturally 
fell upon me, and it was not until August of 1905 that the report was finally ready and was 
forwarded and approved. 

The necessity of some sort of a uniform for use in wa*rm weather other than the blue 
woolen cloth in use was apparent to me, and while I had understood that the khaki cotton 
uniform could not be drawn from the Quartermaster's Department of the Army, I requested 
that the governor place a requisition for the same. This was done, and during the fall of 
1905 the clothing began to arrive. This clothing was issued and has been worn by the 
different companies with a great deal of comfort. It might be well to state that all uni- 
forms, arms, ammunition, tentage, target materials, and in face everything of this nature 
is purchased from the different departments of the Regular Army, being paid for from the 
allotment from the Government to the Territory. 

I found the National Guard, or organized militia, armed with United States magazine 
rifles and carbines (caliber .30) of the model of 1898 and 1899. This is a good arm, and at 
that time was being used by the troops of the regular service. The arms for the most 
part were in a serviceable condition; also the pertaining equipments. Some organiza- 
tions had no arm racks or lockers in their armories for the safe-keeping of the different 
articles of equipment, and in some cases enlisted men were permitted to take their arms 
and uniforms to their homes for safe-keeping. This was, in my opinion, a very poor 
arrangement, as different articles were in this manner lost or carried out of the country 
entirely, and I have used every effort to overcome this by providing arm racks and lockers 
for such companies as soon as possible. Territorial appropriations had to be used for this, 
and as the appropriation was very small it was impossible to provide these racks and lockers 
for every company, but such companies as are without them will be furnished with them 
as early as possible; in the meantime company commanders have been instructed not to 
allow these articles to be taken out of armories except for the purposes of drill, target prac- 
tice, etc. 

I found the guard very well supplied with tentage; also each organization was furnished 
with a field range for preparing meals for the men when in the field. 

Two hospital tents were also on hand for hospital use in camps; also two rolls of folding 
field furniture, consisting of 20 folding cots, 2 folding tables, and chairs for hospital use. 
A requisition was placed for a hospital ambulance, which is now on hand. There was 
also on hand 3 detached service medical chests, containing everything necessary for a sur- 
geon to take care of any ordinary emergency. These chests were in the hands of our 



241b— 07- 



-11 



150 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

surgeons, and I have thought it best to have them taken care of in this manner, as no force 
would be ordered on duty without having a surgeon with them, and he can keep the 
chest fully stocked at all times by having it close at hand. 

A sufficient number of Laidley revolving targets was on hand to issue to the companies, 
but for the want of suitable rifle ranges all companies have not been furnished with them. 
The firing regulations, requiring companies to fire at the extreme range of 1,000 yards, 
makes it a very difficult matter to find suitable ranges within easy reaching distance of 
all places at which companies are stationed. The necessity of their being close to town 
is apparent when it is understood that for the men to reach the range and carry on any 
extensive practice and return home again a great deal of time would be consumed in going 
to and from. This also acts to the disadvantage of the men, as after a long and tiresome 
march they are in poor condition to do good shooting. The best range in every way which 
is now in use is that at Las Vegas. This range is located 3 miles from the city, but electric 
cars pass within 500 yards of it, and by using this electric line it is possible to carry on 
extensive practice and without any discomfort to the men. 

Target practice in our guard is necessary, as the War Department requires a certain 
amount of it each year, and I am very much pleased to find a great deal of interest being 
taken in the work and am encouraging it in every manner possible. This is also being 
done throughout all the States, and at this time almost as much work is carried on in 
target practice as in ordinary drills. 

A sufficient amount of targets is on hand to keep the guard supplied for some time, and 
ammunition is secured from time to time as it is needed. 

During the month of April the National Guard was inspected by Capt. W. S. Valen- 
tine, of the Fifth U. S. Cavalry. Captain Valentine advised me that he considered the 
general condition of the guard in much better shape than the prevoius year, he having 
made the inspection in 1904. A few articles of equipment were short in some companies, 
but as a whole the entire force was in a very good condition. 

These inspections, as you probably understand, are conducted once each year in order 
that the War Department may determine whether each State or Territory is entitled to 
the benefits of the militia act of 1903, which grants a certain amount of funds to each State 
or Territory to be used in purchasing uniforms, arms, and equipment; and each State and 
Territory is supposed to keep its National Guard fully uniformed, armed, and equipped 
for active service in the field at all times in order to secure the benefits of this appropria- 
tion; otherwise it would be necessary for the State or Territory to purchase such articles 
out of State funds. Every effort is made to keep our force fully uniformed, armed, and 
equipped, and thus secure the benefit of this allotment. 

There were no regular encampments during the year on account of lack of funds, but 
three companies were in camp near their home stations for one week at their own expense. 
I might explain here that after the National Guard has been found to be sufficiently uni- 
formed, armed, and equipped for field service any unexpended funds in the allotment can 
be used for defraying the expenses of encampments. I found that a great many arti- 
cles were necessary to enable our guard to pass an inspection; that all idea of having an 
encampment during the year was abandoned, and I made every effort to equip the com- 
panies, so that by saving the small amount which would be left, together with that avail- 
able at the beginning of the next fiscal year, enough would be available to place them in 
camp during the year 1906. The section of the law which provides for the allotment of 
funds to States and Territories also provides that each company shall be in camp each 
year for at least five consecutive days unless excused by the governor. It was therefore 
necessary to have all organizations except the three mentioned excused from camp duty 
during the year. 

During the year 1903 a circular was issued by the War Department outlining a code 
which it recommended be adopted by the different States and Territories, with a view 
toward having a uniform law in all of them. There were a great many things .in the law 
governing our military forces, which were obsolete, and, on the other hand, there were a 
great many things which should have been in our laws which were not. The War Depart- 
ment circular appeared to cover practically everything, and with the help of other officers 
a code was prepared from this circular, but was modified to suit the needs of a small force. 
This code was made up in the form of a bill entitled "An act to promote the efficiency of 
the National Guard of New Mexico, and for other purposes." The bill met with practically 
no opposition in the thirty-sixth legislative assembly and became a law during the month 
of March, 1905. New Mexico therefore has to-day as good a military law as any State in 
the Union. 

There is a provision in the law which requires the military institute located at Roswell to be 
inspected once each year. I was instructed by you to proceed to Roswell and conduct this 
inspection, and during the latter part of May I went to Roswell for this purpose. As I had 
never t»en through the institute before, and knew nothing about it, the inspection was a 
thorough one. The ceremony of review and inspection was first carried: out, followed by 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 151 

inspection of quarters. I found the arms in use by the cadets inadequate. They were 
Springfield rifles of the model of 1884, caliber .45. As these arms arc very long they had a 
tendency to make the smaller cadets look even smaller, as in some cases, when resting at an 
order arms, the muzzles extended for several inches above the boys' heads. A better and 
lighter arm should be provided for the cadets. The Springfield rifles are entirely too 
heavy, are obsolete in pattern, and are not suited to their wants for the purposes of drill. 

The uniforms of the cadets were found to be in very good condition, made of strong cloth, 
were clean, and very well fitted. 

The mess hall, kitchen, bakery, schoolrooms, etc., were found to be in very good 
condition. The hospital, while in good condition and ready for patients at any time, was 
little used, so I was informed by Colonel Willson, superintendent of the institute. The 
outdoor life of the cadets, the healthy exercise of drills, and games when off duty, kept the 
cadets in good health, so that it was very rare that a cadet was placed on sick report. It 
appeared to me that the quarters of the cadets were inadequate. A great many of them 
were quartered in the second and third floors of the academy proper, while others were 
quartered in barracks constructed for the purpose. I think better discipline could be 
maintained if quarters could be constructed, and the cadets now quartered in the academy 
proper removed from it. The cadets were in several cases asked regarding the treatment 
they received, whether or not they were satisfied, and if they wished to return another term. 
They all replied that they were entirely satisfied with their treatment and wished to return 
if it were possible. 

The superintendent, Col. Jas. W. Willson, and his corps of assistants seemed to be men 
of ability and character, and well fitted for their work. The school is growing more popular 
each year, and I was advised by Colonel Willson that it was necessary to turn away appli- 
cants on account of lack of quarters. Therefore it appears that the institute is in very good 
condition, but that it is badly handicapped for lack of suitable quarters for the cadets, and 
it is recommended that every effort be made to secure them. 

During the month of March a slightly increased appropriation was secured from the legis- 
lature for the National Guard. Before that time there was allowed the sum of $750 per year 
for payment of armory rents, and $500 per year to meet all other expenses of the depart- 
ment, including the running expenses of the adjutant-general's office, printing, stationery, 
stamps, express and freight charges, telegrams, and any expense that could possibly arise. 
These amounts were increased to $1,200 per year for armory rents and $1,200 per year for 
all other expenses. While this increase was very acceptable, at the same time it was not 
enough to cany on the affairs of this department in an adequate manner. It is impossible 
to secure quarters for use as armories which are adequate for the purpose for less than $30 
to $40 per month. Two companies are being allowed $25 per month and are paying $10 
in addition to this themselves every month. This is as large an amount as can bo allowed 
them, while other companies secure but $15 and $10 per month, which secures only store- 
rooms for the equipment in their possession, and does not give them any benefits which 
could be secured by adequate armories. 

It is earnestly recommended that the appropriation for the support of the National Guard 
be increased to $5,000 per year. This is not a large amount compared to the size of the 
guard, as compared with other States. The amount of $1 ,200 per year for every contingent 
expense is not enough, and hardly a day passes without its opportunities to create more 
interest in the National Guard and to increase its membership if a small amount of funds 
could be expended in various ways; but to be constantly handicapped in this manner makes 
it a very difficult undertaking to secure recruits, or to keep them in the service after they 
have entered it. The majority of our enlisted men are young men who are living only tem- 
porarily in this country; they come and go, remaining in one place for a month or so and 
then drifting away to other places. This of course can not be helped, but it is also very 
difficult to get regular residents to turn out regularly for drills, for the reason that hereto- 
fore there has been little or no inducement in the companies for them. The Territory can 
not provide lights for their armories, and as I have explained, with two exceptions, the 
buildings being used as armories are such in name only. 

In order that you may understand some of the inducements offered to enlist in the 
National Guard of other States, I would advise you that a great many States pay their 
enlisted men so much per hour for drills, they furnish good armories, with parlors, drill 
hall, indoor rifle range, bowling alleys, billiard tables and pool tables, shower baths, and all 
sorts of gymnasium apparatus. This in a great many respects resembles a club, and young 
men are anxious to become connected with the National Guard to secure the use of the 
armory, if for nothing else. 

I do not mean to say that any such armories as these could or should be provided in this 
Territory at this time, but with an allowance of enough funds to secure at least quarters for 
each company, which would include a good drill hall and one or two rooms for parlors, and 
storage rooms for their equipment, as well as paying for their fuel and lights, and for paying 



152 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

such expense as may be necessary for the company to report on the rifle range regularly 
for practice during the season, and to provide in some manner for indoor target practice 
during the winter, would in my opinion tend to work for the benefit of the guard and would 
create new interest. 

The Government is providing very liberally for the National Guard of the different States 
and Territories, but the amount allowed to this Territory is as a rule entirely exhausted in 
securing equipment, and it is only by exercising the greatest economy that enough funds 
can be saved to devote to camp purposes. The Government requires that to secure the 
benefit of the appropriation, the entire force must be fully uniformed, armed, and equipped 
for active service in the field, and an inspecting officer is sent out once each year to inspect 
the National Guard to determine whether or not they are entitled to the allotment. It is 
therefore absolutely necessary to first secure every article of uniform or equipment neces- 
sary before any of the allotment can be used for the purpose of holding encampments. I 
would advise also that none of the Government funds can be used for paying armory rent, 
or any expenses in connection with the maintenance of the National Guard, except to pay 
for subsistence, transportation, and pay of officers and men during an encampment, and 
the Government expects each State or Territory to keep their military force up to the high- 
est standard of efficiency at all times. This can not be done successfully in this Territory 
under the present appropriation allowed for the maintenance of the troops in the service. 

W. E. GRIFFIN, GAME WARDEN. 

On assuming the duties of the office it became necessary to reorganize the force of deputies 
who served under my predecessor, and up to the present time I have issued 71 commissions 
to deputies stationed in the several counties of the Territory and including the members 
of the New Mexico mounted police and the rangers and guards of the Pecos, Jemez, and 
Gila forest reserves, 60 of whom have qualified and are serving in that capacity. 

During the past four months I and my deputies have distributed between 700 and 800 
copies of the game and fish laws, and 1,000 posters (synopsis of the game and fish laws) 
have been posted along trout streams, in the mountain ranges, and in public places in the 
towns and cities of the Territory, and the laws are well known and thoroughly understood 
by a majority of the citizens, although frequent requests are received for copies of same . 

Since June 1, I have spent fifty-two days in the field in the counties of Santa Fe, Rio 
Arriba, Taos, Mora, and San Miguel, familiarizing myself with conditions and the different 
localities where game and fish are to be found. From information gathered in this manner, 
and from reports received from deputies and others interested in game protection, both 
game and fish are more plentiful than a year ago, and the game laws are more carefully 
complied with than formerly, although violations very frequently occur. This I attribute 
to several reasons, but primarily to the inadequate remuneration allowed deputies for their 
services under the present law, and the consequent indifferent service rendered, and the 
fact that it is extremely difficult to secure convictions before the average justice of the 
peace, who seems to consider a violation of the game law as a matter of no importance 
whatever, and the deputy making an arrest receives no compensation, except in the event 
of a successful prosecution. I might also state that under these conditions deputies usually 
can not devote the necessary time to the proper discharge of their duties without pecuniary 
loss and some inconvenience, as it is often necessery to travel a considerable distance to 
reach the nearest justice of the peace, and in most instances two or three days are required 
to dispose of ordinary cases. 

From personal acquaintance with conditions, and reports received from almost all sections 
of the Territory, the most persistent violators of the game laws are the Indians and the pros- 
pector. I might also add that the game hog, who has little or no regard for the law, and 
will shoot anything alive, from a song bird to a deer, if the opportunity presents itself, is 
to be found in New Mexico as well as elsewhere, and usually one or two of these gentlemen 
are to be found with most hunting or fishing parties. 

In the Santa Fe, Truchas, Pecos, and Taos mountains, deer and grouse are plentiful, and 
wild pigeon are occasionally seen. I am reliably informed that two small bands of moun- 
tain sheep were seen in the Truchas Mountains this spring, and one elk is also reported to 
have been seen in the same locality. Deer, wild turkey, and grouse are reported in greater 
numbers in the Jemez, San Mateo, Sacramento, Guadaloupe, and Manzano mountains, and 
antelope are showing some increase in some of the northern, southern, eastern, and central 
counties. 

In San Miguel and other counties where the bobwhite quail has been introduced they 
are increasing rapidly. The native quail is seen where it was never known before, and in 
some of the southern counties are so numerous that requests have been received by this 
office for permits to kill them out of season, as it was claimed they were destroying crops. 

The trout streams in the localities which I have visited are in fine condition and furnish 
good sport, and especially is this true of the Taos and Mora districts, where there are six 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



153 






or seven beautiful small streams, in any of which the fishing is good, with any number of 
fine camping places, fine scenery, and beautiful drives, but generally over exceedingly 
rough roads. Little attention, however, has been paid to the law requiring screens to be 
placed and maintained at the heads of all ditches taken from streams containing game fish, 
and in my trips through the country I have .found only three. All major-domos and ditch 
owners have been notified to comply with the law where this neglect has come to my knowl- 
edge, and are doing so, although, in my opinion, the screen is not practicable in mountainous 
districts, and impossible to maintain at all times, owing to the fact that flood waters wash 
them out during the rainy season, and at other times the flow of water is obstructed by 
leaves and rubbish, and a dam is formed, and the small fish are washed or go over the top 
into the open ditches. 

Applications have been made to the Government for over a million young trout for 
stocking the principal streams along and reached by the main lines of the Atchison, Topcka 
and Santa Fe Railway and the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, and notice has been 
received that distribution of same will be made on September 5. The necessary arrange- 
ments have been made for promptly receiving and transporting these fish from stations on 
the arrival of the fish car to the streams where they are to be planted. Applications have 
also been made for bass for stocking the Auga Negra Creek, in Guadalupe County, and for 
channel cat for the upper Rio Grande, which have been allowed, and I presume will be 
included in this distribution, although I have received no notice to that effect. 

In conclusion, would say that while our game laws are not as well observed nor as strictly 
enforced as they should be, yet I believe, after taking into consideration the inefficiency 
of the existing law, and the short time the Territory has made any pretense of game pro- 
tection, that there is not a great deal of room for complaint. 

After a comparison of our law with the laws of some of the States I am forced to the 
conclusion that the principal reason for this condition of affairs is due in a measure to the 
law itself, which is far from being as complete as it should be to afford adequate protection. 

With the passage of some amendments to the present law by the next legislature and 
the enactment of a hunter's license clause, which I earnestly recommend, which can be so 
regulated as to not only provide funds for the payment of the services of deputies, at least 
while on actual duty, and may also produce a portion of the funds necessary for the main- 
tenance of this office. With such a law on our statute books, better service would result, 
consequently more and better protection, and our game animals, birds and fish, increase 
much faster and prove not only a valuable asset to the Territory, but a boon to sportsmen 
and the community generally. 

JOHN H. SLOAN, SUPERINTENDENT OF INSURANCE. 

Companies admitted during the year 1906. 



Name. 


Place. 


Name. 


Place. 


LIFE. 

Capitol Life Insurance Co 


Denver, Colo. 
Chicago, 111. 

Denver, Colo. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 

Frankfort Marine Accident, 


Cermany. 
Newark, N. J. 


Colorado National Line, of 


New Jersey Plate Glass 







There has been no company withdrawn from this Territory since the publication of the 
annual report of this department. 

The number of insurance companies and fraternal organizations authorized to do business 
in this Territory in 1906 is as follows: 

Life insurance companies 22 

Fire insurance companies 31 

Miscellaneous insurance companies 15 

Fraternal societies _ 4 

For the past year no subject has received more public attention, in its every phase, than 
that of life insurance, which on account of the charges of mismanagement of the affairs, and 
misappropriation of the funds of several of the largest companies of the country, has 
attained a prominence equaled by no other subject in the history of the nation. Both the 
Federal Government and a great many of the States are canvassing and formulating plans 
for the passage of laws that will in the future prevent any misappropriation and misman- 
agement of the affairs of the life insurance companies of the country. 

The terrible disaster at San Francisco, which demolished and burned a great portion of 
that city, causing an aggregate loss of upward of $200,000,000 upon the various fire insur- 



154 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ance companies doing business in the United States, was the greatest in history. There 
will be much difficulty in adjusting the losses, and ascertaining which were due to earth- 
quake and which to fire. On the fire insurance companies doing business in New Mexico 
those that held insurance upon property in San Francisco have all assured this department 
that they will be able to meet their just liabilities and that they are making every effort to 
effect early adjustments, so that prompt payments of the losses may be made. 

I have had no violations of the insurance law brought to my notice, unless it be that of 
the State Life Insurance Company of Indiana. This matter I hope soon to take up with the 
attorney-general and get a decision as to whether or not their manner of doing business in 
the Territory is contrary to law. 

The department of insurance of New Mexico was created and approved February 9, 1905. 
The department itself became active on March 1, 1905, and has been now in active operation 
for the past seventeen months. It was installed and put in operation by the late Pedro 
Perea, the first superintendent of the department. 

The receipts of the first year, ending February 28, 1906, from all sources were $29,631.01. 

Expenditures of department from March 1, 1905, to March 1, 1906. 

Salary expenses for office of insurance $3, 404. 25 

Furniture for office 732. 23 

Printing for office 345. 71 

Stamps for office 65. 00 

Stationery for office 62. 30 

Miscellaneous for office 47. 54 

Total 1 , 252. 78 

Total expenses for running the department for the first year, $5,906.81. 

This included the item of furniture amounting to $732.23, leaving a balance of $23,725.20 
net income of the insurance department for the first year of its existence. 

The net income for the second year of operation of this office should be in the neighbor- 
hood of $30,000, a very handsome sum for the use of the Territory, and drawn entirely from 
foreign corporations. 

The law requires changes in a few instances, which I will be pleased to mention in my next 
report to you. 

W. A. WILSON, ARTESIAN WELL SUPERVISOR. 

The law creating artesian districts and providing for the appointment of supervisors was 
approved by the governor on February 22, 1905, and became a law on March 24, 1905. 
District No. 1, comprising Chaves, Eddy, and Roosevelt counties, was created and I was 
appointed supervisor on April 24, 1905. 

There are no artesian wells in Roosevelt County. The artesian district in Chaves and 
Eddy counties is about 60 miles long and about 10 miles wide. At the north end it is rela- 
tively narrow, but to the south widens somewhat. It comprises about 600 square miles, 
the greater part of which lies along the west side of the Pecos River. The wells vary from 
150 to 1,200 feet in depth, and the flow from 20 to 3,000 gallons per minute. 

There was no inspection made in the first quarter ; I was delayed in procuring instruments, 
but finally started the inspection with a gage that had been used by the Geological Survey, 
which on the arrival of the new instruments was found to be incorrect, reading from 1 
to 5 pounds too much. 

The time in the first quarter was used in getting up a list of wells and their location, 
having forms printed, as prescribed by law. 

An organization was formed among some of the well owners to resist the payment of the 
annual license fee of $5 on each well provided by the law to pay the cost of inspection, on 
the ground that it was unconstitutional. The matter has gone up to the supreme court of 
the Territory, the Territory getting a favorable decision in the district court. 

This agitation has made it hard to enforce any provision of the law. Since the law has 
gone into effect eighty people have been forced to cap their wells, and a large number of 
those still uncapped are waiting for necessary supplies to complete their wells. 

The well owners are awakening to the necessity of seeing that their wells are properly 
cased and that the water is not permitted to waste. A large proportion of the water fur- 
nished by the wells in this district has been wasted in the past owing to the very crude 
methods used in irrigation. This, however, has been remedied to a large extent, and will 
continue to improve as the well owners become familiar with irrigation. 

The records show that there were 325 wells at the beginning of the year and 425 at the 
close, showing a gain of 100 wells. There were 7 wells that quit flowing entirely, leaving a 
net gain of 93 wells. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 155 

The pressures remained practically the same in the upper part of the district for the whole 
year; those in the lower part showing an increase in the third quarter and a decrease in 
the fourth quarter. 

The line separating the upper from the lower part passes somewhere between Hagerman 
and Lake Arthur There are not enough wells in that locality to decide definitely where 
the point of separation begins. 

MAX FROST, SECRETARY BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION. 

During the year no change in the personnel of the bureau has occurred. 

The work has materially grown during the year and the operations of the bureau have 
extended considerably. The correspondence has steadily increased, and during the year 
for which this report is made there were received 1,650 letters of inquiry concerning the 
resources and conditions of the Territory and applications for printed matter containing 
such. There were written 1,900 letters in answer to these requests and to other persons on 
the business of the bureau. 

Several hundred copies of various publications of the bureau have been sent to public 
libraries in many cities of the United States where they are kept on file for reference. 

The immigration into this Territory, especially in the counties of Union, Guadalupe, 
Roosevelt, Chaves, Eddy, Torrance, and Quay, has been greater than ever before in the 
history of the Territory. The land-office reports show that in New Mexico 6,673 home- 
stead entries and 662 desert-land entries have been made during the fiscal year. I estimate 
the increase of population in the eastern counties alone at from 12,000 to 15,000 persons, 
and this is a conservative estimate. I believe the population of New Mexico at this date 
to be between 260,000 and 270,000 persons. The actual vote cast in the Territory at the 
November 1904, election was 43,011, and I believe that on election day, November, 1906, 
it will reach a total of 50,000. The immigrants are nearly all small farmers, accompanied 
by their families, owning horses and wagons, some live stock, and bringing enough capital 
to live a year or two upon the homestead and desert-land entries they have made. From 
reliable reports it appears that in many cases they have filed upon 160-acre claims, have 
built quite comfortable houses to live in, and have improved their holdings to a remarkable 
extent. In Union, Quay, Guadalupe, and Roosevelt counties the new arrivals hail mostly 
from Texas, the Indian Territory, and Oklahoma. In Torrance County the majority has 
come from Kansas, western Missouri, southern Illinois, and Michigan. The northern and 
central parts of the Territory, the counties of Colfax, Taos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Mora, 
Santa Fe, Sandoval, Bernalillo, Lincoln, part of Valencia, part of Socorro, Otero, and Dona 
Ana, do not seem to have been reached by these immigrants as yet, probably for the reason 
that while there are still great areas of public land in those counties the best of the lands 
near water courses and where water is easily had are contained in Mexican and Spanish land 
grants and have been in private ownership for many years. 

In the western counties of the Territory the immigration arrivals have been but few, 
except in San Juan County, in the northwestern corner, where considerable immigration 
has taken place during the year. This county is now traversed by a railroad, namely, the 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway Company, and this fact has had much to do with bringing 
settlers. 

According to the best estimates, the counties of Union, Quay, Roosevelt, Chaves, Eddy, 
and Torrance have been the greatest gainers in immigration during the year except in the 
irrigation and artesian belts in the counties of Chaves and Eddy. Dry farming has been 
resorted to by the newcomers in Union, Quay, Roosevelt, and Torrance counties with much 
more success than it was believed probable or possible even three years ago. 

Many new towns are being laid out, especially in eastern New Mexico, and many towns 
and cities have been incorporated as towns and cities under the laws of the Territory. 
Reports from all these indicate a healthy and steady growth, and in some of them there is 
remarkable growth for what is an " arid country." However, no correct statistics are avail- 
able and will not be until the census of 1910, by which time it is believed, if the ratio of 
increase which has occurred during the past three years holds good, that New Mexico will 
contain in the neighborhood of between 375,000 and 400,000 inhabitants, and probably 
more, and that it will show the greatest rate of increase in population of any Commonwealth 
in the United States. One instance may be cited, and that is the county of Roosevelt. At 
the November election, 1904, that county, now only three and one-half years old, polled 582 
votes. In the Democratic primaries of the past year, just held, there were 1,482 votes 
polled. It is estimated that there were then about 400 Republican voters in the county, 
which, if correct, shows an increase over the vote cast in 1904 of 1,300 votes. Taking the 
vote to represent four persons to the family, a very low estimate, this would make the popu- 
lation of Roosevelt County at this time at least 7,528 people. Similar increase in popu- 
lation has taken place in sections of Union, Quay, Torrance, Chaves, and Eddy counties. 

There are yet 50,000,000 acres of public lands subject to disposition under the United 
States land laws, of which 10 per cent, in the opinion of well-informed persons who have 



156 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

traveled extensively over the regions and are thoroughly acquainted therewith, may be 
available for actual homestead and desert-land entries for homes for the right kind of people, 
who are not afraid to work and are ready and willing to do so for a few years in order to 
gain comfortable and independent homes. The gratifying fact stands forth that the immi- 
gration into the Territory during the past year has been probably 90 per cent of what may 
be considered well-to-do white people, hardy, intelligent, hard-working farmers and owners 
of live stock in a small way. The outlook for the increased immigration of the same class 
is certainly very bright, and unless several years of continued drought or dry weather 
occur there will be no check to immigration, but it will continue to increase in greater 
numbers yearly for some time to come. 

VENCESLAO JARAMILLO, SECRETARY BOARD OF EQUALIZATION. 

The board has held its regular meetings as provided by law in September, 1905, and 
January, 1906. 

At its September, 1905, meeting — the meeting designated by law as the time at which 
appeals taken by individuals from the action of the various boards qf county commissioners, 
or by the Territory on behalf of the taxpayers, may be heard and determined — this body had 
before it for consideration 49 appeals, out of which 29 were sustained either in full or in 
part and 20 of said appeals rejected. 

At this meeting the board, in compliance with the act of the legislative assembly, ap- 
pointed the various members of this board to visit the several counties and make report to 
this board as to their finding in the counties to which they were assigned as to the values 
of railroad and other real and personal property. 

This board also increased the valuation, as made by some county assessors and county 
commissioners, on land grants and brought the same to conform with the valuations on the 
different classes of real estate, as. fixed by this board. 

At the January, 1906, meeting of this board, the meeting designated by law for the pur- 
pose of fixing the valuations of different classes of property subject to taxation, the board 
fixed the values on the property of railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, and all other 
classes of personal and real property within the Territory, and ordered the same to be certi- 
fied by the Territorial auditor to the several boards of county commissioners, assessors, and 
collectors. 

The following is a schedule of the valuations as fixed at the January, 1906, meeting, viz 

RAILROADS. 

Per mile. 
On the Pecos Valley and Northeastern Railway Company main line from its Carls- 
bad depot north $3, 500 

From its Carlsbad depot south 3, 000 

On the New Mexico and Arizona Railroad Company 4, 750 

On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company from Albuquerque depot 

north 7,500 

From Albuquerque to Rincon ' 6, 000 

From Rincon to Deming 6, 000 

From Rincon to Texas line 6, 000 

From Albuquerque depot west (the same as fixed by act of Congress). 

On its Silver City branch 45, 000 

On its White Water spur 2, 500 

On its Lake Valley branch 3, 000 

On its Socorro and Magdalena branch 3, 250 

On its Santa Fe and Lamy branch 3, 500 

On its Cerrillos Coal Railroad 3, 000 

On its Las Vegas Hot Springs branch 3, 000 

On its Blossburg branch 3, 500 

On its Hanover branch 3, 000 

On its Santa Rita branch 3, 000 

On the Colorado and Southern Railway Company main line. 5, 250 

On its Catskill branch 2, 000 

On the Southern Pacific Railway Company main line 8, 000 

On the El Paso and Northeastern Railway Company main fine from the Texas line 

north to Carrizoso 6, 500 

On the Alamogordo and Sacramento Railroad Company 3, 000 

On the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company main line from Santa Fe to 

Colorado line 3,000 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 157 

Per mile. 
On the Denver and Rio Grande Railway Company from Antonio to Durango (on 

that portion of said line running in New Mexico) $3, 250 

On the line of railroad connecting with the Denver and Rio Grande Railway Com- 
pany at Lumberton from El Vado 1, 500 

On the Capitan branch of the El Paso and Northeastern 2, 000 

On all broad-gauge switches 1, 000 

On all narrow-gauge switches 800 

All calculations per mile above stated shall include and cover all rolling stock, locomotives, 
and cars of all descriptions, except sleeping cars. 

Other values fixed upon the property of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad prop- 
erty as follows: 

Castenada Hotel at Las Vegas $14, 000. 00 

Passenger depot at Las Vegas 3, 000. 00 

Superintendent's house at Las Vegas 2, 500. 00 

Alvarado Hotel at Albuquerque 27, 000. 00 

On its machine shops, fixtures, and materials of the Atchison, Topeka and 

Santa Fe Railroad Company at Albuquerque 100, 000. 00 

On the lots and town property belonging to the Santa Fe Pacific at Gallup 2, 764. 50 

AGRICULTURAL LANDS. 

Per acre. 
Agricultural land in actual cultivation with permanent water rights, not less than. . $15. 00 
Agricultural lands actually in cultivation, without permanent water rights, not less 

than 7. 50 

Agricultural lands capable of cultivation, but not actually in cultivation, under 

ditch of artesian belt, not less than 5. 00 

GRAZING LANDS. 

Grazing lands with stock water thereon, by wells or otherwise, so located or situated 

as to utilize privileges of grazing on Government land 1. 25 

Grazing lands, so situated or located as to utilize grazing privileges on Government 

land without stock water 1. 00 

Grazing lands other than above specified : 30 

TIMBER LANDS. 

All timber lands within 10 miles of any operated railroad 4. 00 

All timber lands not above specified 2. 50 

COAL LANDS. 

Coal lands within 10 miles of any operated railroad 20. 00 

Coal lands more than 10 miles from a railroad 10. 00 

MINERAL LANDS. 

All patented mineral lands, other than coal lands 20. 00 

LIVE STOCK. 

Per head. 

Stock horses $7.50 

Saddle horses 7. 50 

American horses 40. 00 

American mules 50. 00 

Common mules 15. 00 

Stock cattle: 

North of the thirty-fifth parallel 10. 00 

South of the thirty-fifth parallel 8. 00 

Cattle, other than range stock 15. 00 

Common goats 1-00 

Improved Angora goats 2. 00 

Sheep 1. 35 

Burros 2.00 

Swine 3.50 



158 ANNUAL REPORTS OP THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

BANKS. 

National and other banking stock and surplus at 60 per cent of its par value, and all real 
estate and improvements belonging to such banks to be assessed as other property in that 
locality, except banking buildings, where any portion of its capital stock is invested in such 
building. 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE LINES. 

All telegraph lines carrying one wire per mile . . $50. 00 

For each additional wire do ... . 5. 00 

Local telephone companies in cities, towns, and villages, for each telephone instru- 
ment 10. 00 

For long-distance telephone companies charging rates not to exceed 50 cents per 

message, one wire per mile. . 20. 00 

For each additional wire do 5. 00 

For long-distance companies, charging rates more than 50 cents per met»sage, carry- 
ing one wire per mile . . 50. 00 

For each additional wire do 5. 00 

ANITA J. CHAPMAN, TERRITORIAL LIBRARIAN. 

The law library has been improved and added to until now it is a very satisfactory 
working library. A few of the more important additions are a set of New Hampshire 
Reports, a reprint of English Reports — these volumes, comprising a full set from the 
"Yearbooks" down to Law Reports (1865), furnish all that is useful in that line — and 
an almost complete set of the North Carolina Reports, of which we have received 139 
volumes. 

We have not yet been supplied with the Louisiana Reports, the other sets of reports 
being quite complete, with the exception of very rare volumes, which are out of print. 

The circulation of reports is not as great as would be desired, owing to the fact that all 
reports from other States are furnished express paid, while the librarian of the Territory 
is obliged to forward all volumes collect. It appears to me that there should be some 
legislation on this subject, in order to enable us to exchange with all the libraries on 
an equal basis. 

The trustees are expecting to soon be in position to purchase text-books, of which there 
is at present only a meager set of old editions, most of which are of no use at this time. 
However, the encyclopedias, with their late editions coming out continuously, fill a long- 
felt want. The library is on the subscription lists for all the important encyclopedias 
which are now being published. 

At the present writing the total number of books in the law library proper is 7,323, and 
embraces statutes, reports, and digests from every State and Territory in the Union, as 
well as various English and miscellaneous works. 

FRED FORNOFF, CAPTAIN MOUNTED POLICE. 

The mounted police department is a new institution in New Mexico. It holds a peculiar 
position, as we police the entire Territory. Being not restricted by local conditions we 
are free to carry out the law without fear. In many localities, where the local officers for 
one reason or another have neglected to enforce the Territorial laws and city ordinances, 
we have been called upon, and in every case where it was possible to do so have taken into 
custody the violators. 

While sheep, cattle, and horse thieves have not been as active in their operations as in 
the early days of the Territory, there have been many crimes of this class committed. One 
of the principal duties of the mounted police is to protect cattle, sheep, and horses. We 
have been successful in making a great reduction in this class of crime by a vigorous 
enforcement of the law and by running down many horse and cattle thieves. Undoubtedly 
the best work of the new department has been along this line. 

However, it must not be inferred that the mounted police department has devoted all 
its energies to the protection of the cattle aad sheep industries. A review of the work 
done during the past three months will show that the policemen have been engaged in 
taking into captivity men accused of all kinds of crime. Our officers are ever willing to 
assist the local authorities to apprehend criminals. During the four months I have held 
the office 50 arrests have been made. Of these 5 were accused of the crime of murder. 
The others were as follows: Assault with intent to kill, 7; burglary, 2; escaped convicts, 
recaptures, 2; jail breakers, recaptures, 1; sheep stealing, 4; cattle stealing, 2; horse 
stealing, 5; flourishing guns, 3; obtaining money or goods under false pretense, 2; fugi- 
tives, 1; disorderly conduct, 1; car robbery, 3; dynamiting house, 3; shoplifting, 1; 
violating city ordinances, 2; other crimes, 6. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. - 159 

I wish to call your attention to the fact that the work of the department is somewhat 
handicapped by the small number of men employed and the lack of funds. The salaries 
of the men are inadequate. No provision is made for the payment of the expenses incurred 
by the officers when traveling upon duty. 

The force at the present time is composed of the following officers and privates : Captain, 
Fred Fornoff, Santa Fe; Lieutenant, Cipriano Baca, Socorro; Sergeant, R. W. Lewis, 
Socorro; Privates, Richard Huber, Santa Fe; Raphael Gomez, Santa Fe; L. F. Avant, 
capitan; W. E. Dudley, Alamogordo; R. G. Putman, Silver City; Julius Meyers, 
Albuquerque; Robert Burch, Las Cruces. 

The expense of maintaining the department for the four months was $4,243.55, divided 
as follows: 



Pay roll for April $916. 66 

Contingent expenses 59. 13 

Pay roll for May 991. 66 

Contingent expenses 108. 62 

Pay roll for June 991. 66 



Contingent expenses $159. 53 

Pay roll for July 916. 66 

Contingent expenses 99. 63 



Total 4,243.55 



The contingent expenses include postage, telegrams, stage fare, railroad fare, hotel bills, 
horse feed, and horse hire. 

The report of my predecessor shows that during the twelve months he" held the office of 
captain 72 arrests were made. The cost of maintaining the department for the year was 
$13,284.99. 

ALPHEUS A. KEEN, SECRETARY CAPITOL CUSTODIAN COMMITTEE. 

Meetings of the capitol custodian committee have been held regularly each month. The 
capitol building and grounds are in good condition and are being scrupulously cared for 
by the superintendent of the building. The grounds surrounding the capitol building are 
seeded to blue grass, and the large number of elm and maple trees and shrubbery make of 
them a very attractive park. 

During the past year disbursements have been made by the committee in the care of 
the building and grounds as follows: 

Labor $3, 337. 00 

Furniture, repairs, and supplies 2, 192. 53 

Fuel, light, and water 1, 074. 64 






Total 6, 604. 17 

DAVID M. WHITE, IRRIGATION ENGINEER. 

Under the act of Congress of June 21, 1898, donating lands to the Territory for certain 
institutions, the following locations have been made, to wit: Water reservoirs for irrigating 
purposes, 61,540.60 acres. 

In accordance with the requirements of section 19, of the Session Laws of 1905 (New 
Mexico irrigation law), the following notices of the appropriation of water, maps, and plans, 
and specifications, have been filed in this office, to wit: 

NOTICES OF THE APPROPRIATION OF WATER. 

United States Reclamation Service, Hondo project, Chaves County, Hondo River. 

United States Reclamation Service, Carlsbad project, Eddy County, Pecos River. 

United States Reclamation Service, Urton Lake project, Chaves County, Pecos River. 

United States Reclamation Service, Rio Grande project, Dona Ana County, Rio Grande. 

United States Reclamation Service, Las Vegas project, San Miguel project, Sapello River, 
Uallinas River, San Guijuela Creek, and Arroyo Pecos. 

The Jaritas Ditch and Reservoir Company, Colfax County, Chico Creek and East Jaritas 
Creek. 

Charles Springer, Colfax County, Cimarron Canyon. 

Ralph C. Ely, Grant County, Mimbres River. 

Mrs. Louise Nagel, Santa Fe County, Arroyo Hondo. 

El Paso and Rock Island Railroad, Guadalupe County, Pintada Canyon. 

El Paso and Rock Island Railroad, Guadalupe County, Gallinas Canyon. 

A. D. Thompson, Colfax County, Una de Gato Creek. 

MAPS OF RESERVOIRS. 

Mrs. Louise Nagel, Arroyo Hondo, Santa Fe County; capacity, 20.23 acre-feet. 
El Paso and Rock Island Railroad, Pintada Canyon, Guadalupe County; capacity, 1 ,333 
acre-feet. 



160 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 

El Paso and Rock Island Railroad, Gallinas Canyon, Guadalupe County; capacity, 1,333 
acre-feet. 
A. D. Thompson, Una de Gato Creek, Colfax County; capacity, 2,663 acre-feet. 
A. D. Thompson, Una de Gato Creek, Colfax County; capacity, 522 acre-feet. 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

The Rio Mimbres Irrigation Company, Grant County, estimated cost, $600,000. 

Mrs. Louise Nagel, Santa Fe County, estimated cost, $10,000. 

The Hondo project is located on the Hondo River, in Chaves County, a tributary to the 
Pecos River; the area to be irrigated amounts to about 10,000 acres, most of which has passed 
from Government ownership by patent. It is intended to construct an earthern dam with a 
maximum height of 20 feet. The water is to be conveyed through a canal 70 feet wide on 
the bottom. This project, I understand, has been completed and it is expected that water 
will be distributed the coming season. Cost about $225,000. 

The Urton Lake project is situate on the Pecos River in Chaves County, near Fort Sumner. 
It is proposed to divert the waters of the Pecos by means of a dam and a canal about 35 miles 
long; the water is to be stored in a natural basin lying away from the river. It is estimated 
that about 60,000 acres can be irrigated under this project at a cost of about $1,000,000. 
Actual construction has not, as yet, been commenced. 

The Las Vegas project is situate about 5 miles north of Las Vegas. It is proposed to 
convey the water from the Gallinas and Sapello rivers to a point about 5 miles north of 
Las Vegas and there impound it by means of a dam across a narrow point in an arroyo. This 
reservoir will have a capacity of 38,000 acre-feet. The project is still under consideration 
by the United States Reclamation Service, with every indication that it will be built in the 
near future. 

The Rio Grande project is situate a few miles from Engle on the Atchison, Topeka, and 
Santa Fe Railway, and comprises the construction of a curved dam about 190 feet high to 
impound sufficient water to irrigate about 200,000 acres of land in the Rio Grande Valley. 
I understand actual construction on this project will commence this fall. This is what has 
been known as the Elephant Butte proposition, and which means so much to the towns on 
the Rio Grande lying to the south of the proposed dam. 

The Carlsbad project is situate on the Pecos River in Eddy County and includes the 
reservoirs and canals at one time the property of the Pecos Irrigation Company. It appears 
that the floods of 1904 badly damaged the dam at Lake Avalon, the distributing reservoir, 
and in consequence the system became almost useless. The Government has recently pur- 
chased the system, and it is intended to place it in a position capable of irrigating several 
thousand acres of magnificent land. 

The Rio Mimbres Irrigation Company proposes to construct a dam across the Rio Mimbres 
in Grant County, about 90 feet high, of earth rip-rapped on the water side. It is expected 
to impound sufficient water to irrigate about 90,000 acres of land. The land to be irri- 
gated at the present time belongs to the Territory, and should this enterprise be carried 
through to a successful issue, these lands will become highly valuable and will be in great 
demand. This enterprise deserves all possible encouragement. 

The principal irrigation systems in this Territory are situate in the valley of the Rio Grande, 
the Pecos River, and the Maxwell land grant. Small systems exist on the upper reaches of 
the valleys of streams having a perennial supply. With a few exceptions, however, the loca- 
tion and construction of ditches and dams has been exceedingly crude and far from comply- 
ing with scientific methods. I have recently noticed an inclination, however, on the part 
of those intending to construct irrigation works to apply modern methods that better results 
may be attained. To this end this office is making every effort by giving information to all 
who seek it as to the best methods to be adopted. 

When it is remembered that almost one-third of the population of this Territory lives on 
farms, and that farming, with the exception of a few places, can be carried on only by irri- 
gation, it will be realized that the reclaiming of the arid lands of the Territory is of vital 
importance, and such laws should be passed as will encourage the investment of capital in 
irrigation works. It is only by such means that we can hope to induce desirable immigra- 
tion into this Territory, the need of which is generally conceded. 

The irrigation law as it is to-day is hardly applicable to conditions existing in this Terri- 
tory. It seems to have been prepared without regard to the purposes which it was intended 
to serve, and is but a conglomerate of laws prevailing in different States where conditions 
are entirely unlike those of this Territory. 

The office of Territorial irrigation engineer is one that can do much toward the develop- 
ment of the agricultural resources of this Territory if it be given such power and means as 
will enable investigations to be made in the line of irrigation. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



161 



ARTHUR TRELFORD, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE PENITENTIARY. 

The main industries carried on at this penitentiary consist of the manufacture of building 
and paving brick, lime, and road building. The proceeds derived from the sale of products 
are turned into the convicts' earnings fund. 

The system in vogue at this institution for the manufacture of clay products is known 
as the " stiff plastic process." The material used is hauled by wagons from the shale banks, 
which are situated in the foothills 2\ miles from the prison, the banks of the pit averaging 
12 feet in height, and are capped with a ledge of limestone 2 feet thick, and the working of 
which requires a great deal of labor on account of the faulty formation and being inter- 
stratified with volcanic rock. The upper strata, which is about the same thickness as the 
lower, is composed of white clay and is used for vitrified brick and blocks. The lower is a 
yellow shale which, when mixed with 40 per cent adobe clay, is used for building brick. 
The adobe clay is hauled three-quarters of a mile from the prison. 

In this process the material is first ground in a dry pan, after which it is elevated by the 
means of a cup elevator and passed through a screen to a pug mill, the tailings from the 
screen being returned to the dry pan. The pug mill might be more properly termed a mixing 
mill. It is 12 feet long and contains a series of mixing knives by which the clay and water 
are mixed to a proper consistency. From the pug mill the material passes into the brick 
machine, where it is compressed by a heavy auger into a solid and continuous column, 
being forced on to a cutting table through a die of proper size to form the length and 
width of a brick. 

The cutting table is worked by hand and by the means of fine steel wires cuts the column 
transversely into bricks, making any thickness that may be required. After the bricks 
are cut into the proper thickness they pass on to a separating belt attached to the cutting 
table, from which they are taken and placed on the dryer car and run into the dryer. 

The dryer is heated by steam and takes from thirty-six to forty-eight hours before the 
brick is ready to set in the kilns. The capacity of the dryer limits the daily output to 
about 21,000. We have four down-draft kilns, two large and two small, with a total capac- 
ity of 420,000. 

, The demand for brick, both paving and building, is steadily increasing. Our output is 
shipped as fast as manufactured and no accumulations are noted. 

The increase in the consumption of brick in this Territory shows that the era of brick 
construction has but begun, and the coming ten years will witness a development in the 
brick business which will exceed the most sanguine expectations. 

In connection with the foregoing we burn a good quality of lime from the stone which 
caps the shale, and in addition to selling to builders we sell quite a large amount to sheep 
men for the purpose of dipping. 

In addition to the industries just mentioned 20 per cent of the inmates are working on a 
public highway, known as El Camino Real, which shall extend from the Colorado and New 
Mexico State line, where the old Barlow and Sanderson stage road, commonly known as 
the "Santa Fe trail," crossed the State line, running thence in a southerly direction, and 
following the Santa Fe trail as nearly as practicable to the city of Santa Fe, thence through 
the southern part of the Territory and terminating at a place known as Anthony, on the 
State line between Texas and New Mexico. 

Revenue from industries of penitentiary from July, 1905, to June, 1906. 



- 


Red 
brick. 


Vitrified 
brick. 


Blocks. 


Lime. 


Miscella- 
neous. 


Jail 

prisoners. 


United 

States 

prisoners. 


Shoe- 
maker. 


Total. 


1905. 
July 


$1,251.70 
2, 152. 70 
1,639.97 
1,908.23 
1,080.78 
1,278.80 

669. 20 
138.60 
1,054.64 
1,838.89 
2,632.89 
2,834.61 


$481. 17 
368. 50 


$69. 00 
11.20 
10.00 
86.40 
31.20 
32.00 


$281. 79 
277. 23 
687. 15 
329. 57 
206.04 
152. 53 

137. 58 
160. 02 
245. 31 
151. 36 
294. 12 
232. 45 


$2.50 
5.14 

20.00 
5.05 


$56. 50 
62.00 
75.00 
77.50 
60.00 
77.50 

77.50 
6Q.50 
77.50 
88.50 
144.00 
195. 00 


$454. 70 
454. 70 
454.80 
440. 90 
440.90 
440.90 

410. 75 
371.00 
408.75 

407. 13 

407. 14 
407. 13 


$5.50 
5.75 
6.75 
2.25 

3.75 
2.00 

""3." 25' 
5.75 
4.00 


$2, 602. 86 


August 

September — 
October 


3,337.22 
2, 893. 67 


384. 75 
206. 12 
427.00 


3,234.65 
2, 025. 04 


December 

1906. 
January 


11.00 


2, 419. 73 
1,298.78 


February 


374. 70 
732.00 

85.10 
1,074.02 

61.25 


19.00 
19.60 

"61.80' 
.90 




1,125.82 




2, 537. 80 


April 


151. 00 
5.00 
3.50 


2, 725. 23 


May 


4, 624. 72 




3, 738. 84 






Total... 


18,481.01 


4, 194. 61 


341. 10 


3, 155. 15 


203. 19 


1,051.50 


5,098.80 


39.00 


32, 564. 36 



162 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Financial statement. 

Penitentiary maintenance fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 $5, 883. 42 

To amount received from apportionments 37, 052. 40 

By disbursements $35, 624. 19 

By balance 7, 311. 68 

42, 935. 82 42, 935. 82 

Penitentiary current expense fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 . 1, 010. 13 

To amount received from apportionments 14, 975. 51 

By disbursements. 13, 310. 41 

By balance 2, 675. 23 

15, 985. 64 15, 985. 64 

Convicts' earnings fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 380. 44 

To amount paid treasurer by H. O. Bursum, superintendent. 28, 735. 77 
To amount paid treasurer by Arthur Trelford, superin- 
tendent 5, 650. 23 

By disbursements 34, 052. 49 

By balance 713. 95 

34,766.44 34,766.44 

Permanent improvement fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 114. 56 

By disbursements 114. 11 

By balance .45 

114. 56 114. 56 

Penitentiary income fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 23. 25 

To amount received from apportionments 446. 39 

By disbursements 469. 59 

By balance .05 

469. 64 469. 64 

Penitentiary board fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 59. 89 

To amount received from apportionments 1, 541. 91 

By disbursements 1, 159. 40 

By balance 442. 40 

1,601.80 1,601.80 

Scenic-route fund: 

To balance June 30, 1905 18. 74 

To amount received from apportionments 5, 540. 00 

By disbursements 5, 558. 74 

5, 558. 74 5, 558. 74 

El Camino Real fund: 

To amount received from taxes 5, 785. 61 

By disbursements 855. 70 

By balance 4, 929. 91 

5, 785. 61 5, 785. 61 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



163 



RECAPITULATION. 

To balance June 30, 1905, in all funds: 

Penitentiary maintenance $5, 883. 42 

Penitentiary current expense 1, 010. 13 

Convicts' earnings 380. 44 

Permanent improvement, 114. 56 

Penitentiary income 23. 25 

Penitentiary board 59. 89 

Scenic route 18. 74 

$7, 490. 43 

Received from all funds: 

Penitentiary maintenance 37, 052. 40 

Penitentiary current expense 14, 975. 51 

Convicts' earnings 34, 386. 00 

Penitentiary income 446. 39 

Penitentiary board 1, 541. 91 

Scenic route 5, 540. 00 

El Camino Real 5, 785. 61 



107, 218. 25 

Disbursed from all funds : 

Penitentiary maintenance 35, 624. 19 

Penitentiary current expense 13, 310. 41 

Convicts' earnings 34, 052. 49 

Permanent improvement 114. 11 

Penitentiary income 469. 59 

Penitentiary board 1, 159. 40 

Scenic route 5, 558. 74 

El Camino Real 855. 70 

By balance June 30, 1906, in all funds: 

Penitentiary maintenance $7, 311. 63 

Penitentiary current expense 2, 675. 23 

Convicts' earnings 713. 95 

Permanent improvement .45 

Penitentiary income .05 

Penitentiary board 442. 40 

El Camino Real 4, 929. 91 

16, 073. 62 



107, 218. 25 



Total amount paid out: 

From appropriations 57, 092. 14 

From convicts' earnings 34, 052. 49 



91,144.63 



CONVICTS. 





Terri- 
torial. 


United 
States. 


Total. 


On hand July 1, 1905 


216 

113 
1 
6 


24 

8 


240 


Increase during year: 


121 




1 






6 










336 


32 


368 


Decrease during year: 


79 
9 

7 
2 


8 
2 


87 




11 




7 


Died 




2 








• 


97 


10 


107 


On hand June 30, 1906 


239 


22 


261 







164 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

JAIL PRISONERS. 



Terri- United 
torial. States. 



Total. 



On hand July 1,1905. 
Received during year. 



Discharged during year. 
On hand June 30, H 



On hand June 30, 1906: 

Territorial convicts 

United States convicts 

Territorial jail prisoners 

United States jail prisoners . 



RECAPITULATION. 



Total. 



239 

22 

10 

3 



274 



Total average cost per man for feeding for fifty-sixth fiscal year: 

Per day 80.1463 

Per month 4. 45 

Per vear 53. 38 



W. G. TIGHT, PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEYICO. 

The commencement exercises of May 11, 1906, closed a very satisfactory year in the 
history of the University of New Mexico. The total enrollment in all departments was 91. 
Three years ago there was not a student of college grade, but during the school year of 
1905-6, in spite of the fact that three years ago the preparatory course was lengthened 
from three to four years, there were 35 students of college rank distributed through the four 
years of the college course, a gain over last year of 9. While this fact is most encouraging, 
it will be apparent that the addition of these college classes has greatly increased the duties 
of the teachers. 

There were 17 graduates from the several departments, distributed as follows: Prepara- 
tory school, 7; normal school, 9; college of letters and science, 1. 

The material equipment of the university has been enlarged during the year by the 
erection of a central heating plant. 

The present buildings include the administration hall, which is a large, commodious four- 
story brick building. The Hadley Climatological Laboratory serves as the home for the 
science work of the university, and, as you are already aware from former reports, was pre- 
sented to the university as a gift, largely contributed by Mrs. Walter Hadley, and was 
established for the exact purpose of investigating the climate of the arid plateau of New 
Mexico in relation to disease. The gymnasium is a substantial building 30 by 30 feet. It 
is provided with lockers and dressers. The best of apparatus, which has been added in the 
past year, is arranged on an outdoor framework of iron. The irrigation reservoir makes a 
magnificent swimming pool, 120 feet long and 60 feet wide. The ladies' cottage, which 
was formerly the residence of the custodian, served during the year as a general boarding 
hall, and for the accommodation of a few young women. The library contains about 7,000 
bound volumes and about 2,000 pamphlets. 

It will be noted from the catalogue of the university for 1905-6, and from former reports, 
that from the time of the organization of the university up to the present there has been 
a rapid increase in the amount and variety of the studies offered and in the standard of 
entrance requirements. This year has shown a substantial advance along these lines. The 
requirements for admission to the preparatory school have been brought up to those of 
the best academies and high schools of the country. No students are now admitted who 
have not completed the work of the eighth grade of a public school of recognized standing. 
The preparatory course, which was three years in duration, was increased three years ago 
by action of the board of regents, on recommendation of the faculty, to four years. Students 
who complete the preparatory course are now prepared to enter the freshman class of this 
or any other university in the country. The commercial and normal courses have also been 
strengthened. 

The college course embraces four years of work, as heretofore, but the plan of studies 
has been so changed that a greater freedom of selection within prescribed limits is granted 
to the students, thereby tending to adapt the course of study more nearly to the individual 
characteristics of the student. Two years of a four years' engineering course have been 
added. The standard of work done in four years in the preparatory school and four years 
in the college places this university alongside of the State universities in the land. 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 165 

During the year a large amount of general repair work was done, including outside 
painting and inside finishing. A boiler house and central heating plant was constructed 
and placed in operation. The plant has worked most successfully, and the records show 
a considerable saving in expense for fuel. In compliance with the governor's proclama- 
tion, Arbor Day was celebrated by our students, and some one hundred trees were set 
upon the campus and provisions made for their irrigation. 

But little progress has been made in meeting the needs of the university in its growth 
since my last report to you, and I therefore would repeat my statement of these needs, 
which are even more pressing than last year. 

In pursuance of the instructions of the board of regents, during the summer of 1902 
several rooms in the administration hall were furnished for the accommodation of young 
men, and the cottage which was vacated by the resignation of Mr. Custers, as custodian, 
in June, 1902, was fitted up for use as a dining hall, and a few rooms on its second floor 
were furnkhed for young women. These arrangements were also maintained during the 
past year. 

The rooms given up for this purpose are very greatly needed for recitation rooms, and 
it is essential that this arrangement be only temporary. All the available rooms are taken, 
and the dining room is crowded beyond its capacity, about thirty boarders being accom- 
modated at the present time. The success of this experiment is certainly added evidence 
of the very great need at this school of suitable dormitory quarters. 

With the opening of the present school year the demands for enlarged recitation facilities 
were so imperative that it was found necessary to remove the young men from the room 
occupied as dormitory quarters in the main building. A large private house near the 
grounds was leased, and is now occupied by the young men as a dormitory. This very 
inadequately supplies the needed room. 

The regents have under way plans for the erection of two dormitory buildings, and it is 
expected that they will be ready for occupancy by the opening of the next school year. 
This, however, does not relieve the distress of congested recitation rooms.- 

The limited means available during the past two years for the conduct of the work of the 
university has greatly hampered its growth and development. The revenue derived from 
the present appropriation is not adequate, and it is most highly desirable, in fact it is 
imperative, if the university is to grow, to meet the demands of our rapidly increasing 
and more exacting population, that the regular income of the university be enlarged. 

J. W. WILSON, SUPERINTENDENT ROSWELL MILITARY INSTITUTE. 

Attention is directed first to the fact that during the past year the Territory's military 
school has been twice inspected by officers of the Army; that through their recommenda- 
tions it has been recognized by the War Department, and an officer of the United States 
Army has been detailed to act as instructor of military science and tactics. As this insti- 
tution is not a "land-grant" school it could only secure the benefits of a detail by demon- 
strating its actual worth as a military training school of high order. This has now been 
accomplished, and the New Mexico Military Institute is rated in Class A by the United 
State* War Department. 

April 11, 1906, Lieut. Col. George H. Paddock, then commandant of Fort Wingate, act- 
ing under orders of Gen. Frank D. Baldwin, commander of the Southwestern Division, 
inspected this school. 

An application was made for the detail of a United States officer; the same received 
favorable consideration, and on May 22, 1906, Col. W. S. Schuyler, chief of staff of the 
Southwestern Division, was ordered to inspect this school and to make a report regarding 
its military, academic, physical, and moral conditions. 

We have not received a copy of Colonel Schuyler's official report, but soon after his inspec- 
tion the following order from the War Department was received: 

Special Orders,! War Department, 

No. 130. • J Washington, June 1, 1906. 

[Extract.] 

17. By direction of the President, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved 
November 3, 1903, Capt. Warren S. Barlow, U. S. Army, retired, i$ upon his own application 
detailed as professor of military science and tactics at the New Mexico Military Institute, 
Roswell, N. Mex. 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

J. Franklin Bell, 
Brigadier-General, Chief of Staff. 
Official: 

Henry P. McCain, Military Secretary. 

241b— 07 12 



166 ANNUAL REPORTS OP THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

This order places the New Mexico Military Institute on an equal footing with the leading 
military schools of the United States, and affords it an opportunity to secure all necessary 
arms and equipments needed in its military department direct from the United States 
arsenals without any cost to the Territory or to this institution. 

During the last year this institution has grown and improved in all respects. More cadets 
were received than ever before. More work was accomplished in the academic department, 
and the discipline and moral condition of the school was most excellent. On account of 
limited quarters a great many applicants were refused admission. However, new quarters 
were provided and a greater number were matriculated than ever before. During the sum- 
mer of 1905 one new building was added, but owing to the fact that larger rooms were needed 
for the scientific departments only a few more rooms were available for living quarters. 
Both the chemical and physical laboratories were given better and larger rooms; also the 
cadet hospital was removed to a better building and supplied with modern equipment. 

The buildings, which are eight in number, are all in perfect condition. It is the policy of 
the school to repaint every two years, and during the summer months all of the buildings and 
quarters are thoroughly renovated and repaired. During last summer over $2,000 was ex- 
pended in plastering, painting, and improving the buildings. About the same amount is to 
be used this summer for similar purposes. While this system of repairing is a heavy tax 
on the school's running expenses, it preserves the buildings and adds greatly to the com- 
fort and pleasure of both officers and cadets. 

At the close of last session 7 young men were graduated. While this was a smaller class 
than the one of the year before, it was composed of a splendid lot of young men, and they will 
no doubt prove a credit to both the Territory and the military institute which prepared them 
for their life work. 

The corps of instructors was increased from 8 to 9, another officer being added to assist 
with the extra work in the fourth class. Owing to the fact that more new cadets were 
admitted last session, it became necessary to divide the fourth class into two sections, and 
this division demanded an additional instructor. All of the officers employed were experi- 
enced teachers, graduates of standard colleges, and men who won the confidence of both 
scholars and patrons. 

The military department was in almost perfect condition throughout the entire session, and 
great credit is due the commandant for the splendid results attained. The battalion, which 
was composed of 138 men, was divided, as heretofore, into three companies and a band. 
The cadets were thoroughly drilled in all infantry tactics, lectured in military science, and 
instructed in general duties regarding discipline and conduct of a soldier. The cadet 
officers were very efficient and managed their companies with skill. They were also a great 
help in preserving and enforcing discipline in quarters. 

The demand for admission is becoming greater and greater each year, until it seems that 
this could be made one of the greatest training schools in the Union if sufficient buildings 
could only be secured. Last session the standard for admission was considerably raised, yet 
more than 50 applications for admission were refused. 

Following is the table of receipts and disbursements from June 30, 1905, to June 30, 1906. 
All original bills are required to be itemized and receipted, are carefully filed and preserved, 
and are subject to inspection at any time. 

RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand June 30, 1905: 

Land sales and leases fund $2, 454. 53 

Levy fund 55. 71 

Tuition fund 4, 431 . 52 

Received from Territorial auditor, from June 30, 1905, to June 30, 1906: 

Proceeds land sales and leases 430. 15 

Proceeds levy 13, 875. 58 

Received for tuition, board, etc., from June 30, 1905, to June 30, 1906 25, 528. 14 

Total 46,775.63 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Tuition (refunded) 175.00 

Maintenance and supplies 28, 525. 23 

Advertising $81 6. 76 

Athletic supplies 61. 65 

Commissary 8, 379. 61 

Expense 885. 92 

Fuel 149.92 

Hospital 211.11 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 167 

Maintenance and supplies — Continued. 

Insurance $423. 40 

Laboratory supplies 107. 58 

Laundry 2, 247. 96 

Light 687.14 

Military supplies 242. 26 

Office 403.21 

Repairs 655. 44 

Salaries 7, 417. 80 

Stable 405. 28 

Wages 4,412.88 

School supplies 1, 017. 31 

Property $9, 390. 57 

Buildings 2, 438. 95 

Furniture and fixtures 1, 505. 66 

Improvements 2, 599. 20 

Library 206. 54 

Movables 617. 50 

Sewer 66. 35 

Tools 48.45 

Waterworks 1, 158. 43 

Electric-light plant 749. 49 

Balance on hand June 30, 1906: 

Land sales and leases fund .68 

Levy fund 89. 62 

Tuition fund 8, 594. 53 

Total 46,775.63 

LUTHER FOSTER, PRESIDENT NEW MEXICO COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
AND MECHANIC ARTS. 

In many respects the past year has been one of the most noteworthy in the history of the 
institution. More work was accomplished and the quality was of a higher character. The 
lowest class of the preparatory department was discontinued at the close of the previous 
year, making the entrance requirement one grade higher than formerly. While this action 
had the effect to slightly reduce the enrollment for the past year, the result to the institution 
as a whole proved beneficial. It brought the institution one step closer to strictly collegiate 
conditions. It is the desire of the management of the college to dispense with the work that 
properly belongs to the public schools just as speedily as the educational conditions in the 
Territory will permit, in order that the whole energy of the college teaching force may be 
devoted to the higher class of educational work. 

The regular graduating class from the four years' courses was the largest that the institu- 
tion has yet sent out. It contained 11 members, distributed as follows: One from the agri- 
cultural course, 2 from the domestic science, 4 from the mechanical engineering, and 4 from 
the general. 

As indicating progress, the attendance is gradually becoming more widely distributed 
over the Territory. The quantity of work which students are able to accomplish shows a 
definite increase from year to year, and the quality of the work is also improving. During 
the past year students were in attendance from the northwest as far as Gallup and Farm- 
ington, and across the Territory to the east and southeast as far as Santa Rosa, Roswell, 
Artesia, and down to Pecos City, Tex. 

Outside of New Mexico students were in attendance from the following States: Texas, 
Kansas, Colorado, Indiana, Missouri, West Virginia, Iowa, Louisiana, New York, and also 
from Mexico, Porto Rico, Salvador, Central America, and the Philippines. The total num- 
ber enrolled was 217. Of these, 164 were actual residents of the Territory. The other 53 
came from different States and foreign countries. 

A larger per cent entered regular college classes, and a greater proportion of the student 
body came from outside the immediate vicinity of the college and Dona Ana County. 
This latter fact is made evident by the difficulty that is found in securing suitable rooming 
and boarding places for those who seek admission. 

The general equipment of the college consists of buildings and grounds valued at $75,000, 
apparatus and machinery of a value of $50,000, and a library of nearly 25,000 books and 
pamphlets worth $17,000. 

The equipment for instruction in agriculture includes a farm of 170 acres, under irriga- 
tion, with fields and plots for use in demonstrating methods of producing the various crops 
adapted to the climate. This department is well equipped with breeds of improved stocK, 



168 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

the latest improved farm machinery, and all that pertains to properly conducting diversi- 
fied farming operations. 

The kitchen laboratory is provided with individual gas stoves on desks fitted with small 
closed cupboards, containing those cooking utensils of which the students are in constant 
need, a convenient sink, a refrigerator, cupboards filled with dishes for serving, and all the 
utensils and conveniences found in the best equipped kitchens. There is also a large range, 
food charts, and charts illustrating the cuts of meat. 

The sewing room is well equipped with all the conveniences necessary to the department — 
sewing machines, cutting and sewing tables, lap boards, sewing chairs, and cabinets for 
holding samples of finished work, putting away materials, etc. A fitting room is separated 
from the main sewing room by portieres and furnished with mirror, washstand, couch, and 
other necessaries. 

The department library contains many books of reference on all phases of the household, 
including the latest and best books on dietetics and the best magazines on both domestic 
economy and domestic art, making altogether a very well-equipped department. 

The equipment for instruction in mechanical engineering is quite complete and up-to- 
date. The boilers, the numerous steam and gas engines, testing apparatus, the Olson test- 
ing machine, the dynamo, the motor, and other machinery afford ample opportunity for 
investigation and practice work in these various lines. The machine shop, the wood- 
working shop, and the forge department are each completely equipped for the various kinds 
of work usually offered in such lines. 

The departments of biology, chemistry, and mathematics are well supplied with all appa- 
ratus desired for the usual class demonstration and student practice. 

The equipment for instruction in the various courses offered by the institution as a whole 
is fully up to that of other institutions of this kind. 

W. R. TIPTON, PRESIDENT NEW MEXICO NORMAL UNIVERSITY. 

The eighth year of the New Mexico Normal University was a very successful one and 
terminated June 1, 1906, at which time there were reported to the board of regents for 
graduation 19 students, 16 of whom received their diplomas June 1, and 3 will be graduated 
at the close of the summer session on August 10, 1906. Of those graduated 4 were from the 
advanced normal department and 7 from the three-year normal, and 3 finish the three- 
year normal course at the close of the present summer school. 

The total enrollment for the year in all departments, including the 1905 summer school, 
was 248. Those enrolled in the 1905 summer school were 65, leaving for the regular session 
a total enrollment of 183, and the average daily attendance was 135. 

The enrollment for the school year 1904-5 was from 13 counties in the Territory, while 
that for the year 190.5-6 was from 20 different counties, the counties represented being 
Union, 3; Colfax, 4; Quay, 1; Santa Fe, 4; Lincoln, 2; Socorro, 1; Rio Arriba, 1; Taos, 3; 
San Juan, 1; Grant, 4; Sandoval, 1; Dona Ana, 10; Guadalupe, 5; Mora, 3; Roosevelt, 
2; Sierra 1; Valencia, 1; Otero, 1; Chaves, 1; San Miguel, 201. 

The only counties not represented were Bernalillo, Eddy, McKinley, Torrance, and Luna. 

The expenses of conducting the institution from September 1, 1905, to May 31, 1906, 
were as follows: 

Salaries to teachers and assistants $10, 899. 24 

Expended on buildings and grounds 572. 54 

Furniture and equipment 166. 65 

Text-books , 181.51 

Accessions to library 158. 91 

Supplies * 286. 11 

Music department 604. 00 

Business department 77. 00 

Insurance, printing, and advertising 662. 76 

Fuel, lights, and water 570. 52 

General expense account 1, 053. 30 

Total , 15,232.54 

And the revenues during the same period were as follows: 

Territorial treasurer 11 , 473. 28 

Tuitions and fees 1 , 243. 55 

Music department . 703. 00 

Business department 124. 00 

Rent of text-books and other sources 411 . 67 

Total 13,955.50 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 



169 



R. P NOBLE, PRESIDENT NEW MEXICO SCHOOL OF MINES. 

The buildings of the New Mexico School of Mines, located on a 20-acre tract of land 
about a mile from the business center of Socorro, cost about $50,000. The equipment of 
the school, consisting of the libraries, physical and chemical apparatus, chemical supplies, 
mineralogical specimens and cases, and machinery, is estimated at $10,000. 

The School of Mines is maintained by an appropriation of $14,000 a year from the Ter- 
ritorial treasury. There is a small additional revenue from the sale and lease of lands 
belonging to the institution. 

Four distinct curricula are offered at the school: Mining engineering, metallurgical engi- 
neering, mining geology, and civil engineering. The courses comprising these curricula 
are strictly collegiate or technical, and extend through four years. At the completion of 
the third year the bachelor's degree is conferred, and at the completion of the fourth year 
the engineer's degree. A preparatory department, or academy, is maintained especially 
for the benefit of those students whose deficiencies would otherwise prevent their entrance 
into the institution. 

During the last scholastic year 40 students were enrolled. Of these 25 were in the college, 
distributed as follows: First year, 15; second year, 5; third year, 2; special, 3. 

Two students were graduated from the School of Mines at the close of the last scholastic 
year — Harry J. Hubbard, now in the employ of the Green Gold-Silver Company, in the 
capacity of mine foreman, at La Navidad mine, Temosachic, Mexico; and Samuel C. 
Cockerill, now availing himself of the advantages of the AUis-Chalmers scholarship, at 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

The School of Mines gives no diploma of graduation from the academy. 

For convenience in reference many of the books of the school are divided into depart- 
mental libraries. The total number, however, is about 5,000 volumes, including the 
valuable Powell Library. 

W. E. GORTNER, SECRETARY NEW MEXICO INSANE ASYLUM. 

We have had very little acute illness during the past year. The general health of the 
patients in our care has been most excellent. 

Movement of population. 





Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Remaining in hospital July 1, 1905 


78 
19 


62 
20 


140 


Admitted from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906 


39 






Total number treated during the year 


97 


82 


179 






Recovered 


4 
3 
4 


4 
2 
4 


8 


Improved 


5 


Died 


8 








11 


10 


21 


Remaining in hospital July 1, 1906 .» 


86 


72 


158 



The number of chronic cases of insanity is 149 patients, with 18 acute cases of insanity 
at the present time that we hope may recover. 

The capacity of the institution, when taxed to the utmost, is about 168 patients. During 
the year just past we have been unable to accommodate all that have applied for entrance 
at times, and have had to refuse admittance to 14 on account of the lack of room. These, 
when we are able to receive them, are generally forced to remain in the county jails, which 
is most deplorable, as the wretchedly inadequate quarters and lack of care of persons in 
this unfortunate condition of ill health tend to make acute cases, that usually yield rapidly 
to proper treatment, into chronic, making them permanent charges of the Territory when 
they are admitted. 

From time to time as vacancies occur or patients are discharged, their places are imme- 
diately filled by cases awaiting admittance. 

Our lack of sufficient room to accommodate those that apply for attention has been our 
greatest difficulty all along, and we have never ceased trying to solve the problem confront- 
ing us — that of giving immediate attention to the acute cases and restoring them to healthy 
minds if possible, thus relieving the Territory of the maintenance of chronic cases, which 
when admitted remain there for life. 



170 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The laundry, sewing room, garden, wards, farm, and grounds afford ample work for about 
two-thirds of the patients in our care. 

Fresh air, and the allowance for every patient of the utmost freedom consistent with 
safety, in the opinion of the board and the medical superintendent, is the most scientific, 
humane, and successful treatment as well as a considerable source of revenue to the Terri- 
tory, in that from the farm and gardens we are able to supply fresh, green vegetables in 
season and provide a goodly supply for winter use, thus making the diet of the patients 
consistent with the requirements of a hospital. These would have to be classed as luxuries 
if purchased in the open market, and could not be. included in the regular daily rations. 

We have during the past year constructed a reservoir with a capacity of 500,000 gallons 
of water, the reservoir and pipe line costing $7,534.24. We expect to save about $75 to 
$100 per month, and this will furnish us with a much better pressure in case of fire. By 
the boring of another well we think that we should be independent of the city pressure at 
aD times for all purposes. 

During the past year we have made a change in our dining room at a cost of $317.85. The 
tables have been equipped with knives and forks, linen, and china, presenting a most cheerful 
and homelike appearance. It is very gratifying to us to note the pleasure and appreciation 
with which the patients have welcomed this change. 

On April 1, 1906, Dr. H. M. Smith took up his residence at the asylum. The board has 
long felt the urgent need of having a resident physician, and is very much pleased in having 
secured so competent a man for the arduous work of the superintendent. Temporary 
quarters were arranged for his use in the building, but the board hopes in the near future 
to have a house suitable to the needs and a credit to the Territory erected on the ground 
adjoining the asylum. 

PAUL B. DALIES, SECRETARY ORPHAN CHILDREN'S HOME. 

Owing to the handsome appropriation made by the legislative assembly of 1905, it has 
made it possible for the board to add a two-story addition to the building, giving it a fine 
and elegant appearance. We were fortunate in obtaining an advantageous contract, the 
workmanship and material of the first-class of their kind and class. The building presents 
an imposing and striking appearance, and is the admiration of our citizens and strangers 
who have seen it. The rooms are large and commodious and well adapted to the pur- 
poses intended, giving plenty of good light and ventilation. 

We shall have money enough to complete the building and beautify the grounds sur- 
rounding same, from the recent legislative appropriation, as fast as needed. We may add, 
however, that our financial condition is good and causes us no embarrassment. 

The building is insured for $10,000 by good first-class insurance companies. 

We have received from the Territory, in warrants, as follows: 

August 6, 1905, warrant No. 11494 $188.07 

November 22, 1905, warrant No. 11744 70. 73 

March 1, 1906, warrant No. 12083 2,193.02 

Total 2,451.82 

Borrowed on loans 5, 700. 00 

$8, 151. 82 

EXPENDITURES. 

Contract second story 5, 485. 00 

Paid on account of loans 1, 200. 00 

Do 737.30 

Interest on same 129. 05 

Labor, material, etc 115. 79 

Insurance 214. 97 

Paid architect for plan 170. 00 

8,052.11 

Balance on hand June 30, 1906 99. 71 

S. G. CARTWRIGHT, SECRETARY AND TREASURER NEW MEXICO ASYLUM 
FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

After an interval of four years, during which the school was closed for want of funds, it 
was opened September 18, 1905, and continued till May 31, 1906, with an attendance during 
the year of 15 pupils. 

During this period a barn was built at a cost of $1,400, and a sewer built across the grounds, 
carrying the sewage of the penitentiary and of the school to a distant point westward in the 
arroyo, which had heretofore teen carried on the surface of the arroyo at the edge of the 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 171 

road, making a dangerous and offensive discharge in an open channel and threatening the 
health of the pupils. 

The total receipts from all sources during the fiscal year were something less than $4,000, 
which, with the balance on hand at the beginning of the year, enabled the board to meet 
the expenditures of about $6,500. 

Arrangements have been made for the opening of the school about October 1, under con- 
ditions which it is believed will contribute materially to the service of the institution to 
the unfortunates for whom it is intended. 

R. H. PIERCE, SECRETARY AND TREASURER NEW MEXICO INSTITUTE 

FOR THE BLIND. 

Since the last report the members of the board of trustees of the institute have been wait- 
ing until more funds became available, as they did not wish to run the institute in debt any 
further than they were compelled. The contract was let to Mr. S. E. Pelphrey for the fin- 
ishing of the basement into a kitchen, laundry room, dining room, and storeroom, he being 
the lowest bidder. This work is about completed. 

On May 1 proposals for bids for furnishings and equipment for said institute were adver- 
tised in various newspapers. Bids were received on June 11, 1906, and opened by the 
board of trustees. Mr. T. H. Springer, of El Paso, Tex., was found to be the lowest and best 
bidder and the contract was awarded to him. A contract was let to Mr. J. E. Crawford 
for a terreplein around the institute, 16 feet wide and about 2 feet high, for $55, which 
has been completed. The board authorized the secretary and treasurer to advertise for 
bids for fencing the 20 acres belonging to said institute, bids to be received on the 11th day 
of August, 1906. The board has made a contract with Mr. S. H. Gill as superintendent for 
one year. Mr. Gill was first assistant superintendent of the Tennessee Institute for the 
Blind at Nashville, Tenn. 

The board expects to have the institute ready to receive pupils some time in September 
next. 

The institute has enough money on hand to pay for all contracts and indebtedness. 

PRIVATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

Besides providing funds for the maintenance of the Territorial institutions, the legislature 
has for many years made appropriations for private charitable institutions. The total 
amount of the appropriation for the past fiscal year was $25,600. The following institu- 
tions were appropriated funds: 

St. Vincent's Hospital, at Santa Fe $3,600 

Grant County Hospital, at Silver City 1, 800 

Sisters of Mercy Hospital, at Silver City 1, 800 

Ladies' Hospital, at Deming 1, 800 

Eddy County Hospital, at Carlsbad 1, 800 

Orphan's School, at Santa Fe 5,400 

Belief Society, at Las Vegas 2, 400 

Sisters' Hospital, at Albuquerque 2, 400 

Gallup Hospital, at Gallup 1, 800 

Sisters of Loretto, at Taos 1, 800 

Women's Board of Trade at Santa Fe, to aid in the construction of a free public 

library building 1, 000 

Total 25,600 

During the. year ended June 30, 1906, St. Vincent's Hospital, at Santa Fe, cared for 118 
patients. Of these, 93 were dismissed, 9 died, and 16 were in the hospital on June 30. At 
the orphanage, run in connection with this institution, 101 children were cared for during 
the year, 23 were taken from the institution, and 78 were being cared for June 30. 

St. Joseph's Hospital, Silver City, treated 48 patients during the twelve months ending 
June 30. There were 3 patients being cared for at the close of the fiscal year. St. Joseph's 
Sanitarium at Albuquerque cared for 225 free patients during the year and 353 pay patients. 
At the beginning of the year there were in the sanitarium 38 patients. Of the whole 
number (616), 508 were dismissed, 80 died, and 28 were in the hospital at the close of the 
year. 

The Eddy County Hospital, at Carlsbad cared for 33 patients during the year. The 
Ladies' Relief Society of Las Vegas cared for 126 charity patients and 81 pay patients. 
On June 30 there were 12 patients in the hospital. There were 30 deaths during the year. 
The Ladies' Hospital at Deming expended $3,294.88 in the care of patients during the 
year. At the Grant County Charitable Hospital 23 charitable patients were received and 
77 pay patients. Of the charity charges 15 were discharged, 4 died, and there were 4 
remaining at the hospital on June 30. 



172 ANNUAL KEPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

CHARLES A. WHEELON, SECRETARY BOARD OF OSTEOPATHY. 

No licenses have been issued since my report for the year ending June 30, 1905. 

The board is self-sustaining and derives its revenue in accordance with sections 6 and 7 
of chapter 68, Laws of New Mexico, 1905. 

I have received many inquiries from practitioners of other States relative to the law 
governing the practice of osteopathy in New Mexico. 

A. J. FISCHER, SECRETRAY BOARD OF PHARMACY. 

Since last report the board has held three meetings, the first at Albuquerque, September 
18 to 20, 1905, at which all members were present. Two applicants for registration were 
examined and granted registration. The most important business transacted at this 
meeting was the abrogation of rule 4 (which provided that the board grant registration 
upon diplomas, or certificates from other State boards, if obtained by examination with 
an average of not less than 75 per cent, and the adoption of a substitute therefor providing 
that no diplomas or certificates are accepted as sufficient evidence of qualification, but all 
applicants must pass an examination). This is decidedly a forward step, and much good 
should result therefrom in keeping out incompetent and illegally registered druggists. 
Expense accounts, as shown in financial report, were presented, allowed, and ordered paid. 

The next meeting was held at Santa Fe, March 12 to 14, 1906, at which all members 
were present. Six applicants for registration were examined and granted registration. 
President Ruppe reported his inspection trip to Aztec, Farmington, and San Marcial, and 
presented expense account, which was allowed and ordered paid. The secretary was 
instructed to refund registration fee to F. J. Patchin, also to request the Territorial board 
of health to pay a portion of the expense of the inspection trips made by President Ruppe. 
The temporary certificate of V. E. Fatheree was ordered renewed to June 1. Expense 
accounts were presented, allowed, and ordered paid. The last meeting was held at Roswell, 
May 24' to 26, 1906, and there were present B. Ruppe, G. S. Moore, and A. J. Fischer. 
Five applicants for registration were examined and granted registration. The secretary 
was authorized to have necessary blanks and copies of the law printed. The next meeting 
of the board was ordered to be held at Albuquerque during the fair. Expense accounts 
were ordered paid. 

Financial report. 

Balance on hand July 15, 1905 $377. 85 

Received for registration 320. 00 

Received for renewals 404. 00 

Received for expense (contribution) 50. 00 

Received for fines 31. 00 



1, 182. 85 



DISBURSEMENTS. 
1905. 

Sept. 19. B. Ruppe, per diem and postage $20. 00 

B. Ruppe, balance due on Roswell trip 19. 50 

P. Moreno, per diem and mileage 28. 50 

E. G. Murphy, per diem and mileage 20. 50 

W. C. Porterfield, per diem and mileage 28. 50 

A. J. Fischer, per diem and mileage 19. 65 

1906. 

Secretary, postage 10. 00 

Jan. 10. A. J. Fischer, salary as secretary, 1906 50. 00 

B. Ruppe, expense inspection trip to Aztec and Farmington. . . 131. 20 

New Mexican Printing Company, blanks 15. 50 

Typewriter supplies 4. 75 

J. F. Palmer, attorneys fees 25. 00 

Feb. 14. B. Ruppe, expense trip to San Marcial 18. 85 

Mar. 14. Fuel 1.00 

W. C. Porterfield, per diem and mileage 48. 35 

E. G. Murphy, per diem and mileage 22. 70 

B. Ruppe, per diem and mileage and stamps 28. 10 

P. Moreno, per diem and mileage 45. 00 

A. J. Fischer, per diem 15. 00 

Apr. 10. B. Ruppe, refund to F. J. Patchin 10. 00 

30. New Mexican Printing Company, blanks 18. 25 

May 2. Eagle Printing Company, laws 19. 00 

26. B. Ruppe, mileage and per diem (Roswell) 76. 80 

A. J. Fischer, mileage and per diem (Roswell) 66. 90 

G. S. Moore, per diem 15.00 



GOVERNOR OF NEW MEXICO. 173 

1906. 

June 7. B. Ruppe, trip to Socorro and San Marcial $18. 45 

30. Eagle Printing Company, certificates 5. 00 

New Mexican Printing Company, certificates and tubes 9. 75 

Postage 5. 00 

$796.25 

Balance on hand July 15, 1906 386. 60 

The number of registered pharmacists in good standing at this date, number who have 
failed to renew for the current year, number deceased, number dropped for not having 
paid renewal fee for two years, and number registered from July 15, 1905, to July 15, 1906, 
are as follows: 

Registered pharmacists in good standing 124 

Failed to renew their certificates for the current year ending May 1, 1907 37 

Deceased during fiscal year 3 

Dropped from rolls for nonpayment of renewal fee for two years 7 

Registered since July 15, 1905 27 

B. W. BLACK, SECRETARY BOARD OF HEALTH. 

Medical licenses issued at December meeting, 1905, 33; vacancies in county health offices 
were filled as follows: J. M. Shields, Perea, Sandoval County; William H. Burr, Gallup, 
McKinley County; William MacLake, Silver City, Grant County. May, 1906, medica, 
licenses issued, 47; undertakers' licenses, July 1, 1905, to July 1, 1906, 5; itinerant licenses! 
none. 

CHARLES N. LORD, SECRETARY BOARD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS. 

The regular semiannual meeting was held November 6, 1905. Six candidates presented 
themselves for examination, 5 of whom passed. 

The regular annual meeting was held May 7 and 8, 1906. Five candidates were present 
and took the examination. All passed successfully with one exception, who was garnted a 
permit to practice until the next regular meeting, at which time ne is to appear and take 
those subjects in which he failed at this meeting. It was decided to hold the next meeting 
at Santa Fe, October 29 and 30, 1906. 

Following is a statement of receipts and expenditures at those two meetings: 

RECEIPTS. 

Cash on hand last report $26. 90 

Received from 11 applicants for examination 275. 00 

Remittance of 1 candidate who did not appear for examination 25. 00 

Received for 54 renewal certificates 162. 00 

488.90 

EXPENDITURES. 

Dr. L. H. Chamberlain, traveling expenses ; 84. 45 

Dr. F. E. Olney, traveling expenses 76. 10 

Dr. E. L. Hammond, traveling expenses 72. 60 

Dr. C. N. Lord, expenses 86. 05 

New Mexican Printing Company 35. 70 

Dr. C. N. Lord, secretary, issuing ten certificates 10. 00 

E. A. Johnston, typewriting 2. 00 

A. R. McCord, engrossing 2. 00 

Dr. C. N. Lord, secretary, postage on mailing tubes, etc 7. 35 

Balance on hand 112. 65 

488.90 
J. H. SLOAN, SECRETARY REFORM SCHOOL BOARD. 

During the fiscal year the board has met three times at Santa Fe and once at El Rito. 
The meeting held at El Rito was held for the purpose of inspecting and accepting the admin- 
istration building from the contractor. The building is a very handsome, commodious 
structure, built of concrete, and will, when furnished, accommodate about 40 inmates, with 
the necessary officials. For the lack of funds we have not been able to complete and furnish 
the building for occupancy. During this fiscal year the board has received from the Ter- 
ritorial auditor the following amounts: On January 6, 1906, $1,239.19, and on May 19, 
1906, $1,373.43. Out of the above amounts the board has paid to Mr. J. A. Laughlin, 
contractor, $2,300; and Messrs. I. H. and W. M. Rapp, architects, $289.30; and Mr. A. De 
Vargas, traveling expenses for attending meeting of the board, $19.30; leaving a balance 
■in the hands of the board of $4.02. 



174 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

THE STATEHOOD QUESTION. 

Since the writing of the last report of my predecessor, the Congress 
of the United States has passed a law providing for the admission of the 
Territories of New Mexico and Arizona into the Union as one State, 
under the name of Arizona. The law provides that at the general 
election to be held on the 6th day of November, 1906, there shall be 
submitted to the qualified electors of each of the said Territories the 
question : 

" Shall Arizona and New Mexico be united to form one State ?" 

YES. NO. 

In case a majority of such qualified electors in each Territory who 
vote on this question shall vote in the affirmative, then the inhabit- 
ants of that part of the area of the United States now constituting 
the Territories of Arizona and New Mexico may become the State of 
Arizona. The law provides for the election of delegates to a consti- 
tutional convention, which convention shall, in case of such majority 
vote in both Territories, meet in Santa Fe on December 3, 1906, and 
draw up a constitution, which constitution shall be submitted to the 
people of the proposed State for its ratification or rejection. In case 
of its ratification the constitution is to be submitted to the Presi- 
dent of the United States who, if he approve the same, shall issue 
his proclamation declaring the admission of the proposed State into 
the Union. 

For more than fifty years the people of New Mexico have been 
eagerly seeking and urgently demanding from the National Congress 
legislation to enable them to become a self-governing State, and this 
act which they are now called upon to accept or reject extends to 
them the first opportunity they have ever had of securing the boon 
that every free American citizen desires. While it is true that a large 
portion or the people of this Territory still desire single statehood for 
New Mexico alone, and believe that they are entitled to it, many of 
them believe that joint statehood with Arizona is the only kind of 
statehood they can obtain for many years to come. There are many 
otliers who believe that joint statehood with Arizona would be pref- 
erable to single statehood. The principal opposition to the bill in 
New Mexico will probably come from the counties in which a majority 
of the population is composed of people of Spanish and Mexican 
descent, the opinion prevailing among them that under joint state- 
hood with Arizona they would be deprived of rights and privileges 
which they now enjoy. There are, too, a considerable number of 
people in the American counties who think that any kind of state- 
hood would be inadvisable at the present time. It is probable, how- 
ever, that a majority of the votes cast upon the question in New 
Mexico at the November election will be in favor of accepting the 
provisions of the bill. 

Your obedient servant, 

H. J. Hagerman, 
Governor of New Mexico. 

The Secretary of the Interior, 

Washington, D. 0. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OE OKLAHOMA. 



175 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



Executive Office, 
Guthrie, Okla., September 15, 1906. 
Sir: Complying with your request under date of June 30, 1906, I 
have the honor to submit herewith my annual report concerning the 
progress and condition of affairs in Oklahoma covering the year 
ending June 30, 1906. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Oklahoma comprises 26 counties and the Osage Indian Reserva- 
tion, covering an area of 38,715 square miles. The population num- 
bers upward of 800,000. Guthrie is the temporary capital and Okla- 
homa City the metropolis. Twenty- three cities are of the first class, 
having a population of 2,500 or more. There are over 900 post-offices 
in Oklahoma. For year ended June 30, 1905, seven towns in Okla- 
homa had postal receipts exceeding $10,000, aggregating $209,917.40, 
and twelve others exceeding $5,000. There are over 700 rural free- 
delivery routes in actual service. 

The elevation above the sea level ranges from 700 feet on the east 
to 4,000 feet on the west. The climate is mild in winter and hot in 
summer. The rainfall averages 35 inches in eastern, 30 inches in cen- 
tral, and 24 inches in western Oklahoma. The main pursuit is agri- 
culture, there being 143,750 farms in Oklahoma, with a cash value of 
$232,081,776, averaging $1,613 each. The yield of wheat in Okla- 
homa for season of 1905 was 14,648,602 bushels; corn, 31,091,392 
bushels; cotton, 293,772 bales; broom corn, 29,662 tons. The value 
of all orchard products gathered in Oklahoma during the year 1905 
was $238,698. The value of poultry raised in 1899 was $1,302,460. 
Thirteen million seven hundred and twenty-four thousand nine hun- 
dred dozen eggs were produced, valued at $1,284,414. 

Oklahoma has no Territorial bonded debt. The Territory is a land 
of homes and families. Out of 86,908 families in Oklahoma in 1900, 
60,086 owned their own homes. There are 1,503 organized churches. 
There are 73 flouring mills and 10 cotton-seed oil mills. A cotton mill 
for the making of cotton goods will be opened for actual operation on 
January 1, 1907, with $150,000 capital. There are 280 elevators, 
located in 117 towns, with total capacity of 3,525,000 bushels. There 
are 35 fraternal insurance societies. There are 287 Territorial banks. 

There are 3,687 teachers in common schools, operating in 3,093 
school districts, and 158,322 pupils enrolled. There are 7 Territorial 
institutions of higher learning, besides private colleges and other 
institutions. The percentage of illiteracy of population in Oklahoma 
10 years of age and over is 5.5, being the same as New York State, the 
lowest percentage in the United States. The percentage of foreign- 
born population in Oklahoma is 3.9. 

There are 13,381 Indians in the Territory. There are 17 Govern- 
ment schools for Indians in Oklahoma. 

177 



178 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The school lands set aside by Congress for use of the schools of 
the Territory aggregate 3,100,875 acres, valued by a low estimate at 
$30,000,000, the income last vear from these lands being over 
$500,000. The average price paid teachers is a little over $50. 

There are 4 trunk lines of railway, which, taken with small roads in 
operation, comprise 2,611 miles within the borders of the Territory. 
There are over 2,600 miles of telegraph lines and over 5,000 miles of 
telephone lines in Oklahoma. 

The tax levy for all Territorial purposes was, for 1905, 6.4 mills, and 
for 1906, 6.5 mills. 

PART I. 

ROSTER OF TERRITORIAL OFFICIALS. 

Governor: Frank Frantz. 

Private secretary to the governor: Orville G. Frantz. 

Secretary of the Territory and ex officio lieutenant-governor: Charles 
H. Filson. 

Assistant secretary: Hugh Scott. 

Attorney-general: W. O. Cromwell. 

Assistant attorney-general : Don Carlos Smith. 

Treasurer: C. W. Rambo. 

Assistant treasurer: Mrs. A. J. Rambo. 

Superintendent public instruction and ex officio auditor: L. W. 
Baxter. 

Deputy auditor: E. P. McCabe. 

Secretary school land board and ex officio school land commissioner: 
Fred L. Wenner. 

Assistant secretary: Charles A. Cunningham. 

Bank commissioner: Herbert H. Smock. 

Deputy bank commissioner: D. J. Moore. 

Oil inspector: F. A. Ashton. 

Territorial librarian: J. W. Foose. 

Adjutant-general: Alva J. Niles. 

Grain inspector: Frank Prouty. 

Game warden: Eugene Watrous. 

Territorial geologist : A. H. Van Vleet. 

Territorial school land board: Governor Frantz, Secretary Filson, 
Auditor Baxter. 

Board of equalization: Governor Frantz, Secretary Filson, Auditor 
Baxter. 

Regents of Territorial university: Governor Frantz; G. W. Sutton, 
Cleveland; D. L. Larsh, Norman; R. E. Wood, Shawnee; H. B. 
Gilstrap, Chandler; Selwyn Douglas, Oklahoma City. 

Regents of agricultural and mechanical college: Governor Frantz; 
Frank J. Wikoff, Stillwater; T. J. Hartman, Deer Creek; H. C. R. 
Brodball, PoncaCity; W. H. Merten, Guthrie; A. T. Kruse, Geary. 

Live stock sanitary commission: Peter A. Becker, Jefferson; Thomas 
Morris, secretary, Guthrie; G. T. Bryan, Perry. 

Board of education of normal schools: Superintendent Public 
Instruction Baxter; Treasurer Rambo ; Charles M. Thacker, Man- 
gum; John W. Threadgill, Oklahoma City; G. E. Nichols, Alva. 

Board of regents colored agricultural and normal university: Super- 
intendent Public Instruction Baxter; Treasurer Rambo; U. C. 
Guss, Guthrie; E. T. Barbour, El Reno; James Rouse, Cooper. 



GOVERNOK OF OKLAHOMA. 179 

Territorial board of education: Superintendent Public Instruction 
Baxter; President D. R. Boyd, Norman; President F. H. Umholtz, 
Edmond; Prof. O. F. Hayes, Chandler; Prof. J. M. Rule, Hobart. 

Regents of university preparatory school : Governor Frantz; William 
W. Gregory, Tonkawa; Jeremiah Johnson, Newkirk. 

Presidents of the Territorial institutions of learning: D. R. Boyd, 
Norman, Territorial university; F. H Umholtz, Edmond, central 
State normal; T. W. Conway, Alva, northwestern normal; J. R. 
Campbell, Weatherford, southwestern normal; A. C. Scott, Still- 
water, agricultural and mechanical college ; J. F. Kelley, Tonkawa, 
university preparatory school; Inman E. Page, Langston, colored 
agricultural and normal university. 

Board of health: Auditor L. W. Baxter; Dr. J. W. Baker, Enid, 
superintendent and ex officio secretary; Dr. B. F. Hamilton, Shaw- 
nee, president; Dr. E. G. Sharp, Guthrie, vice-president. 

Board of pharmacy: F. B. Lillie, Guthrie; A. B. Clark, Watonga; 
E. E. Howendobler, Perry. 

Board of dental examiners: A. C. Hixon, Guthrie; R. H. Pendleton, 
Norman; A. M. Detrick, Oklahoma City; Fred C. Seids, Perry; 
D. M. Brenneman, Hobart. 

Board of embalmers: A. E. Bracken, Kingfisher; W. K. Patterson, 
Guthrie; W. E. Harper, Oklahoma City. 

Board of osteopathic examiners: Dr. J. A. Price, Perry; Dr. J. W. 
Slade, Guthrie; Dr. J. M. Rouse, Oklahoma City. 

Board of agriculture: R. Kleiner, Wheatland; D. L. Aikins, Med- 
ford; A. S. Hankins, Alva; Ewers White, McLoud; W. L. Fuller- 
ton, Olustee; Horace J. Newberry, Lone Wolf; C. A. McNabb, 
secretary, Guthrie. 

United States attorney : John Embry . 

Assistant United States district attorneys : John W. Scothorn, George 

A. Outcelt, and L. A. McKnight. 
United States marshal : John Abernathy. 

Registers and receivers United States land offices: Guthrie, J. J. 

Boles and William D. Hodge; Alva, George D. Orner and A. J. 

Ross; Woodward, D. T. Morgan and E. S. Wiggins; El Reno, 

Thomas R. Reid and James A. Sickles; Lawton, A. C. Maxwell 

and H. D. McKnight. 
United States Indian agents and superintendents: Osage, Ret Mil- 
lard, Pawhuska; Ponca and Otoe, Hugh M. Noble, White Eagle; 

Iowa, Sac, and Fox, W. C. Kohlenberg, Sac and Fox Agency; 

Cheyenne and Arapaho, Maj. George W. Stouch, Darlington; 

Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, John P. Blackmon, Anadarko; 

Pawnee, George W. Nellis, Pawnee. 
Supreme court: Chief justice, John H. Burford, Guthrie; associate 

justices, C. E. Irwin, El Reno; B. F. Burwell, Oklahoma City; 

B. T. Hainer, Perry; M. O. Garber, Enid; J. L. Pancoast, Alva; 
Frank E. Gillette, Anadarko. 

Clerks of court: Supreme court, B. F. Hegler, Guthrie; first district, 
J. H. Norris, Guthrie; second district, E. M. Hegler, El Reno; 
third district, Charles E. Hunter, Oklahoma City; fourth district, 
Charles Watson, Perry; fifth district, Vernon Whiting, Enid; 
sixth district, Ira A. Hill, Alva; seventh district, N. E. Sisson, 
Anadarko. 



180 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

PART II. 

Population — Immigration — Commerce — Manufacturing — The crop outlook for 1906 — 
Summary of statistics farm products 1904 and 1905 — Oklahoma's agriculture — Nurs- 
ery inspection — Stock and food fertilizer law — Irrigation — Irrigation in southwestern 
Oklahoma — Irrigation and reclamation — The Navajo irrigation project — Public high- 
ways — Assessment of property and taxation — Value of farm lands—Geology and nat- 
ural history — Territorial survey commission — The milling industry — Oklahoma granite 
industry — Forestry — Wichita Forest Reserve — Cleveland (Okla.) oil field — Oklahoma 
Live Stock Association — Oklahoma Federation of Commercial and Industrial Organ- 
izations — Jamestown Exposition — Newspapers — Public and private credit — Public 
buildings — Internal revenue — Building and loan associations — Cities of the first class — 
Post-offices in cities of the first class— Counties — Reports United States officers — Ter- 
ritorial election. 

POPULATION. 

The several acts passed by our legislature providing for the taking 
of the census have made it the duty of the several assessors, in addition 
to their duties as such assessors prescribed by law, to make semian- 
nually an enumeration of all persons residing in their respective ter- 
ritory, omitting from the enumeration Indians not taxed or belong- 
ing to any tribe or holding tribal relations. 

The compensation for this service not being commensurate with 
the labor necessary to perform the same and the penalty provided 
for being inadequate to force a compliance therewith, the law has 
become partially obsolete. Therefore I find it necessary in deter- 
mining the population of the Territory to compute the same from 
the scholastic returns, as made by the county superintendents for 
the purpose of apportioning funds accruing from the rental of the 
public school lands. 

Each year has shown an increase in the number of children of 
school age throughout the various districts of the Territory. Complete 
reports for the year 1905 from the several districts of the 26 counties 
show the total 211,616. The ratio heretofore found to exist between 
the school population and the total population in many of our cities 
and school districts is 3.75. Using this ratio and making ample 
allowances for inaccuracies, adding the usual annual increase of 5 
per cent, we would now have a total population amounting to 833,238, 
exclusive of Indians not taxed, which is estimated to be about 12,000, 
making a total population in Oklahoma of 845,238. The census 
returns, however, for the year 1906 only give an aggregate of 652,280 
(exclusive of Indians) , about one-half of whom are under the age of 
21 years. 

The number of foreign born is estimated to not exceed 5 per cent. 
Illiteracy exists, not to exceed 2 per cent, and is confined largely to 
the old negroes (ex-slaves) and full-blood Indians, the younger ele- 
ment of both races having for many years had the benefit of our free 
schools. 

The phenomenal development of the Territory is largely due to 
its cosmopolitan population, being made up from the more energetic 
and thrifty from every State and Territory in the Union and from 
many ioreign countries. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The increase in population in Oklahoma during the past year has 
been very remarkable. The prominence of the Territory in the 
councils of the National Congress has given widespread advertise- 



GOVERNOK OF OKLAHOMA. 181 

ment of the progress and development of affairs here. The result has 
been literally a constant tide of immigration into the Territory from 
almost every State in the Union, until to-day the railroads run regu- 
lar frequent excursions into Oklahoma and are taxed to their utmost 
to handle the passenger traffic headed for the new State. Every 
train that comes into Oklahoma brings land buyers and home 
seekers. 

New towns and cities are springing up and those existing have 
increased in population. New industries and manufactories have 
been established requiring skilled and other labor to operate. New 
residences are building everywhere, in town and country — convincing 
evidence of the wonderful development of affairs and increase in 
population through immigration. 

COMMERCE. 

The railroad and other facilities for handling the products of 
Oklahoma are increasing in number and efficiency. Fruit raising 
is extensive, and shipments out of the Territory to every part of 
the Union have emphasized the importance of this industry. Cement, 
plaster, granite, coal, hogs, cattle, wheat, flour, corn, oats, cotton, 
broom corn, and other products have been shipped out of the Terri- 
tory to every part of the world, while farm implements, road vehicles, 
pianos, and other manufactured products have been shipped into 
the Territory. The railroads report both the freight and passenger 
traffic the heaviest in the history of Oklahoma. They are taxed to 
their utmost capacity. 

MANUFACTURING. 

The manufactories of Oklahoma, though of the greatest importance, 
are as yet in their earliest stage. Eastern capital is finding its way 
into manufacturing establishments throughout Oklahoma in, response 
to the increasing demand for products of eastern mills. There are at 
present meat-packing establishments, canning factories, creameries, 
plow works, sash and door works, cotton-seed oil mills, a cotton mill, 
carriage factories, iron foundries, cracker and biscuit works, and box 
factories. Excellent railroad facilities and cheap fuel render Okla- 
homa an especially attractive field for investment in manufactories. 

In 1905, 637 factories had capital employed amounting to 
$11,074,267, with an output of $16,433,430, and employing 3 ; 492 
wage-earners. Excellent openings exist everywhere for industrial 
enterprises. 

THE CROP OUTLOOK FOR 1906. 

From statistics furnished by the secretary of the Oklahoma Board 
of Agriculture, the following estimate is made of the crop outlook for 
1906: 

Cotton: Estimated acreage planted spring 1906, 900,000 acres. 
The growing condition of the crop is average and promises an average 
production, or not to exceed 300,000 bales. Estimated value of cot- 
ton crop for year 1906 is $15,000,000. Excessive rains will cut the 
average yield to approximately one-third bale per acre. 

Corn: Estimated increase in acreage of corn planted in spring 1906 
over that planted in 1905 is 35 per cent, thus making approximately 
2,500,000 acres planted to corn in 1906. With an average yield of 
241 b— 07 13 



182 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

50 bushels per acre, Oklahoma's corn crop will equal the enormous 
figure of 125,000,000 bushels, representing a value of $37,500,000. 
Seasonable rains throughout the Territory this year promise to yield 
the greatest corn crop known in the history of the country. 

Wheat: Estimated number of acres sown fall 1905, 1,878,740. 
Average yield per acre, 14.37 bushels. Harvested, season of 1906, 
27,001,976 bushels, valued at $14,851,087. 

Oats: Estimated number of acres sown spring 1906, 601,897. 
Average yield per acre, 33.57 bushels. Harvested, season of 1906, 
20,210,561 bushels, valued at $6,063,168. 

Broom corn: Estimated acreage planted spring 1906, 112,231, 
acres, showing a decrease of 6.6 per cent from that of 1905. Esti- 
mated number of tons produced in 1906, 22,446, valued at $1,122,300. 

Summary for the Territory. 
CROP STATISTICS. 



1904. 



Product. 



Value. 



Acres. 



1905. 



Product. 



Value. 



Acres. 



Winter wheat bushels. 

Corn do... 

Oats do... 

Rye do . . . 

Cotton 500-lb. bales. 

Flax bushels. 

Kaffir corn do... 

Milo maize do... 

Broom corn tons. 

Castor beans bushels. 

Cowpeas: 

Hay tons . 

Seed gathered bushels. 

Peanuts pounds. 

Irish potatoes bushels. 

Sweet potatoes do... 

. Bermuda grass 

Alfalfa hay. tons. 

Alfalfa seed, thrashed. bushels. 

Other tame grasses tons . 

Native meadow do . . . 

Hungarian and millet 

Corn, Kaffir corn, and cane fod- 
der tons. 

Sorghum forage do . . . 



13,067,438 

21,908,564 

3,573,636 

86, 234 

253,013 

10 

3,280,510 



$12, 152, 717 

8. 544, 339 

1,286,509 

53 465 

11,385,585 

10 

1,312,204 



21,374 
22, 481 



7*9,458 
22, 481 



207, 234 
543, 832 
242,406 



41 , 446 
418, 751 
181,804 



57,027 



570, 270 



5,822 

278,004 

39,983 

406, 230 



1,586,664 
1,421,805 



1,953,498 

1,369,276 

395, 882 

47,365 

787,009 

272 

334,948 



123,053 
2,508 



1,479 

11,073 

3,251 

1,022 

51,615 



17, 733 

284,978 

29,577 

217,882 



14,648,602 

31,091,392 

10,337,007 

39,636 

293, 772 



$10,986,451 

12, 436, 557 

3, 928, 063 

25, 763 

14,688,600 



3, 780, 794 

2,781,504 

29, 662 

13,668 

7,360 
10, 375 

957,960 
899, 644 
178, 131 



1,512,318 

1,112,602 

1, 483, 100 

13,668 

58, 880 

20, 750 

47, 898 

359. 858 



103, 764 

6,701 

13, 894 

225, 160 



1,037,640 
53,608 



1,878,740 
1,642,930 

520, 646 
13,399 

820, 132 



1,195,270 



344,721 



1,206,523 



Total . 



39,747,508 



5, 632, 421 



50.256,615 



297, 286 

138, 608 

140,234 

2.. 549 

11,578 



2,107 


16,093 


3,333 


371 


51,759 



5,606 
324, 752 



157,028 



5,027,151 



FARM PRODUCTS. 



Field crops acres. 

Gardens 

Poultry 

Eggs. 



Cheese made pounds. . 

Butter made do 

Milk sold gallons. . 

Animals fattened and slaughtered or sold for 

slaughter 

Wools pounds . . 

Orchard products 

Small fruits acres. . 

Wine manufactured gallons. . 

Honey pounds. . 

Wood marketed 



Total 47,759,733 



1904. 



Quantity. 



5, 632, 421 



24,955 
5, 772, 062 
1, 174, 617 



20.257 



78, 676 
13,548 



Value. 



$39,747,508 
358, 272 

1,419,961 

2,994 

1, 154, 410 

176, 194 

4,677,201 
3,039 



124,929 



2,032 
93, 193 



1905. 



Quantity. Value 



6,027,151 



50, 192 
7,731,969 



133,298 



12, 660 
87,524 
11,417 



$50, 



256,615 
192,781 
668,537 
892.944 
6,023 
546,394 
556,669 

601,403 
33,325 
238, 698 
117,392 
87,524 
2,283 
67. 752 



60,268,340 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



183 



Summary for the Territory — Continued. 

LIVE STOCK. 





1904. 


1905. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 




342, 303 
75,348 

984,031 
33,893 

290, 166 


$5, 383. 153 

1,719,734 

6, 568, 298 

36, 354 

500, 706 


349, 100 
81,170 

929,064 
36,082 

3(10 557 


$5,921,964 

1,937,700 

5,476.011 

39, 770 










570, 726 






Total 




14, 208, 245 




13.946,231 















61,967,978 




74,214,571 









OKLAHOMA S AGRICULTURE. 

[By C. A. McNabb, secretary Oklahoma Board of Agriculture. 1 ] 

A comprehensive report of the agricultural prosperity and devel- 
opment of our Territory, now just blossoming into joint statehood 
with Indian Territory, will doubtless be duly appreciated by all Okla- 
homa people and will be of general interest to the many persons who 
are seeking relief from overcrowded communities elsewhere. 

It is impossible for any mind to conceive what the development 
and progress of Oklahoma has been in the seventeen years the sturdy 
pioneer has been permitted to inhabit this land unless he has been an 
observing occupant of the country since the memorable 22d day of 
April, 1889, when about 60,000 brave and determined settlers 
anchored their prairie schooners on Oklahoma sod. At that time 
not a foot of soil in the whole Territory had been touched by the 
plow. Not a habitation was to be seen, save those of a few employees 
of the single line of railroad that penetrated the country. Not a 
domestic or farm animal was in all Oklahoma. The number brought 
in by the first settlers the first trip was limited to the horses and oxen 
they rode or drove in their search for a satisfactory home. The 
scarcity of grain feed for several years discouraged the accumulation 
of any more live stock than was absolutely necessary to supply the 
demand in the way of team labor and fresh milk. 

From this very meager beginning in 1889 we have increased in pop- 
ulation until we now have almost 1,000,000 people in Oklahoma 
Territory — happy, prosperous, peaceable, contented, wide-awake, 
the most progressive element from all the States. Those who came 
here in those early days, as those who have come since, came to 
establish homes. Oklahoma is preeminently a land of homes and 
families. True to the Oklahoma spirit, we are now ready to put our 
energies to work to eclipse all previous record-breaking production. 

So rapidly do conditions change here that agricultural statistics 
become old in a few weeks. The productive wealth of Oklahoma 
soil has increased by leaps and bounds from prairie hay in 1889 to 
include all of the great farm productions of both the North and the 
South, the aggregate value of which in the year 1905 was over 
$100,000,000. It is conservatively estimated that this high record 
will be exceeded in 1906 by not less than $25,000,000. The new crop 
far outclasses the previous one. 

No class of settlers in Oklahoma have prospered to a greater degree 
than the farmers, a majority of whom came here with little or no 



184 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

means beyond that of a willingness to work and to enduie hardships 
for the time necessary to subdue the sod and grow a crop. Com- 
fortable and, in some instances, palatial homes have supplanted the 
dugout and temporary improvements. The barb-wire fence is no 
longer the only shelter for the stock. Excellent orchards have taken 
the place of the wild fruits along the creeks, supplying the household 
with an abundance of choice fruit. Fancy creamery butter is in 
abundant evidence instead of the oleo we were called upon to eat in 
the early days a decade ago. Indeed, the Oklahoma farmer has 
enjoyed a prosperity exceeded by the farmers in no other section of 
the country. His farm is well stocked with a good grade of domestic 
animals, and he is ever ready to improve the grade if possible. His 
family is well clothed and well educated. They enjoy many luxuries 
not indulged in by the farmers of the East, and, where proper attention 
has been given to diversification, his lot is indeed an enviable one. 
As before stated, the list of farm productions includes all that can be 
grown in the North and the South: Corn, cotton, wheat, oats, 
alfalfa, rye, Kaffir, maize, barley, sorghum, millet, Irish and sweet 
potatoes, peanuts, melons, and fruits of all kinds. 



Wheat has been the leading staple farm crop in Oklahoma from the 
beginning and, with the exception of two years, has produced bounti- 
fully. Notwithstanding the enormous crop harvested in 1906, it will 
be surpassed in value by the corn crop which, at this writing, is past 
all possibility of injury from any cause. The value of the wheat crop 
does not lie exclusively in the grain, but is of almost equal value as 
fall and winter pasture. The saving of feed through the medium of 
wheat pasture affords the Oklahoma farmer a decided advantage over 
his less fortunate northern brothers. 

The practice of turning under the wheat stubble early after harvest, 
planting to cowpeas and following with corn the succeeding year, is 
not only making itself felt in the yield of wheat, but is adding thou- 
sands to our wealth through an increased yield of a better grade of corn 
and, at the same time, maintaining soil fertility. " Diversification " 
should be the watchword in every household in Oklahoma. 

COTTON. 

Cotton is grown in every county in Oklahoma, but the south half of 
the Territory offers the most favorable conditions for its successful 
growth. It is being grown more extensively each year in the extreme 
northern counties, however, and by gradually acclimating it to the 
northern conditions, the time will come when it will net equally as 
good returns as are realized farther south. Oklahoma has for some 
years stood at the head of the list of States in point of yield of cotton 
per acre and, with the advent of joint statehood, she will be advanced 
to sixth place in point of total production. With the proper cultiva- 
tion of the thousands of idle acres in the Indian Territory section of 
the new State she will cause some of those States yet in the lead to 
look well to their laurels. 

CORN. 

Corn was for several years considered a very unsafe and unprofit- 
able crop in Oklahoma. These conditions have changed, however, 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 185 

and the annual production has been doubling each year for several 
years past. The 1905 crop, which amounted in round numbers to 
65,000,000 bushels, was looked upon as a record breaker, while tho 
crop of 1906, not yet harvested, but at this writing assured, bids fair 
to exceed 100,000,000 bushels. Diversification, crop rotation, im- 
proved seed-bed preparation, more frequent cultivation, and conse- 
quent conservation of soil moisture — in short, better farming — has 
brought about these results to a large extent. The lessons taught and 
learned through the farmers' institutes have aided very materially 
along tins line. 

HAY CROP. 

The hay crop of Oklahoma was for some years confined almost 
exclusively to that of native prairie grass. Clover and timothy were 
found to be unsatisfactory. The Oklahoma Experiment Station 
force, however, kept a line of tests going, which eventually established 
the fact that in alfalfa we had a legume that would afford from three 
to five times as much hay as red clover would produce in any country, 
and that as a feed nothing better existed. Recent demonstrations at 
the experiment station have proven that in Bermuda grass we have 
timotiiy outclassed in both yield and quality. 

KAFFIR CORN. 

Kaffir is in a class by itself in Oklahoma. To some extent it is 
grown all over the Territory, but in the western portion it is now 
recognized as a standard crop, individual farmers growing as many as 
200 acres each year. For some years the crop was somewhat difficult 
to dispose of, there being no market beyond that created by local 
feeders. More recently, however, since it has been found to enter into 
the creation of new brands of breakfast food, it has a ready market at 
corn values. It never fails to make a good crop, regardless of 
weather conditions, and the grain has a feeding value about equal to 
tkat of corn, while the stover far surpasses corn stover. 

The exercise of greater care and better judgment in seed selection 
and the adoption of improved machinery and methods of handling 
the crop have materially increased the yield and lessened the cost of 
production. 

OATS. 

Oats have long been recognized as a reliable and profitable crop in 
Oklahoma. With the exception of two or three years, when the crop 
was seriously injured by rust, which was caused by too much mois- 
ture, a fine yield of excellent quality has been realized. The Texas red 
variety is the one universally grown. Many, farmers in different 
localities report thrashing 100 bushels or more to the acre this year. 

BROOM CORN. 

Broom corn is a staple crop all over the western half of the Terri- 
tory. It has not, however, received the consideration it merits at the 
hands of the farmers. It is a crop that must be handled properly if 
the top prices are to be realized. Not to exceed 10 per cent of the crop 
is shed cured, which fact alone means a loss of many thousands of 
dollars annually, which should and would find its way into the 
pockets of the growers if they could but be made to realize the fool- 



186 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 

hardiness of their methods. Large crops may be successfully handled 
in small and inexpensive curing sheds, which would be paid for many 
times over each year through the medium of increased market price 
for the product. 

The 1905 crop amounted to 22,446 tons. 

POTATOES. 

Irish and sweet potatoes are grown to the eminent satisfaction of 
the producer in Oklahoma. Thousands of carloads of these very 
necessary articles of diet are shipped to the northern and eastern 
markets annually. Two crops of Irish potatoes are easily grown on 
the same ground in one season, but this practice is not commended 
beyond the point of producing the seed necessary to plant the spring 
crop. The larger growers now follow the practice of planting the 
ground to cowpeas as soon as the first crop is harvested, later plowing 
the entire crop under as a fertilizer. By that means as many or more 
potatoes are produced in one crop than would ordinarily be produced 
in two crops by any other method. 



Oklahoma has proven to be the home of the watermelon. Here 
they reach a size and flavor unequaled by any other section of the 
country. At the World's Fair in St. Louis, 1904, many specimens 
were exhibited weighing from 100 to 117 pounds, which excited the 
wonder and admiration of the great throng of visitors to the Okla- 
homa booth. Many carloads are shipped to the eastern and northern 
markets each year at prices which make the business of growing them 
very remunerative. The Oklahoma cantaloupe in quality and variety 
rivals the product of Colorado, Texas, and the Canadian provinces. 

FRUIT. 

In considering the agricultural greatness of greater Oklahoma, we 
must not overlook the horticultural division represented in fruits, 
flowers, and vegetables, for in these we find our greatest pleasure. 

I believe I am perfectly safe in saying that on April 22, 1889, there 
were not one dozen fruit trees that had been planted by the hand of 
man in all Oklahoma. There were, however, a few orchards on 
Indian reservations to the east, south and west of it, the planting of 
which had been induced by Indian agents and army officers. These 
had proven remarkably productive notwithstanding they had been 
somewhat neglected or at least had not received the careful consider- 
ation they probably would have received at the hands of professional 
horticulturists. However, the success which had obtained in them 
and in the orchards of eastern Kansas served to spur the settler to 
prompt action and the work of tree planting was begun immediately 
after the opening. The ground on which they were planted in many 
instances had not been disturbed by the plow, holes being dug in the 
virgin sod to receive the roots of the young trees. It is needless to 
say to the experienced horticulturist that fully 90 per cent of the trees 
thus planted soon succumbed. Undismayed, the operation was 
repeated as soon thereafter as ground could be broken and put into 
fair condition, and with more pleasing results. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 187 

Early in the history of Oklahoma the horticultural enthusiasts 
met and perfected the organization of a Territorial horticultural 
society, which has been maintained to the present time, embracing 
in its membership many of the largest fruit growers in the two Ter- 
ritories. This organization in cooperation with the agricultural 
experiment station has materially influenced the planting ol varieties 
suitable to the climate and soil, encouraged the organization of local 
fruit shipping clubs, preached the gospel of full packages of first- 
class fruit, and in many other ways contributed to the high degree of 
success attained in fruit culture. The writer is a charter member of 
that society and with one single exception has attended every meet- 
ing of the society since its organization. Plainly do I recall the argu- 
ments offered in support or condemnation of certain varieties of fruits 
by members whose experience in fruit growing may have been in an 
adjoining State or in Michigan or New York. These differences all 
had to be worked out and positive conclusions arrived at without too 
great delay, as thousands upon thousands of trees were being planted 
each year. Many appeals were made through the press for the farm- 
ers to confine their planting to such varieties as had proven successful 
in the orchards of adjoining States and in the few scattering bearing 
orchards of the Indian Territory. The results are pleasing, since all 
orchards where given the care they should receive are producing 
highly satisfactory and remunerative crops of the very finest of fruits. 

Encouraged by the profuse growth of wild fruits found along the 
many small streams and in the woodlands the planting continued, 
with the result that when the first trees began to bear fruit was plen- 
tiful enough to supply the local demand and furnish a surplus which 
was shipped out in carload quantities. 

Oklahoma thus early rose to distinction and prominence as a peach 
country, which reputation she has steadfastly maintained since that 
time, producing annually, with but few exceptions, bumper crops of 
as fine peaches as ever graced the table of an epicure, fruit as large as 
the largest and unequaled in flavor, color, and shipping qualities, 
bringing the highest prices in the markets of the North and East. 

At no time has the planting ceased, in fact, each succeeding year 
eclipses the one before it in point of number of trees planted. The 
millions of bearing peach trees in the Territory are now bending with 
their burden of young fruit and many hundreds of carloads must 
find a market in the frozen north where peaches do not thrive as a 
crop. 

These conditions apply not alone to Oklahoma but to the Indian 
Territory as well. The writer has visited orchards in the Indian 
Territory that are the equal of anything of the kind found anywhere. 
Peach trees, set 25 feet apart each way eight or ten years ago, with 
branches now interlacing from 3 to 5 feet, have a growth so dense as 
to shut out from the earth all sunlight when the trees are in foliage. 
There are found the oldest orchards of the two Territories, but the 
acreage devoted to fruit in Oklahoma is considerably in excess of that 
in the Indian Territory, which is due to several causes, chief of which 
is the absence of white man's farm holdings. Until quite recent 
years the titles to all farm lands were vested in the Indians, and, 
although farmed by the white man, in but few instances did he feel 
justified in planting orchards on leased lands which he had no assur- 
ance of controlling when the trees were old enough to bear. 



188 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The world-famous Elberta finds in these Territories its natural envi- 
ronments and grows to its greatest perfection. The major portion 
of the peach trees now growing are of this valuable variety. Indi- 
vidual specimens of fruit measuring 10 inches in circumference and 
weighing that many ounces are not uncommon, and, too, grown on 
trees burdened with all the fruit possible for them to bear. Orchards 
of from 10,000 to 15,000 trees of this variety are a common sight in 
Oklahoma. 

The peach is but one of the many kinds of fruit which grow to 
perfection in this young Commonwealth. Apples, although requiring 
somewhat longer time to come into bearing, are now produced in 
abundance. 

As superintendent of the Oklahoma horticultural and agricultural 
exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, I took pains to com- 
pare all varieties of Oklahoma grown apples with the same varieties 
from other States, and in no instance were the Oklahoma apples 
equaled in size. When challenged to submit to a test for flavor, I 
eagerly accepted, and the disinterested judges were never long in 
determining the contest in favor of Oklahoma. The old theory that 
northern grown apples possess a higher flavor than those southern 
grown will not hold good in comparing them with Oklahoma fruit. 
The famous, yet much abused, Ben Davis apple, which is little more 
than an excuse for an apple in the north, grown in Oklahoma is 
scarcely recognisable as being of that variety, so improved is the flavor 
and quality. Several hundred bushels of this variety, which had been 
in cold storage for a year, were given away to visitors at the World's 
Fair, and in many instances the recipients could not be made to 
believe they were eating the dry, tasteless variety they were so well 
acquainted with in their northern homes. I do not wish to be under- 
stood as offering words of praise for the Ben Davis apple, for my 
remarks are not so intended. I mention that variety for illustration, 
simply because it is so widely known and not because of any particu- 
lar fondness I have for it, especially when Jonathan, Wine Sap, 
Grimes Golden, Snow, and other highly prized varieties are obtainable. 
Within the next five years hundreds of carloads of apples will be 
shipped annually out of Oklahoma to the south and west, where our 
growers will find one of the very best markets at our door. 

At this writing representatives of the largest individual apple 
grower in the world are at work looking to the establishment in 
Oklahoma of a commercial apple orchard of a thousand acres or 
more, which will, no doubt, develop into a pleasing reality within a 
few months. This Department is offering every aid possible in 
furthering the success of the project. 

Cherries have been grown to a limited extent only. However, 
enough has been learned to encourage and warrant the planting of»a 
large acreage of this valuable fruit. Great interest is manifested in 
this crop, and all varieties are being tested, European countries 
even coming in for a share of the varieties now being tried, some of 
which give early promise of being valuable acquisitions for this 
country. 

Pears here find their natural habitat and immense crops of the very 
handsomest of fruit are harvested annually. The chief difficulty 
encountered by the growers is to prevent the destruction of the trees 
by the breaking down of the branches under the heavy load of fruit. 



GOVEKNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 189 

The acreage devoted to this fruit is being increased rapidly, preference 
being given to the Keiffer variety because of its comparative freedom 
from blight, with Garber as a close second, a variety of somewhat 
better quality. The trees grow rapidly and early reach the bearing 
stage. Best results have followed where all cultivation beyond that 
of mowing ceased after the trees had been planted four or five years. 

Greater Oklahoma is primarily a plum country, yet the planting 
has not reached that stage of development attained by other fruits. 

One of the most commendable enterprises engaged in by many 
Oklahoma farmers is the planting of forest trees, not alone in small 
numbers around the farm and dooryard, but in forest plantations 
from 2 to 20 acres, besides good wind-breaks on the south and west sides 
of the orchards. These plantations are usually dense, trees being set 
from 4 to 8 feet apart and the soil kept in cultivation for several years, 
or until the growth is sufficient to shade the ground and prevent the 
growth of weeds and grass. Preference is usually given to the Black 
Locust. Some of the older plantations now afford rural telephone 
poles of the very best sort and fence posts of a high grade, in the sale 
of which the growers are reaping a rich harvest. A return of $1,000 
per acre or better for a ten-year crop on $25 per acre land is certainly 
not to be disparaged. Farmers throughout the prairie sections of the 
Territory are fast appreciating the profits and benefits to be derived 
from forest- tree growing, and although the quantity of forest- tree seed 
planted is doubled each succeeding year the number of trees grown 
is always short of the demand, large quantities being shipped in 
from other States. 

Central and western Oklahoma offers the greatest natural advan- 
tages to American grape culture, where the soil is ideal and little or 
no damage by rot or other fungous diseases is experienced. The high- 
est ideals will be achieved, however, only when the planter is made to 
realize the importance of confining his selections to varieties possess- 
ing blood of native species indigenous to the South and West. This 
is perhaps best exemplified in the Mimson hybrid, possessing blood of 
Vitis lincecummii (Post Oak grape), which native species is found 
growing wild in greater Oklahoma and northern Texas, often on high, 
dry hills, yet under all circumstances showing a luxuriant growth of 
bright, healthy foliage. The roots of this species have a deep pene- 
trating nature, which is a desirable trait and in evidence in all of its 
hybrids. 

One of the best strawberry-producing sections of the United States 
is extreme southwest Missouri. A continuation of that belt extends 
from the northeast corner of the Indian Territory toward the south- 
west for a distance of 300 miles or more, which is as yet but little 
developed beyond enough to demonstrate that the production of this 
grandest of ail fruits in a high degree of excellence is not only practi- 
cable, but that it will return a handsome profit to the grower who exer- 
cises the proper judgment in handling the crop. In the early days 
in Oklahoma many half-hearted efforts to grow strawberries resulted 
in failure, and for a time the outlook was anything but encouraging. 
Later, efforts conducted along sensible lines, wherein the "patch" was 
not wholly given over to the association of grass and weeds after the 
harvest, but a thorough system of cultivation maintained throughout 
the season and proper mulching provided in the early winter, proved 
beyond question that greater Oklahoma is destined to become in a 



190 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

few years the greatest berry -growing section of the country. Not only 
are the yields abundant and the berries large and smooth, but in com- 
mon with all other kinds of fruit grown m Oklahoma the flavor is 
beyond comparison. Enough berries are now produced to supply 
the home demand, which speaks volumes when the unequaled rapid- 
ity of increase in population is considered. A few years hence train 
loads of berries will be shipped from Oklahoma northward in quest of 
a market. 

Blackberries are at home in all portions of the two Territories, but 
no effort is made to produce a surplus beyond what is required to 
furnish a bountiful supply for home consumption. Prodigious yields 
of the Early Harvest variety are reported, which variety seems to 
meet with more general favor than any other. Growers located near 
the larger city markets of the Territories realize handsome profits 
from this crop. The increase in acreage seems to be keeping pace 
with the increase in population, which is by no means an insignificant 
item. 

At 1,he opening of Oklahoma in April, 1889, the unbroken prairie 
was a Veritable flower garden, a beautiful lawn prepared by a hand 
greater than that of man, dotted here and there with irregular beds 
of flowers of various tints and skirted by natural timber bordering 
the streams. The unbroken prairie yet presents an everchanging hue 
from early spring till frost lays on its icy hand. 

In keeping with nature and the high class of Oklahoma citizenship, 
flowers in profusion and of all kinds are to be seen and enjoyed, each 
person apparently endeavoring to outrival his neighbor in the culti- 
vation of that which is beautiful. 

LIVE STOCK. 

For many years Oklahoma was one vast cow pasture, or, rather, 
it was subdivided into a number of such pastures, operated under 
lease from the Indians who claimed title to the land. The acres 
embraced in some of these leases numbered into the hundreds of 
thousands, and each pasture was under wire fence. 

Prior to the extinguishment of the buffalo it was recognized as 
their favorite grazing ground by hunters, and there is no doubt that 
a greater number of these animals met their fate on Oklahoma soil 
than on any other like area of the country. The immense growth of 
excellent native pasture grass did not alone furnish the attraction for 
both the buffalo and the long-horned steer, but the climate, which 
permitted grazing practically twelve months in the year, was a like 
incentive. Is it any wonder that under such natural advantages 
what will constitute the new State of Oklahoma has, in a few short 
years, surpassed many of the older States in the value of live stock? 

The marvelous progress made in the line of increase in live stock in 
Oklahoma and Indian Territory since 1889, which has but kept pace 
with all other lines of development, savors of romance. Not until 
1890 were there any reliable statistics compiled covering live stock in 
the Indian Territory, but in the report of the Bureau of the Census 
for June 1, 1890, which was when Oklahoma was a " yearling," I find 
that Oklahoma was credited with the following number of head of 
the various domestic animals: Cattle (all kinds), 126,955; horses 
and mules, 30,477; swine, 21,962; sheep, 16,565, of which latter 



GOVERNOK OF OKLAHOMA. 191 

Greer County, then claimed by Texas, furnished more than half, or 
9,005. These figures would, no doubt, be greater than would the 
live-stock enumeration for the Indian Territory have represented at 
the same time. The same source of information shows that in ten 
years, or on June 1, 1900, the number of each class had increased in 
the two Territories to the following: Cattle, 2,859,605; horses and 
mules, 510,713; swine, 1,049,191; sheep, 81,685. 

The Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of Agriculture, 
recently issued a statement under date of January 1, 1906, giving the 
number and value of live stock of all kinds by States, with the fol- 
lowing figures to the credit of the future State of Oklahoma: Cat- 
tle, 2,158,936; horses and mules, 766,027; swine, 1 ; 346,964: sheep, 
85,659. The total market value of these animals is placed at the 
enormous sum of $91,610,723, representing a thrifty accumulation of 
about $5,500,000per year average for a period of seventeen years by 
the farmers of this young giant Commonwealth, who, while this great 
amount was being accumulated, lived on the fat of the land and 
supplied thousands upon thousands of carloads of animal flesh for 
the maintenance of human life throughout the East. 

Some very effective arguments can be found in comparing our 
wealth of live stock with that of some of the older Commonwealths 
which have for years been recognized as live-stock producers of no 
mean caliber. The same authority from which the foregoing esti- 
mate of value is taken reveals the surprising fact that infant Okla- 
homa exceeds in value of live stock that of Washington by $61 ,000,000, 
that of Oregon by $56,000,000, Colorado by $42,000,000, Arkansas 
by $39,000,000, Tennessee bv $24,000,0*00, South Dakota by 
$12,000,000, California and Kentucky each by $10,000,000. It 
exceeds by $26,000,000 the combined value of the live stock embraced 
in the three States Utah, Nevada, and Idaho. 

The apparent falling off in number of cattle between 1900 and 1906 
might be accounted for by the fact that prior to the opening of the 
Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache and Wichita reservations in 1901 these 
lands were devoted almost exclusively to pasture for range cattle, 
which were forced out by the advent of the white settler. The 
present occupants have not accumulated in small bunches as many 
as were represented in the former vast herds. The same conditions 
were applicable also to the former Cheyenne and Arapaho country, 
which was for some years dominated by the cattlemen and their 
herds to the exclusion of the farmer until within recent years. 

The only branch of our live-stock industry for which I feel called 
upon to apologize is that of sheep husbandry. It is quite apparent 
that our farmers have not given to this important work the consider- 
ation that is due. And why? It is one of those inexplicable things 
one meets with in a new country. That the conditions for the highly 
successful prosecution of this branch of agricultural industry are 
ideal goes without saying, yet we shall probably drag along in the 
same path for several years, when suddenly the " fever" will break 
out and Oklahoma will startle the world with her marvelous pro- 
duction of wool and mutton, as she has done in the past in many other 
lines of agricultural production. At the last annual session of the Okla- 
homa board of agriculture the subject of sheep husbandry was given 
a prominent place on the programme, and several farmers whose 



192 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

experience related back to the chief sheep-producing States from 
whence they came expressed themselves as being able to produce 
better lambs for less money in shorter time in Oklahoma than they 
ever could in the States of their former experience. Some expression 
of fear is heard lest the flock should be destroyed by dogs and wolves. 
Such anticipation is really painful. We might, with the same degree 
of precaution, refuse to grow hogs for fear they might die of cholera. 

Many thousands of dollars are spent annually in Oklahoma in 
destroying crab grass, and many more thousands are lost because 
crab grass is not destroyed. Especially is this true with its relation 
to growing corn. If a bunch of sheep were available to turn into 
the cornfields when crab grass makes its annual appearance after 
the corn is "laid by" the grass would not only be taken care of, but 
utilized for the production of wool and mutton and converted into 
the most valuable fertilizer, which would require no expense in 
spreading. Experience has amply demonstrated that the sheep do 
not interfere with the growing nor matured corn, and where this 
practice is being followed the results are more than pleasing. Fence 
lines and other waste places provide sheep feed which, if not utilized, 
will entail a vast expense and effort to keep clean, or, on the other 
hand, are left to grow up to unsightly weeds which do not contribute 
either attractiveness or value to the farm. 

The usual mild, open winters, coupled with the large acreage of 
wheat, which affords excellent pasture, at once make Oklahoma an 
ideal dairy country, and the ever-progressive farmers are fast learn- 
ing the advantages and handsome profits to be gleaned from this 
enterprise. The natural advantages just mentioned would, no 
doubt, in time have induced the development of dairying to its full 
capacity, but the fact that about $10,000,000 worth of dairy prod- 
ucts from the North are being annually freighted across our Territory 
into Texas, together with the advent of the hand separator, are 
causing this branch of agricultural industry to develop with leaps 
and bounds. Large creameries are building in all communities, and 
the capacities of those in operation are being constantly enlarged 
to meet the demands of increased business. Where a few years ago 
only an occasional batch of cream cans were to be seen at railway 
junction points, they are now in evidence by the carload. 

A specific instance in dairying may be of interest and profit. An 
Oklahoma farmer has a home herd of 13 cows, from which during 
the year 1905 the entire product of cream was made into butter. 
The average number of pounds butter per day was 7J, or 2,737 
pounds for the year, for which he received an average price of 23 J 
cents per pound, amounting to a total of $643.19, or $54.50 per cow 
for the year, after adding $5 per head for the calves. Deducting for 
feed $10.95 per head, each cow brought in a net income of $43.55, 
not deducting for summer pasture. 

e Experience will soon demonstrate the importance of careful selec- 
tion and breeding of the dairy herd and providing an abundant 
supply of choice milk-producing feed for use twelve months in the 
year. The benefits, other than the direct return for cream, to be 
derived from a good dairy herd are many fold. Converting a 
greater amount of the raw product of the farm into fertilizer to be 
returned to the soil is in no wise the least of these benefits. Work 
of this nature soon educates the farmer to adopt a plan of greater 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 193 

crop diversification, which is, at least, a step toward becoming a 
fanner in the true sense of the word, instead of remaining a lazy, 
nonprogressive wheat grower. 

Last but not least in the line of live stock in Oklahoma conies that 
most faithful worker, the hen. Space forbids going into detail in 
her interests; besides her pace has been too rapid to permit of keep- 
ing up statistics compatible with her progress. Carloads of live 
poultry loading for shipment from the Territory are quite common 
sights. Great truck loads are discharged from every express train 
arriving at our larger centers of population. Fancy poultry shows 
held annually in every town of any importance disclose the fact that 
our fanciers are satisfied with only the best of all breeds. I feel so 
utterly incapable of expressing myself in behalf of this great member 
of the Oklahoma farm family that I must simply doff my hat to her 
silence. 

NURSERY INSPECTION. 

[C. A. McNabb, secretary of board of agriculture.] 

The second year of the operation and enforcement of the nursery- 
inspection law has been reached, and its value is now more fully 
recognized and appreciated. That its value would have been 
greatly impaired had it not been rigidly enforced is apparent. Sev- 
eral arrests for flagrant and willful violation were made during the 
year, which served as a check on further attempts along that line 
and the quitting of our company by a class of leeches in human form 
who had for some years profited by their nefarious practices in the 
sale of very questionable nursery stock. The atmosphere surround- 
ing the nursery business in Oklahoma has become more purified, 
which carries with it a reasonable assurance that the purchaser of 
nursery stock will now get what he purchases, and that free from 
dangerous insects and diseases. 

In compliance with the law, the Oklahoma board of agriculture, 
through the entomologist of the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment 
Station, John F. Nicholson, inspected 89 nurseries in Oklahoma 
in 1906, at an average cost of $6.50 per nursery, the cost being based 
on actual expense of travel and maintenance and salary of inspector. 

STOCK FOOD AND FERTILIZER LAW. 

The stock food and fertilizer law passed by the last legislative 
assembly went into effect on January 1, 1906. This law requires 
the manufacturers of all commercial feeding stuffs and fertilizers 
offered for sale in Oklahoma to file each year with the secretary of 
the board of agriculture a certificate stating the crude protein and 
fat content of feed stuffs and the nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric 
acid content of fertilizers, accompanied by a fee of $20 per brand so 
registered. 

Twenty-four manufacturers have filed the required certificates, 
and others have expressed their intention of so doing as soon as the 
circumstances are such as to enable them to comply. 

In only one instance has there been shown a disposition to disre 
gard the requirements of the law, which case will receive our early 
and undivided attention, to the end that the dignity of the law will 
be upheld. An inspector is now in the field selecting samples of the 



194 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

various brands on the market, which will be analyzed by the agricul- 
tural station chemist for the purpose of determining whether or not 
the claims of the manufacturers are to be relied upon. The results 
of such analyses will be duly published. 

IRRIGATION. 

Notwithstanding the excessive rainfall during the summer of 1906 
and the consequent lack of need for irrigation in the western portion 
of the Territory, active work along the line of irrigation plant con- 
struction is going on, presumably in conformity with the old time 
honored teaching, "In time of peace prepare for war." The one 
which is attracting the greatest amount of public attention at the 
present time is what is commonly known as the Navajo project. This 
project is being fathered by the United States Reclamation Service 
and is located on the North Fork of Red River, which forms the 
boundary line between Greer and Kiowa counties. It contemplates 
storing and supplying sufficient water to irrigate 75,000 to 100,000 
acres of highly productive soil and will, if carried on to completion, 
convert what is recognized as a comparatively good agricultural 
community, yet subject to annoying dry periods, into a veritable gar- 
den which will fairly teem with agricultural and horticultural pro- 
ductions of the highest type. Some preliminary investigations are 
yet to be completed by the Reclamation Service engineers before 
definite conclusions can be reached. The construction of the dam 
and main ditches would entail a cost of about $3,000,000. 

Private enterprises of this character are scattered promiscuously 
throughout the western part of the Territory, whereby tracts ranging 
from 10 to 1,000 acres of land are fortified against dry weather, and 
the harvesting of bounteous crops of the very best quality are made 
reasonably certain. Notably among this number is the plant owned 
by W. L. Fullerton, of Olustee, Greer County, who has about 1,000 
acres under ditch, not all of which is yet in cultivation, however. 

IRRIGATION IN SOUTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA. 

[W. L. Fullerton.] 

Interest in irrigation is steadily growing in this section, even in these 
years of comparative abundant rainfall. 

The most progressive farmers and even residents of our towns and 
cities are beginning to appreciate the necessity of a constant supply 
of soil moisture, and especially in the growing of fruits, vegetables, 
shade, and flowers, and more particularly in truck farming. 

While this locality has had an average annual rainfall of 25 inches 
for the past ten years, it has been so distributed that the above- 
named crops (and many others) have suffered very greatly in mid- 
summer and even in the growing proportion of autumn for want of 
sufficient rainfall. 

At these seasons of the year irrigation has never failed to pay a 
good dividend on money and labor invested in irrigation plants, great 
or small, wherever intelligently planned and operated. 

WATER SUPPLY AND HOW OBTAINED. 

Water for the greater number of plants has been procured from 
wells by means or windmills and lift pumps. Gravity flow systems 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 195 

from springs and small creeks where practical have proven very- 
satisfactory. The very gentle fall of our largest streams, necessitat- 
ing the making of high dams or long ditches and in many instances 
both, has hindered the construction of this class of work, except in a 
few instances. These have all proven very satisfactory and profitable. 

PUMPING BY STEAM AND GASOLINE. 

The cost of fuel in the use of steam plants has limited the use of 
this method of procuring water for irrigation, and the writer's experi- 
ence would indicate that this class of work to be profitable will have 
to employ engines and boilers used for thrashing grain or ginning 
cotton in season, or machinery installed for other purposes than 
pumping, and then only on a low lift and to grow such crops as will 
yield a good return in money per acre. 

Gasoline power has been used but little here, but has proven quite 
satisfactory where the lift is moderate and good engine and pumps 
have been properly installed. For low lifts rotary or centrifugal 
pumps have proven most satisfactory, especially where comparatively 
large quantities of water are to be raised, for in such cases, if lift 
pumps are to be used, pump jacks will be found very necessary, also 
very hard to keep in order. 

KIND OF CROPS GROWN. 

Irrigation in this section of Oklahoma has been confined almost 
exclusively to vegetables, " truck," and other hoed crops, including 
fruits, shade, and flowers. 

METHODS OF APPLYING WATER. 

For economy of water and best general results, the "rill system" is 
used, the crop having first been thoroughly cultivated and furrows 
made between the rows to be watered, which will guide the water 
where it is wanted, and prevent it from injuring the crop by coming 
in contact with the crowns of plants and trees; this also leaves less 
wet ground to bake after watering has been finished. Land that has 
been irrigated is promptly stirred as soon as it is dry enough, unless 
vines or other foliage make it unnecessary or impractical. 

KINDS C* SOIL BEST SUITED TO HtRIGATION FARMING. 

Dark sandy loam with clay subsoil within 3 to 6 feet of the surface 
has proven most satisfactory for irrigation farming, though both 
lighter and heavier soils also with or without clay subsoils have given 
very satisfactory results, but light soils are very much better after a 
liberal application of barnyard manure, wheat or oat straw, as they 
furnish the necessary plant food and improve its mechanical condi- 
tion, which is equally true of heavy or stiff soils. 

The writer has visited numerous irrigation systems in this locality, 
and has failed to note a single instance where the yield was not good 
and the proprietor enthusiastic over results, notwithstanding the 
fact that water usually comes pretty dear here, and that almost every 
kind of soil is used and very little manure and no commercial fertilizer 
so far. 



196 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

KIND OF WATER THAT MAT BE USED. 

Any kind of water that is wholesome for live stock has proven to 
be good for irrigation here, especially where the soil is loose with good 
porous subsoil. Water from streams carrying large quantities of 
gypsum in solution has given most excellent results. Land that it 
has been used on seems to grow better each year, notwithstanding 
the large yield of vegetables ; in some instances three crops a year. 

PRACTICAL RESULTS, YIELD, QUALITY, ETC. 

The writer has been engaged in irrigation "truck" farming the 
past eight years. I have employed the "rill system" exclusively 
on gray sandy loam. Sweet potatoes have been a leading crop, the 
pumpkin yam and other southern varieties chiefly, though the Jersey 
and Nansemond are very satisfactory in every respect. All varie- 
ties yield very satisfactorily, varying from 150 bushels for late plant- 
ing to 450 bushels for early planting. I set plants of all kinds at the 
rate of 30 to 60 a minute with transplanting machines, using three 
hands to operate same. Yams and sweet potatoes grow in ridges 4 
feet apart, which makes irrigation practical after the vines have cov- 
ered the field. 

Onions from seed have responded to irrigation and good culture 
in a very satisfactory way and are first quality, the yield ranging 
from 200 to 400 bushels per acre, without fertilizer, bringing an aver- 
age of $1 per bushel in local market at wholesale. 

Dwarf champion tomatoes have made very good yield of excellent 
fruit with me, and grow late in the summer and until frost. 

Table beets, carrots, parsnips, turnips, sweet and hot peppers, rad- 
ishes, lettuce, mustard, cabbage, horse-radish, sage, watermelons, 
muskmelons, canteloupes in the vegetable line, and peaches, apri- 
cots, cherries, native currants, plums, grapes, and pears have been 
successfully grown under irrigation. In all cases the quality, as 
well as quantity, has repaid the grower in a very satisfactory way. 
The writer has peach trees 14 years old that have missed but one 
crop of fruit in seven years, and bid fair to continue useful for years 
to come. 

RRIGATION AND RECLAMATION. 

[H. S. McCowan.] 

The work done by the Reclamation Service of the United States 
in reclaiming arid land in Oklahoma has included experiments made 
and preliminary surveys undertaken in various parts of Oklahoma, 
including Beaver, Woodward, Roger Mills, Kiowa, and Comanche 
counties. 

Nothing feasible has been found in any part of the investigations, 
with the exception of the Navajo project, which has its dam site on 
the North Fork of Red River between Greer County and Kiowa 
County. 

This project is of unusual magnitude. The dam on bed rock will 
be 450 feet, and on the surface, between the two mountains, it will 
be 1,700 feet. The dam will be 65 feet from bed rock to the bed of 
the river and 65 feet from the bed of the river to the top of the dam. 
The cost of this dam will be about $3,000,000. This, if approved by 
the consulting engineers, would be one of the largest projects in the 
United States. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 197 

It would irrigate from 100,000 to 120,000 acres. The Govern- 
ment has so far approved of it that it has had the preliminary sur- 
veys made for the dam and ditches, estimates of the cost and con- 
struction, and plane table work done on several townships of the 
land that is to be irrigated. 

This enterprise is to be conspicuous in that it is not to be used in 
irrigating an arid region, but it is to be used in irrigating land where, 
although during the spring and early summer there is a sufficient supply 
of rain to bring almost all crops to the point of fruition, there is still 
frequently, just at the period of maturing, such a dearth of the water 
supply that the crop which is ready for the moisture to mature it is 
blasted because there is not sufficient moisture. 

On account of this being an unusual experiment the Government 
has not been willing to enter upon the constructive work with its 
usual confidence, and therefore it has established, below the dam site 
on North Fork of Red River on the Kiowa side, an experimental 
pumping station for the purpose of making such experiments as may 
prove quality of water and the quantity necessary for irrigating in a 
region that can in no sense be called arid. This pumping station is 
now in operation, and during a recent dry period of this month 
(August) for several days ran day and night. 

It is thought by this method of experimentation to prove with 
almost perfect accuracy just how much water it will take per acre, 
and whether there are any ingredients in the water which might 
injure the soil or plant life. It is thought by the engineers and by 
the farmers who have used the water for irrigation in a small way 
that there will be no injurious property in the water to injure either 
the soil or the plant. 

Looked at in a large way without regard to certain unproved 
details the project, on a whole, appears to have many remarkable 
advantages. It is a vegetable and fruit country where there is a 
sufficient supply of water and it is thought by means of this system 
that all kinds of fruits, melons, vegetables, and other commodities 
that are grown and canned in the North and shipped into the South- 
west for consumption will be produced here, canned at home, and 
consumed through the local demand. 

Also the advantages from the standpoint of the feeding station are 
unsurpassed. At this time the Texas cattlemen ship their cattle 
north to Colorado, Montana, and Idaho alfalfa fields and bring them 
back to Iowa and Illinois and complete the fattening process with 
corn. When this project is more established the feeding grounds 
will be at their own door. We have approximately 100,000 acres of 
alfalfa and clover lands. Many thousand of head of cattle now 
going to the Northwest would be fed here and shipped back to Fort 
Worth. The land here is remarkable for its fertility and productive 
elements, also for its proximity to market and for the mildness of its 
climate. 

The only requirement necessary to make this one of the most pro- 
ductive parts of the United States is a sufficient supply of water, and 
this is easily secured by holding the flood waters of North Fork of 
Red River in a basin 13 miles long and 2\ miles wide. 

There are years in this section when farms enjoy abundant crops, 
the rainfall being sufficient to mature a large variety of crops planted. 
These prosperous years act as an injury instead of a benefit to the 

241b-07 14 



198 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

farmer. He begins farming each spring with the anticipation that 
he is to raise a crop which will compare favorably with the large 
crops that this region has known in the most prosperous years. He 
does all the preliminary work at a large expense — plants his crops, 
cultivates them, very frequently only to see them burn up when the 
hot Texas winds sweep over the prairies, leaving almost as complete 
devastation as the prairie fires sweeping over unturned grass, so that 
the people who are attempting to build up this district of Oklahoma 
are continually kept in a state of uncertainty, hoping each year for 
a successful season and fearing year to year to make very important 
improvements lest the season may prove a failure. 

It keeps citizenship constantly changing. Men buy in the spring 
and sell in the fall. They fear often to put in large crops, lest a fail- 
ure and the consequent loss of the cost of labor might bankrupt 
them. On account of these things one large successful irrigation proj- 
ect would encourage irrigation in a small way — such as pumping 
stations, small dams, surface reservoirs — all over this part of the 
State. The normal development of Oklahoma requires that tins one 
project be carried to completion. 

THE NAVAJO IRRIGATION PROJECT. 

In a general way what the Reclamation Service has done and pro- 
poses for the future is hereby outlined. 

In 1902-3 a general reconnoissance was made of all the streams of 
western Oklahoma. The engineers reported nothing that was con- 
sidered feasible. 

In January, 1905, the chief engineer, wishing to be absolutely 
certain as to the irrigation possibilities of the State sent a party into 
the northwest part of the State, and later a second party. They 
thoroughly investigated the whole country from the Cimarron River 
to the Red River. Excepting on the latter nothing was found except 
a few small projects easily within reach of private capital. 

On the North Fork of Red River at the Navajo Mountain a good 
site for a reservoir was found, the dam site being between two granite 
points. 

Subsequent surveys gave the following data: A dam 65 feet high 
would give a reservoir of 275,000 acre-feet capacity. A distribution 
ditch 36 miles long would irrigate 35,000 acres in Greer County west 
of the river. A ditch 58 miles long would irrigate 150,000 acres in 
Kiowa and Comanche counties. Investigations by the engineer 
of soils showed a large per cent of salt in the Greer County soils which 
would be injurious under irrigation, hence it was thought advisable 
to plan the project for the east side of the river. This project will 
cost approximately S3, 000,000. 

If there is sufficient water supply in years of minimum flow of North 
Fork of Red River to irrigate 100,000 acres the project would be 
considered feasible. To determine this point careful gaugings of 
the streams have been made since April, 1905, and will be continued 
until several dry years are measured, as it would be manifestly unwise 
to base estimates on any but a minimum flow. 

An experimental pumping plant has been installed and will be 
used to obtain data as to how much water is needed per acre and 
how much advantage it is to the farmer to irrigate. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 199 

When this information is obtained a safe business proposition can 
be made to the landowners. They on their part have shown great 
willingness to cooperate and have an efficient organization ready 
to enter into contract when the Government is ready. 

I need not point out to you the importance of this project to the 
new State. Any plan that will quadruple the number of families 
on 100,000 acres gives certainty of crops and mingles with cotton 
and corn the orchard, garden, and alfalfa meadows. That which 
will more than triple the price of land and multiply the live stock by 
ten is surely worthy of the best efforts of every official and citizen 
of the new State. 

PUBLIC HIGHWAYS. 

The matter of good roads increases in interest and plans are under 
discussion for active work looking toward the improvement of public 
highways throughout Oklahoma. Cities and towns, through live com- 
mercial clubs, are projecting improvements for high roads in four or 
more directions leading out into the rural districts, in which plans the 
farmers are taking interest and lending practical assistance. The 
importance of this subject can not be overestimated. The wide- 
spread activity in this direction is, therefore, encouraging and augurs 
well for the Territory. As has been well said, "A road is as good as 
its worst section or its worst condition." 

The Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congress, which will convene 
at Kansas City in November, in which the discussion of good roads 
will be an important feature, indicates the intense interest in and 
earnest desire for improved roads throughout the entire Southwest. 

A. C. Titus, writing last year on the subject, says: 

Interest in the subject of the betterment of our public highways has grown steadily since 
the movement first took organized form. Several inter-Territorial good-roads conventions, 
two good-roads train itineraries, conducted by the .National Good Roads Association, and 
the Road Division of the United States Agricultural Department, agitation of the subject 
of good roads by the Territorial press, together with the rapidly increasing tonnage of farm 
products and supplies to be moved, have all contributed to the formation of a strong public 
sentiment in favor of better roads. 

Numerous changes have been made in the road laws by past legislatures in attempting 
to provide for working the roads of the entire Territory under one general law, but the 
system in vogue has not given satisfaction in all parts of the Territory, owing to the widely 
varying conditions existing. While the plan of depending solely upon the poll-tax labor 
to keep the roads passable seems to meet all the requirements in some sections, the poll tax, 
with the amount that township boards are authorized to levy, is inadequate to keep tho 
roads in proper condition to carry the traffic of the older counties. The last legislature 
enacted a law drawn by a joint committee composed of members of the board of agricul- 
ture and the Inter-Territorial Good Roads Associaton, which becomes operative in counties 
adopting it at special or general elections, and which, it is believed, will be a great improve- 
ment over the old system. The law places all highway construction and care under the 
general supervision of a competent civil engineer, who, as a county official, takes the place 
of county surveyor. The county is divided into larger road districts, and the road work is 
done under the direction of a supervisor in each district. The law authorizing township 
boards to levy a road and bridge tax is repealed in so far as counties adopting this law are 
concerned, and a special road fund is created by a levy on all taxable property of the county. 
The poll tax is reduced to $2, payable in cash, except that it, as well as other road taxes, 
may be worked out, provided the service rendered is satisfactory to the supervisor. 
, Petitions are now being circulated in Logan County as a preliminary step to the adoption 
of this law. 

Another result of the good-roads movement, which it is believed will bear good fruit in 
the future, is the institution of a course in the Agricultural and Mechanical College at Still- 
water, teaching highway engineering. 

The committee also framed a bill providing for the utilization of convict labor in county 
road work, but the measure failed to pass the council. 

A bill to encourage the use of wide tires on wagons and other heavy draft vehicles was 
also defeated. 



200 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Good roads are of highest interest and value to all people in Okla- 
homa, regardless of a man's business or profession or circumstance. 
Both farmer and merchant will profit by improvement of public 
highways. A farm 10 miles from town with first-class roads leading 
to it from the city is as valuable as a farm 5 miles from town with 
unimproved roads leading to it. 



ASSESSMENT OF PROPERTY AND TAXATION. 

As heretofore, property is assessed much below its actual value. 
The values fixed by the assessors are not over one-sixth, and, in many 
instances, one-eighth of the true value, while money, bonds, and 
stocks are frequently not given in at all. 

Farm lands have been assessed at an average of S3. 19 per acre, 
horses at $16.96, mules and asses at $23.87, cattle at $5.89, sheep at 
$1.10, swine at $1.84. The total value of $96,625,604, as fixed by 
the assessors and equalized by the board, is not to exceed 16§ per 
cent of the true value of all property subject to taxation. The 
actual value is fully $579,753,624. 

The amount of revenue required to be raised for the maintenance 
of the Territorial government, the educational and other institutions, 
is $628,066.95. To raise this amount requires a Territorial levy of 
6 J mills, which is divided among the various funds as follows: 

Apportionment of taxes. 

For general Territorial tax, 1906 $0. 0025 

MorriU Hall, engineering rooms, gymnasium, and necessary appliances for the 

Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, 1906 0003 

Additional girls' dormitory, enlargement and equipment of Colored Agricultural 

and Normal University at Langston, 1906 00015 

For Territorial University, at Norman, 1906 0006 

For University Preparatory School, at Tonka wa, 1906 00021 

For the Oklahoma University Preparatory School building, at Tonkawa, 1906 00038 

For the Territorial Normal School at Edmond, 1906 00038 

For the Territorial Normal School at Alva, 1906 00038 

For the Northwestern Normal School building, at Alva, 1906 0003 

For liquidation of certificates of indebtedness of the Northwestern Normal School, 

at Alva 00025 

For the maintenance, repairs, and equipment for the Southwestern Normal School, 

at Weatherford, 1906 00038 

For the Agricultural and Mechanical College, at Stillwater, 1906 00021 

For the Colored Agricultural and Normal University, at Langston, 1906 00021 

For the Deaf and Dumb School, 1906 00022 

For the Territorial board of education 00003 



Total levy, 1906 0065 

Total assessed valuation and 1906 tax, by counties. 



County. 



Beaver 

Blaine 

Caddo 

Canadian . 
Cleveland . 
Comanche 

Custer 

Day 

Dewey 

Garfield... 

Grant 

Greer 

Kay 

Kingfisher 



Total 
valuation. 


1906 tax. 


$2,172,464 


$14,121.02 


2,128,371 


13,834.41 


3,395,372 


22,069.92 


3,487,511 


22,668.82 


2,295,330 


14,919.64 


4,632,971 


30,114.31 


2,906,544 


18,892.53 


664,259 


4,317.68 


1,322,091 


8,593.59 


5,277,441 


34,303.37 


3,382,808 


21,988.25 


6,006,538 


39,042.50 


4,268,430 


27,744.79 


3,139,521 


20,406.89 



County. 



Kiowa 

Lincoln 

Logan 

Noble 

Oklahoma 

Pawnee 

Payne 

Pottawatomie 
Roger Mills... 

Washita 

Woods 

Woodward... 

Total... 



Total 
valuation. 



$3,142,483 
4,153,316 
4,818,683 
2,196,648 
8,571,757 
5,167,774 
3,465,713 
4,532,105 
1,900,685 
2,748,616 
7,506,982 
3,341,271 



96,625,694 



1906 tax. 



$20,426.14 
26,996.59 
31,321.44 
14,278.21 
55,716.42 
33,590.53 
22,527.13 
29,458.68 
12,354.45 
17,866.00 
48,795.38 
21,718.26 



628,066.95 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



201 



Assessment of farm lands, 1906. 



County. 


Number of 
acres. 


Aver- 
age 

value 
per 

acre. 


Total 
value as 
equalized. 


County. 


Number of 
acres. 


Aver- 
age 

value 
per 

acre. 


Total 
value as 
equalized. 


Beaver 


265,707 
285,796 
261,914 
391,102 
326, 450 
570,998 
454, 164 
102,942 
293,889 
583,064 
541,612 
837,591 
385,291 
490,816 


$1.72 
2.42 
3.02 
3.90 
3.82 
2.82 
3.00 
2.00 
2.12 
3.85 
3.62 
2.92 
4.32 
3.50 


$457,015 

691,526 

790,980 

1,525,298 

1,247,039 

1,610,214 

1,362,492 

205,884 

623,044 

2,244,796 

1,960,625 

2,445,765 

1,664,457 

1,717,856 




325,415 
475,506 
440,823 
253,620 
387,171 
209,436 
410,041 
334,998 
296,451 
444,979 
1,158,996 
583,206 


$2.92 
3.42 
3.72 
3.62 
3.92 
3.83 
3.82 
3.82 
2.22 
3.02 
2.92 
2.12 


$950,212 
1,626,230 
1,639,861 

918,104 
1,517,710 

804,234 
1,566,356 
1,279,692 

658,121 
1,343,836 
3,384,268 
1,236,397 






Caddo 






Noble 




Oklahoma 


Comanche 






Day 


Pottawatomie 

Roger Mills 




Garfield 






Greer 


Woodward 

Total 


Kay 


Kingfisher 


11,111,978 


3.19 


35,472,012 



Farm property has increased in value, as shown by the annual 
assessment, as follows: 

Annual assessment of farm property. 



1900 $9,875,638 

1901 17,280,609 

1902 22,614,650 

1903 27,204,160 



1904 $30,668,770 

1905 33,339,905 

1906 35,472,012 





Assessment of live stock, 1906. 








Kind. 


Number. 


Average 
value. 


Total 

assessed 

value. 




349,100 
81,170 

929,064 
36,082 

309,557 


$16.96 

23.87 

5.89 

1.10 

1.84 


$5,921,964 

1,937,760 

5,476,011 

39,770 

570,726 




Cattle 









Assessment 


of town property, by counties, 1906. 




County. 


Total 
assessed 
value of 

lots. 


County. 


Total 
assessed 
value of 

lots. 


Beaver 


$123,398 
261,968 
587,679 
576,682 
398,837 
672,958 
332,623 
8,128 
72,619 
861,612 
226,355 
804,550 
785, 123 
339,605 




$607,079 






545, 194 






1,364,484 


Canadian ... 


Noble 


312,796 






4,163,105 


Comanche 




481,680 






460,339 


Day 




1,387,080 






258,569 


Garfield 




282,567 






693,259 


Greer 




285,587 


Kay 


Total 






16,893,876 









Total assessment all property, 1906. 



Moneys and credits $3, 916, 464 

Railroads 12,697,782 

Pullman 42,858 

Express 17, 300 

Telegraph 174,276 

Telephone 267,265 



Farmlands $35,472,012 

Town lots 16,893,876 

Livestock 13,946,231 

MisceUaneous 13, 198, 261 



Total 96,625,694 



202 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

By authority of an act providing for the assessment and taxation 
of express companies doing business in the Territory of Oklahoma, 
approved March 2, 1905, said companies were taxed as follows: 



Company. 



American 

United States 
Wells Fargo.. 



Net 
receipts. 



$497. 03 

836.59 

4,641.85 



Personal 
property. 



$1,910.78 
1,537.00 
7,876.22 



Total. 



$2, 407. 81 
2,373.59 
12,518.07 



Three telegraph companies doing business in the Territory of Okla- 
homa, showing a total mileage of 2,601.35, have been assessed for 
taxation as follows: 



Company. 


Mileage. 


Amount. 




2,339.26 

8.75 

253. 34 


$167,197 




292 




6,787 





VALUE OF FARM LANDS. 



The value of farm lands in Oklahoma varies greatly, according to 
the location thereof, the variety of use put to, and character and 
extent of improvements thereon. By location is meant the nearness 
to city and market, railroad facilities, and the character of other 
lands adjoining. Oklahoma lands adapted to agriculture command 
good prices, which with every passing year are constantly on the 
rise. Land which admits of diversification of production is highest 
in price among farm lands. Good mineral and oil lands are so valu- 
able as not to be priced by the acre at all. 

Oklahoma lands are, with the exception of the as yet undeveloped 
region in western Oklahoma, all suitable for farming. With the 
serious plans now in active experimental operation for irrigation 
of western Oklahoma, these lands also may be expected to stand 
high in value in the near future. 

The value of farm lands in Oklahoma ranges from $18 to $65, and 
even iKgher in a few instances. The average may be said to be 
about $30 per acre. Considering the tide of immigration to Okla- 
homa, it is not unreasonable to predict that the average per acre will 
rise to $50 within the next two years, since farm lands in Oklahoma 
are many of them equal in fertility of soil and abundance of yield to 
the best farm lands in Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, and Ohio, and, more- 
over, soon all homestead lands will have been taken up. 

The value of mineral and oil lands in southwestern and southeast- 
ern Oklahoma are beyond estimate. The coal, iron, oil, and timber 
lands of Indian Territory are likewise almost beyond computing. 
Many of these rich fields, where already developed and proved, can 
not now be purchased at any price, while those lands similar in char- 
acter located in an as yet undeveloped part of the Territory may be 
purchased at a remarkably low figure. 

The admission of Oklahoma and Indian Territory, when finally 
accomplished, will add greatly to the value of all lands throughout 
the new State. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



203 



The following table, compiled from statistics furnished by the reg- 
isters of deeds in the various counties of Oklahoma, contains informa- 
tion covering farm sales in Oklahoma during the month of April, 
1906: 



County. 



Blaine 

Caddo 

Canadian 

Cleveland 

Comanche 

Custer 

Day 

Garfield 

Grant 

Greer 

Ksry 

Kingfisher 

Kiowa 

Lincoln 

Logan 

Noble 

Oklahoma 

Pawnee 

Payne 

Pottawatomie. 

Roger Mills 

Washita 

Woods , 

Woodward 



Num- 
ber of 
sales. 



34 



Total 
acres 
trans- 
ferred. 



11,000 
3,105 
2,910 
3,179 

12, 463 
4,520 
2,000 
5,455 
3,784 

12,044 
2,559 
4,643 
6,560 



4,993 
2,025 
4,317 
1,040 
4,400 



6,400 
3,727 
12, 520 
13, 463 



Total 
price 
paid. 



$220,000 
58, 520 
67,851 
72, 376 
247, 825 
63,025 



151,276 
112,675 
223,876 
119,777 

75,827 
137,500 
300,000 
102,625 

63, 604 
141,450 

16, 151 

95,280 



160, 000 
69,310 
177,255 
121,960 



Price per acre. 



Lowest. 



$3.75 
7.50 

4.00 
7.19 
4.37 
3.00 
7.00 
12.50 
11.00 
17.50 
5.00 
7.50 
10.00 
7.25 
13.00 
6.25 
10.00 
7.50 
10.00 
12.50 
2.50 
3.10 
3.12 



Highest. 



$100.00 
36.25 
42.50 
62.50 

150.00 
31.25 
15.00 
54.00 
88.64 

260. 00 

100. 00 

300.00 
46.50 
30.00 
06. 00 
51.25 

647. 50 
37. 50 
50.00 

300. 00 
35.00 

200. 00 
43.75 
25.00 



Average. 



$20.00 
18.85 
23.32 
22.75 
19.89 
13.94 
10.00 
28.00 
29.80 
18.50 
46.80 
16.35 
20.95 
20.00 
20.35 
30.36 
32.77 
14.53 
21.60 



25.00 
18.59 
14.15 
9.80 



a One-three hundred and twentieth of $1. 



GEOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 



[A. H. Van Vleet, Director Oklahoma Geological and Natural History Survey.] 

Speaking in general terms, Oklahoma is a portion of the Great 
Plains. Geologically it is for the most part included in the so-called 
Red Beds. The surface is, in general, level, especially in the western 
portion. Some parts, however, as in the Glass Mountains and the 

Gyp Kills, " have been eroded so as to form mesas, cliffs, buttes, 
and canyons, which give these regions a picturesqueness and even a 
grandeur seemingly impossible in a plains country. 

The country slopes to the southeast, so that all of the principal 
streams and many of the smaller ones flow in this direction. Naming 
them from the north to the south, the Territory is crossed by the 
following streams: Arkansas, Salt Fork, Cimarron, North Canadian, 
South Canadian, Washita, and Red. The Arkansas and South 
Canadian rise in the Rocky Mountains. The Salt Fork rises in west- 
ern Kansas, while the others rise in the high plains east of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

All of these streams except the Washita have broad, shallow, sandy 
beds and low, sandy banks. The presence of this sand is, for the 
most part, due to the character of the soil. The uplands are largely 
occupied by the Tertiary. This consists of sand, clay, and gravel 
arranged more or less indiscriminately. 

The water washes out the clay, silt, and fine sand, carrying them 
into the streams, while the coarser sand and gravel, freed, from the 
clay and silt, have been formed into sand hills by the action of the 
wind. 



204 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

As has been stated, the greater part of Oklahoma consists of the 
Red Beds or Permian. The Carboniferous, or perhaps more accu- 
rately what is now known as the Pennsylvanian, is represented in the 
eastern portion, while the Tertiary lies unconformably over the Red 
Beds throughout the greater portion of the Territory. This forma- 
tion, where of sufficient thickness, furnishes an excellent water sup- 
ply, and the "Tertiary springs" are of great importance. 

In western Oklahoma there is an unimportant formation known as 
the Comanche Cretaceous or shell-rock. This lies probably between 
the Red Beds below and the Tertiary above. While it is of consid- 
erable geologic interest, it yields no products of commercial 
importance. 

In the southwestern part of the Territory is a group of much older 
rocks, known as the Wichita Mountains. These consist of three 
kinds of igneous rocks — granite, gabbro, and porphyry; and three 
classes of sedimentary rocks — the Arbuckle limestone, the Reagan 
sandstone, and the Viola limestone. 

The Wichita Mountains are similar in formation to and perhaps 
of the same geologic age as the Ouachita group in Arkansas and the 
Choctaw Nation and the Arbuckle Mountains in the Chickasaw 
Nation. In each group the central part of the mountains consists 
of the igneous rocks covered or flanked by the sedimentary rocks. 
These groups are the results of upheavals. In other words, they 
have been pushed up through the Red Beds. Since their formation, 
however, the sedimentary rocks have been, especially in the Wichitas, 
for the most part eroded or carried away and only the older or igneous 
rocks remain, so that the peaks consist largely of granite, por- 
phyry, etc. 

This group is of interest, especially because of its reputed mineral 
wealth. Long before this region was thrown open for settlement 
prospectors searched the mountains for "hidden mines" and "rich 
leads," which, according to tradition, existed in the mountains. As 
was to be expected, when the barriers were removed by the Gov- 
ernment the region was soon swarming with prospectors and staked 
off into mining claims. 

Although results have been rather discouraging and no mines are yet 
in continuous operation, the zeal that has overcome seemingly unsur- 
mountable difficulties in other regions exists here and work is con- 
tinuing with an ardor that is surprising. 

The region may be divided into the following districts: Meers, 
Cache, Oreana, Cooperton, Roosevelt, Wildman, Mountain Park, 
and Snyder. Mr. Woodruff, of the Territorial University, was 
appointed by the Territorial geologist to investigate carefully the 
mining industry in the Wichitas and his summary written November, 
1904, is quoted: 

The mining industry in the Wichita Mountains is still in the prospecting stage. A con- 
servative estimate places the number of claims located at about 2,500. On many of these 
claims no work whatever has been done. It is probable that 500 openings are from 
10 to 15 feet deep. The number of shafts ranging between 20 and 25 feet does not exceed 
100. Possibly 50 are more than 30 feet deep. A few have gone beyond 100 feet and 
in one case the shaft was more than 200 feet deep. 

Two cars of ore have been shipped, one from Wildman district and one from the Oreana 
district. In addition to these shipments, a number of sample shipments have been made. 
At this time no ore is leaving the region. In one district a small smelter is being con- 
structed to separate the bullion from the gangue. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 205 

The difficulty which has existed between the cattlemen and the homesteaders on one side 
and the miners on the other seems to be amicably adjusting itself. The attitude of the 
Federal Government on the timber reserve seems to be indulgent. 

A word should be said concerning the damage which unscrupulous assayers have inflicted 
upon the region. With premeditated purpose they have, in many cases, issued false cer- 
tificates, thus buoying up hope where it already existed and creating undue excitement. 
In many cases the unsuspecting miner has been led to continue his search for the metals 
in the most impossible places. No one thing has contributed more harm to this industry 
than have these unprincipled assayers. 

Development is now in a quiescent state. At the time this investi- 
gation was made five prospects were actually being sunk — two in 
the Meers district, two in the Cache district, and one in the Oreana 
district. 

In cases where it is proposed to hold the claims, the assessment 
work for the current year hgfe been completed. There is a promise 
of a large amount of assessment work in each of the districts for the 
following year. Available funds seem to have been almost exhausted, 
so that deep prospecting, except in a few cases, is impossible. Many 
of the individual miners are now engaged in other occupations to 
provide sustenance for further prospecting. These are said to be 
hunting a "grub stake." A few companies have sufficient funds 
for development. 

Prospecting is less active than it was a few years ago. The con- 
fidence of those who are still f ollowing the pursuit in hope of ultimate 
success does not seem to lessen. 

The Red Beds or Permian is by far the most important formation 
in the Territory, as it is the origin of most of the soil and supplies 
the salt, gypsum, and most of the clays and building stone, all of 
much economic importance. 

Ihe two products of the Red Beds that are of the most economic 
importance, and the ones that are claiming the attention of investors, 
are salt and gypsum. 

SALT. 

Salt water occurs in deep wells in many parts of the Territory, 
but the salt of present economic interest comes from springs. The 
water from these springs, spreading out over the surface and evapo- 
rating, has formed what are known as salt plains. There are seven 
of these of importance. In Woods, Blaine, and Roger Mills counties 
there is one each. In Woodward and Greer counties there are two 
each. 

In the early history of the Territory these regions all furnished a 
local supply, but the lack of fuel and means of transportation made 
the manufacture of salt on a large scale unprofitable. 

The amount of brine furnished by the springs of these several 
regions has never been accurately determined. The flow seems to 
be quite constant, even in times of drought and shallow wells furnish 
an abundant supply at all times. 

A conservative estimate would place the flow at about 1,000,000 
gallons per day. This, taking the average strength of the brine, 
would yield about 400,000 gallons of salt. With proper development 
these regions would yield sufficient salt to supply the whole Southwest. 
This is abundantly proved by recent developments in Blaine County. 

For years crude works have been in operation in this county, but 
lack of transportation and scarcity of fuel made operations on a 
large scale impossible. When the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 



206 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Railway built through this region, furnishing means of transportation 
for the salt and coal for fuel, companies were formed for the develop- 
ment of the region. The Oklahoma Salt Company installed a plant, 
modern in every particular, with elevators and distributing machin- 
ery, a boiler capacity of 600 horsepower, and capable of an output 
of 450 barrels per day. 

When shipping facilities are provided, what has been done here 
can be done in other localities, and the salt industry will become one 
of the most important ones in the Territory. 

GYPSUM. 

One of the most extensive gypsum deposits in the world extends 
from northern Kansas to central Texas. Oklahoma occupies a cen- 
tral position in this region, and its supply of gypsum is practically 
inexhaustible. 

Gypsum, in one form or another, enters so largely into the compo- 
sition of many manufactured articles that it must now be regarded 
as one of the essential structural materials of the industrial world. 

It furnishes the material for the manufacture of stucco, plaster of 
Paris, plaster board, hard-wall plasters, staff, wall finishes, etc., 
while large quantities are consumed in the manufacture of plate 
glass, Portland cement, terra cotta, pottery, paper, and fireproofing. 

At first it was used principally as land plaster. About seventeen 
years ago its value in the manufacture of wall plaster was recognized, 
but it is only during the past seven years that its use has increased 
rapidly. In 1890 there were 182,995 tons sold; in 1898 this had 
increased to only 291,058 tons, while in 1903, 1,000,000 tons were 
sold. I have not the exact figures at hand, but the increase since 
that time has been enormous, and it is largely supplanting all other 
forms of wall plaster. 

It is difficult to estimate the exact amount of gypsum in Oklahoma, 
and when estimated the figures are so large that the mind fails to 
grasp their meaning. 

The main gypsum deposits occur in four regions: (1) The Kay 
County region; (2) the main line of gypsum hills extending from 
Canadian County northwest through Kingfisher, Blaine, Woods, and 
Woodward counties to the Kansas line; (3) the second gypsum hills 
parallel with the main gypsum hills and from 50 to 70 miles farther 
southwest, which extends from the Keechi Hills in southern Caddo 
County northward through Washita, Custer, Dewey, and Day counties ; 
(4) the Greer County region, occupying the greater part of western 
Greer County and the extreme southeastern part of Roger Mills 
County. 

Prof. Charles N. Gould, of the University of Oklahoma, who has 
made a very complete report on the gypsum deposits of Oklahoma, 
in the second biennial report of the Oklahoma Geological and Natural 
History Survey, says : 

After casting about for some means of estimating the actual amount of available mate- 
rial, the following method was adopted: A ledge of gypsum a foot thick and a mile square 
was taken as a basis. Counting the specific gravity of gypsum at 2.3, it was estimated 
that a ledge of this size would weigh 2,024,184 tons, but in making the computation the 
24,184 tons were thrown in each time for good measure, and the even number, 2,000,000 
tons, was used. 

With this amount as a basis, it was simply a matter of estimating the thickness of the 
ledges and the number of square miles occupied by them. Only ledges known to occur 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



207 



within 100 feet of the surface were considered, although there are whole counties which 
are known to be underlaid with gypsum varying in depth from 100 to 1,000 feet. 

Following this method of calculation, the approximate of gypsum in Oklahoma, classi- 
fied by counties, is as follows: 



Blaine County 2, 500, 000, 000 

Caddo County 3, 000, 000, 000 

Canadian County 50, 000, 000 

Comanche County 200, 000, 000 

Custer County 6, 000, 000, 000 

Day County 500, 000, 000 

Dewey County. 1 , 000, 000, 000 

Greer County 53, 000, 000, 000 



Kingfisher County 50, 000, 000 

Roger Mills County 1 , 000, 000, 000 

Washita County 24, 000, 000, 000 

Woods County 14, 000, 000, 000 

Woodward County 24, 000, 000, 000 

Total 125,000,000,000 



Now, when we say that there are a billion tons of gypsum in Oklahoma, it does not convey 
much intelligence.. The mind does not readily grasp such large numbers. Perhaps if I 
should illustrate it, it would be made easier. 

A gypsum mill, such as is found in Oklahoma, can manufacture 100 tons of gypsum into 
plaster in twenty-four hours. There are five such mills in the Territory. Multiply that 
number by 20 (that is, put 100 mills at work), let them work day and night, Sunday and 
week day, three hundred and sixty-five days in the year. The mills would make 10,000 
tons of plaster a day, and in a year would make 3,650,000 tons; or, in other words, a ledge 
a mile square and less than 2 feet thick would be used up. Now, some ledges are 200 miles 
long and 40 feet thick, while other ledges 115 feet thick are reported. Divide 3,650,000, 
the number of tons manufactured in a year, into 125,000,000,000, the total number of 
available tons in the Territory, and you will find that the mills would have to work some- 
thing like 40,300 years in order to dispose of the gypsum. 

BUILDING STONE AND ROAD MATERIAL. 

The variety and quality of Oklahoma building stone as illustrated 
by the World's Fair collection, now on exhibition at the University 
of Oklahoma, is a revelation, even to those quite familiar with Okla- 
homa's resources. 

The principal varieties are granite, gabbrg, porphyry, limestone, 
sandstone, and dolomite. The first three are found in the Wichita 
Mountains, granite being the most abundant. The great value of 
this stone to the Territory is not yet appreciated. So far it is usually 
spoken of as a valuable building stone, but I believe its value for road 
construction, ballast for railroads, bridge material, etc., will far out- 
weigh its value as a building stone. There is material enough when 
once accessible to make every road in Oklahoma a "good road." 

Limestone of good quality is found in the region of the Wichita 
Mountains ; also in Kay County and the Osage Nation. 

No extensive limestone quarries that I know of have been opened 
in the Wichita region, except the Government quarry on the Fort 
Sill Reservation. 

In the northeastern region extensive quarries are operated near 
Newkirk, Chilocco, Ponca, Pawnee, Ralston, and other places. 
Stone is being shipped extensively from many of these places, and as 
the country grows older and the need for stone increases the quarry- 
ing industry will become more and more important. 

The most abundant stone in the Territory is sandstone. It occurs 
everywhere, and every county furnishes enough of fair quality to sup- 
ply local demands. The best stone occurs in the eastern part of the 
Territory, and extensive quarries are operated near Raltson, Paw- 
huska, Pawnee, Skedee, Stillwater, Chandler, Shawnee, Oklahoma 
City, and Tecumseh. 

While this brief sketch gives no adequate notion of the value and 
extent of Oklahoma's building material, it proves that she is exceed- 
ingly well supplied. 



208 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

COAL, OIL, AND GAS. 

Coal, oil, and gas, being products so closely associated with the 
industrial development of any locality, it is not strange that many 
deep borings have been made and much money spent in the attempt 
to discover one or all of these. The only outcrop of strata bearing 
these carboniferous products occurs in the extreme eastern portion. 
The question to be solved is the thickness of the overlying strata at 
any point. Coal, oil, and gas have been discovered in many localities, 
but in no case in paying quantities much west of the Indian Territory 
line. What future borings may reveal is only a matter of conjec- 
ture, but it is safe to say that these products do not occur, unless at 
great depths, except in the extreme eastern portion. No attempt 
will be made here to describe the oil regions of eastern Oklahoma and 
Indian Territory. That they are of great extent and among the 
most important in the country is well known. 

TIMBER AND GRASSES. 

Oklahoma is, for the most part, a prairie country. While "native 
lumber" is produced locally in eastern Oklahoma, there are no lumber 
areas of sufficient importance to make the lumber industry of more 
than local importance. 

Most of the streams are skirted by the usual western varieties — elm, 
ash, hackberry, willow, cottonwood, and several varieties of oak and 
hickory. Cedar occurs in various localities and in the canyons of the 
"Gyp" country was quite abundant. Most of it was "cutoff" by 
the early settlers for posts and firewood, so that but few cedar 
canyons remain. 

The so-called blackjack covers a large part of the southeastern 
portion and forms large tracts in other parts of the Territory. This 
forms an excellent fuel, and the land when cleared is fertile, this 
being one of the best cotton belts in Oklahoma. 

For years before the "opening" Oklahoma was the paradise of 
the cattlemen. The great variety of native grasses, there being 
more than 100 now on record, insured good pasturage the year round. 
The vast area of prairie lands, with, however, sufficient water for the 
herds, together with the mild winters, gave this countay its well- 
deserved reputation as a stock country. 

From its geological position, Oklahoma, as at present outlined, 
must always remain as it is now, primarily an agricultural country. 
When, however, Oklahoma is made to include Indian Territory as 
well, the name is applied to a Commonwealth that for variety of 
natural resources is almost unparalleled. 

TERRITORIAL SURVEY COMMISSION. 

[Milton Bryan.] 

One of the important acts of the last legislative assembly of the 
Territory was that creating a Territorial survey commission, of 
which the governor, the attorney-general, and the secretary of the 
board of agriculture constitute the members. It is made the duty of 
the commission to secure the services of the United States Geological 
Survey for the purpose of making topographical survey of such por- 
tions of the Territory as may be deemed necessary, and to this end 
the commission is authorized to enter into an agreement with the 
Director of the United States Geological Survey whereby one half of 
the expense of making such topographical survey shall be borne by 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 209 

the Territory 'and the other half by the Federal Government. It is 
provided that the work of the commission shall be directed first to 
those areas or quadrangles across or through which How rivers or other 
streams having large drainage areas, the Hood plains of which are 
subject to frequent or destructive inundation. A continuing appro- 
priation is made for the Territory's share of the expense of such 
topographical survey to the amount of $5,000 per annum, which 
shall be paid on the order of the commission out 01 any money in the 
Territorial treasury not otherwise appropriated. 

In the eastern part of the Territory are rivers having large drainage 
areas, considerable portions of which are subject to destructive inun- 
dation, and whose basins contain much of the most fertile soil in 
Oklahoma. Conspicuous among these rivers are the Deep Fork of 
the Canadian and Little River, whose flood plains lie chiefly in Lincoln 
and Pottawatomie counties. Much of the land lying in these river 
bottoms, while possessing wonderful fertility, is almost valueless by 
reason of the frequent and destructive overflows of these streams. 
It is believed that a comprehensive system of drainage will preserve 
and protect these lands from inundation and thus render valuable 
large areas of land remarkable for their fertility. 

The chief purpose of the act, therefore, is to secure a comprehensive 
and systematic survey of these river basins, to the end that a complete 
and effective system of drainage and reclamation may be inaugurated 
later — a complete survey of the entire flood plains of the stream 
being considered necessary before a comprehensive system of drain- 
age can safely be attempted. It is expected that Little River in 
Pottawatomie County and the Deep Fork of the Canadian in Lincoln 
County will receive the first attention of the topographer, or surveyor, 
these streams being subject to more frequent and destructive over- 
flows and having larger and more fertile flood plains than any other 
streams in the Territory. It is expected that when these topograph- 
ical surveys have been completed through the instrumentality of this 
commission, further provisions will be made by legislative enactment 
for the drainage and preservation from overflow of the lands embraced 
within the flood plains of these and other rivers, and that the final 
result will be far-reaching and that inestimable benefit will be derived 
therefrom. 

THE MILLING INDUSTRY. 

[C V. Topping.] 

It may be truthfully said that the milling industry of Oklahoma 
is first in importance in the Territory. Because of conscientious and 
well-directed effort, installation of the latest and most perfected 
machinery, together with the best wheat, the flour produced in 
Oklahoma was awarded the highest prize at the World's Fair in St. 
Louis in 1904. Okahoma flour is sold in the markets of nearly 
every State in the Union and is in demand in all the foreign markets, 
where its reputation is well established. 

At this time there are 76 mills in operation in Oklahoma, with a 
total capacity of 15,000 barrels a day of the finished product. Capital 
represented in this property amounts to over $3,000,000. In addition 
to this, 120 country elevators are operated, averaging in cost $3,500 
each. 

To say that the milling industry in Oklahoma has kept pace with 
the development of other interests in the Territory would be extremely 



210 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



conservative. When it is taken into consideration that seventeen 
years ago not a grain of wheat, good or bad, was raised in this country, 
and now the flour manufactured by the most modern methods and 
machinery in vogue commands the world's highest award, to say 
that the advancement has been phenomenal could hardly be disputed. 

In this day and age, in the evolution of trade and the preparation 
required to meet competition, concentrated and concerted effort is 
necessary. Every great industry in the world is represented by an 
organization of men engaged in that particular business. The 
Millers' Association of Oklahoma, organized only six years ago, has 
been instrumental to a considerable degree in aiding its members to 
the success to which the milling industry has attained. In the mat- 
ter of freight rates, the influence of the association, judiciously and 
reasonably but firmly directed, has resulted in a reduction of more 
than 50 per cent during the brief existence of the association. Its 
purposes are mutual; its benefits are shared equally by its members. 
Its aim is to aid wheat growers in Oklahoma to accomplish the high- 
est result in the raising of a superior grade of wheat and the millers 
in producing an article of flour than which none better can be found 
in the world. 

The following is a list of the mills in Oklahoma, with location: 



Name. 


Location. 


Name. 


Location. 


Ada Milling Co 


Ada, Ind. T. 


Kaw City Mill and Ele- 
vator Co. 


Kaw City, Okla. 


Apache Milling Co 

Alva Roller Mills 


Apache, Okla. 


Alva. Okla. 


Kingfisher Mill and Ele- 


Kingfisher, Okla. 


Leger Mill Co 


Altus, Okla. 


vator Co. 




Anadarko Milling Co 


Anadarko, Okla. 


Oklahoma Mill Co 


Do. 


Whaley Mill and Eleva- 
tor Co. 


Ardmore, Ind. T. 


Kremlin Mill Co 


Kremlin, Okla. 


Lokebo Milling Co 


Lokebo, Okla. 


Blackwell Mill and Ele- 


Blackwell, Okla. 


Lawton Mill and Eleva- 


Lawton, Okla. 


vator Co. 




tor Co. 




Bridgeport Milling Co 


Bridgeport, Okla. 


Minco Roller Mills 


Minco, Ind. T. 


Carmen Roller Mills 


Carmen, Okla. 


Meno Roller Mills 


Meno, Okla. 


Cestos Milling Co 


Cestos, Okla. 


Mangum Mill and Eleva- 


Mangum, Okla. 


Custer City Mill and Ele- 


Custer City, Okla. 


tor Co. 




vator Co. 




Manchester Milling Co. . . 


Manchester, Okla. 


Chickasha Milling Co 


Chickasha, Ind. T. 


Marshal] Milling Co 


Marshall, Okla. 


Cherokee Milling Co 


Cherokee, Okla. 


Medford Mill and Eleva- 


Medford, Okla. 


Cordell Gin and Mill Co. . . 


Cordell, Okla. 


tor Co. 




Dover Milling Co 


Dover, Okla. 


Norman Mill and Grain 


Norman. Okla. 


Durant Milling Co 


Durant, Ind. T. 


Co. 




Drummond Mill and Ele- 


Drummond, Okla. 


North Enid Milling Co. . . 


North Enid, Okla. 


vator Co. 




Newkirk Roller Mills 


Newkirk, Okla. 


Duncan Milling Co 


Duncan, Ind. T. 


Okarche Milling Co 


Okarche, Okla. 


Eagle Mills 


Edmond, Okla. 
El Reno, Okla. 


Okeene Roller Mills 

Oklahoma City Mill and 


Okeene, Okla. 


Canadian County Mill 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 


and Elevator Co. 




Elevator Co. 




El Reno Mill and Eleva- 


Do. 


Acme Milling Co 


Do. 


tor Co. 




Plansifter Milling Co 


Do. 


Enid Mill and Elevator 


Enid, Okla. 


Pauls Valley Milling Co. . 


Pauls Valley, Ind. T. 


Co. 




Pawnee Milling Co 


Pawnee, Okla. 


Garfield County Mill and 
Elevator Co. 


Do. 


Perry Mill Co 


Perry, Okla. 
Ponca City, Okla. 




Ponca City Mill and Ele- 


Fairview Milling Co 


Fairview, Okla. 


vator Co. 




Foss Mill and ElevatorCo. 


Foss, Okla. 


Pond Creek Mill and Ele- 


Pond Creek, Okla. 


Garber Milling Co 


Garber, Okla. 


vator Co. 




Geary Mill and Elevator 

Co. 
Harrison Mill and Eleva- 


Geary, Okla. 


Purcell Mill and Elevator 

Co. 
Stillwater Milling Co 


Purcell, Ind. T. 


Gotebo, Okla. 


Stillwater, Okla. 


tor Co. 




Thomas Milling Co 


Thomas, Okla. 


Guth rie Milling Co 


Guthrie, Okla. 


Tonka wa Milling Co 


Tonkawa, Okla. 


Model Roller Mills 


Do. 


Shawnee Milling Co 


Shawnee, Okla. 


Helena Milling Co 


Helena, Okla. 


Rea Reed Milling Co 


Tulsa, Ind. T. 


Star Mill and Elevator 


Hennessey, Okla. 


Sayre Milling Co 


Sayre, Okla. 


Co. 


Waukomis Mill and Ele- 


Waukomis, Okla. 


Hennessey Roller Mills.. 


Do. 


vator Co. 




Hitchcock Roller Mills... 


Hitchcock, Okla. 


Weatherford Mill and El- 


Weatherford, Okla. 


Hobart Mill and Eleva- 


Hobart, Okla. 


evator Co. 




tor Co. 




Walters Mill and Eleva- 


Walters, Okla. 


Ingersoll Roller Mills 


Ingersoll, Okla. 


tor Co. 




Independence Mills 


Independence, Okla. 


Watonga Milling Co. » . . . 
Yukon Mill and Grain Go. 


Watonga, Okla. 


Jefferson Mill Co 


Jefferson, Okla. 


Yukon, Okla. 







GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 211 

THE OKLAHOMA GRANITE INDUSTRY. 

J. W. Ryder, writing last year concerning the granite industry in 
Oklahoma, says: 

Oklahoma possesses untold riches, which are yet only partially developed, in her immense 
fields of red granite. The Wichita Mountains, which extend in a northwesterly and south- 
easterly course across the southern part of the Territory, contain immense areas of the 
finest red granite in the known world. At the extreme northwestern end of the range, at 
Granite, in Greer County, is the only place where extensive developments have so far been 
conducted. The town of Granite takes its name from the character of rock in Headquar- 
ter Mountain, at the base of which the town is situated. This mountain is, at its extreme 
height, 920 feet above the level of the town and is 6 miles long and 2 miles wide, and nearly 
every cubic foot of it is a splendid class of red granite, making what is pronounced by 
experts and practical granite men from all parts of the globe the largest body of the finest 
granite in the world. Nearly four years ago the first experiments to determine the value 
of this stone for monumental and building purposes were conducted at this point, and 
to-day fully $150,000 is invested in quarrying and polishing plants, trackage, etc. The 
industry is still in its infancy, but in spite of the serious handicap of exorbitant freight 
rates is rapidly taking its place as one of the most important industries in Oklahoma. All 
prominent buildings in the town are constructed of it, and some splendid specimens of 
curbing, paving, columns, polished and hammered work are to be seen. 

Analysis of this rock, which is of a deep red color, shows it to contain only 1.97 per cent 
iron, as against 5 to 7 per cent, which is commonly shown by the finest grades heretofore 
known. This small percentage of iron renders the granite practically free from oxidiza- 
tion and decomposition. 

Seven companies are represented on the ground to-day. The Abilene Granite Company, 
a Kansas and Oklahoma concern, has already invested $30,000, and is the oldest concern 
in active operation in the field to-day. 

Its plant is fully equipped with an 80-horsepower boiler, 60-horse power engine, four 
polishing machines, column cutter, column polisher, overhead trams, air tools, etc., and is 
the most complete, and, in fact, the only one of its kind, in the West. 

The newer companies in the field and their respective investments are as follows: Okla- 
homa Granite Company, $20,000 in quarries, air tools, loading derricks, etc. Apache 
Granite Company, quarries, derricks, etc. This company is now installing a $5,000 pol- 
ishing and finishing plant. New State Granite Company, a Fitchburg, Mass., concern, has 
invested $5,000, and is now installing a $12,000 quarrying plant. Red Mountain Granite 
Company, made up of Charleston, W. Va., capitalists, with actual working capital of 
$50,000, owns $10,000 worth of quarries and quarry lands here and will install a complete 
plant at an early date. Mount Airy Granite Company, an Indiana concern, has an invest- 
ment of $20,000, and is now installing one of the most complete plants in the West. Kansas 
City Monumental Company has property here valued at $10,000 and is expected to begin 
operations at an early date. Balcom & Crawford, of Atchinson, Kans., have an invest- 
ment of $3,000 in quarry lands, etc. 

It can be readily seen that here is the groundwork for an industry which has not and 
can not have a competitor between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, and, 
considering the fact that it is located in the center of the immense and rapidly developing 
Southwest, it is only a question of a few years when this splendid native building material 
will enter largely into the construction of not only the public buildings of the new State, 
as well as furnish curbing and paving for the streets of the southwestern cities, but will 
furnish imperishable monuments of enduring granite to mark the last resting place of the 
hardy pioneer and the prominent men whose adventurous disposition and sturdy manhood 
shall build the grandest and newest State of them all — Oklahoma. 

FORESTRY. 

J. B. Thoburn, writing last year concerning the forestry of Okla- 
homa, says: 

Oklahoma is rich in its variety of indigenous arborescent flora, which includes about 40 
species. Originally the timber growth was confined principally to the valleys of the streams, 
except very rough lands in the western part of the Territory and large areas of upland in 
central and eastern Oklahoma having a sandy surface soil which was more or less covered 
by timber growth, consisting mostly of oak. 

While neither the quantity nor the quality of the timber was such as to attract the 
lumbering interests, the timber resources were of the very greatest value in the settlement 
and development of the country, furnishing, as they did, fuel, fencing, building material, 



212 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

and in some instances bridge timber and railroad ties. In the prairie States to the north of 
Oklahoma hedge fences of Osage orange, or bois d'arc, were quite generally grown, but 
when this Territory was settled the abundance of good post timber led to the general 
adoption of the wire fence. In one sense this was not a matter of good fortune, since the 
hedge fence has an added value as a wind-break. 

The only timber that has been shipped from Oklahoma in appreciable quantities is black 
wilnut. The walnut-log industry has been very active since the first settlement of the 
country, and now, since the trees of merchantable size and quality are becoming scarce, 
even the stumps are being dug up for shipment. A few shipments of red cedar have been 
made, being consigned to Germany, where the wood is used in the manufacture of lead 
pencils. 

Several species of exotic trees have been introduced since the settlement of the country, 
including the catalpa, the black locust, the Russian mulberry, and others of less value and 
importance. There are doubtless many other species of timber trees that can be profitably 
introduced in Oklahoma, including some of the conifers, of which as yet only a few have been 
planted in an ornamental way. 

Artificial timber culture has not received the attention which it deserves in Oklahoma. 
The que stion of the economic production of a forest crop that will serve to meet the needs of 
the local population is one that may well challenge the thoughtful consideration of every 
progressive community. With the nearer approach of the day when the surplus of Amer- 
ica's primeval forest, which once seemed inexhaustible, has been appropriated the above 
question comes home to every landowner, whether he resides within the area which was 
originally covered by forest or if he dwells out on the wind-swept prairies where trees never 
grew. 

In addition to the necessity of producing timber for use in the arts and operations of 
civilized life, the forest growth has other and not less intimate relations of which the State 
as well as the individual should not lose sight. For instance, the timber grown as a shelter 
belt serves to break the force of the storms, lessen the evaporating effect of hot winds, and 
to protect beasts and birds in a beneficial way; and all the while it is growing into posts, 
poles, and firewood, which will be useful on the farm. Again, on steep sloping lands where 
the soil is apt to wash during torrential rains it is often best to keep the land covered 
with timber in order to bind the soil and prevent it from washing. The forest thus bears 
an intimate relation to the problems of drainage, flood prevention, water supply, and 
irrigation, in all of which in one phase or another the people of Oklahoma are interested. 

WICHITA FOREST RESERVE. 

Fred Barde last year wrote concerning this reserve as follows: 

A historic and picturesque portion of southwestern Oklahoma, comprising a total of 
57,120 acres, and known now as the Wichita Forest Reserve, was set aside by proclamation 
by President William McKinley, July 4, 1901, under the act of Congress entitled "An act to 
repeal timber-culture laws, and for other purposes." Since early days the region had been 
the home of the Kiowa, Comanche, and other Indian tribes. It includes the most notable 
peaks of the Wichita Mountain Range, which attain a maximum altitude of 2,700 feet above 
sea level. The reserve is watered by springs and a number of small streams. 

Three classes of land, in about equal proportion, are found in the reserve, and are prairie, 
mountain, and timber land. The prairie land is devoid of timber, covered with grass, and is 
best adapted to stock raising. The setting aside of the reserve was opposed by cattlemen, 
whose herds year after year had fattened there since long before Oklahoma was opened to 
settlement. The mountain land is covered with rock and gigantic bowlders, supporting no 
timber and little grass. On the timber land is a thin stand of post oak. There is little saw 
timber. The reproduction is good. The growth of timber has been retarded and in many 
places destroyed by terrific fires that have swept from adjoining prairies. 

The reserve is important at present chiefly for the excellent grazing grounds it affords. 
The forester and custodian, a Federal officer, has authority to permit the grazing of a 
certain number of cattle. The Federal Government has not begun active work in forest 
cultuifi in the reserve. 

In addition to its segregation for forestry purposes, President Roosevelt, during the last 
session of Congress, set aside the entire reserve as a national game preserve, in which will be 
propagated the different kinds of game protected by the Federal Government. As pro- 
posed originally, only grouse were to be kept in the preserve, but the Presidential procla- 
mation was general in its scope, and citizens of Oklahoma are hopeful that large game, such 
as buffalo, elk, deer, and antelope will be given a home there. The preserve is to be inclosed 
with a game-proof wire fence, which is now building. The forester of the timber reserve 
serves as custodian of the game preserve.j 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 213 

CLEVELAND OIL FIELD. 

[E. M. Riese.] 

The developments in the Cleveland, Pawnee County, oil field, 
show a marked falling off for the year just ended, as compared with 
the intense activity of the two previous years. 

The mid-continent oil field (embracing the State of Kansas, 
Indian Territory, and Oklahoma) produced three years ago an aver- 
age of 10,000 barrels of oil per day. To-day the same field will 
produce 80,000 barrels per day, S5 per cent of which is being pro- 
duced in the future State of Oklahoma. 

The transportation and tanking facilities have not been able to 
keep pace with this immense production, the result of which has been 
a marked falling off in the price of crude oil and the shutting in of a 
great many wells. 

One pipe line running from Cleveland to the Atlantic seaboard, via 
Kansas City, Mo., and Whiting, Ind., was completed a year ago, 
while a second and larger one is now in the course of construction, 
which will be completed in about two months. This will undoubt- 
edly greatly relieve the situation. 

The oil produced in the Cleveland, Okla., field averages in specific 
gravity from 33° to 41 J°, the latter being the highest gravity oil pro- 
duced (with the exception of a few small wells drilled in the city 
limits of Muskogee) west of the Pennsylvania and West Virginia 
fields. 

There are at present 285 oil wells in the Cleveland field, producing 
7,000 barrels of oil per day, and 12 gas wells, having a daily capacity 
of 75,000,000 cubic feet. 

For a time an experiment was tried to store oil in earthen tanks, 
being an excavation in which to store and hold oil for a better market. 
This was found unsatisfactory, by reason of a large loss by seepage 
and evaporation. This method has been done away with and at 
present there are 1,500,000 barrels of oil stored in steel and wooden 
tanks in this field. 

Considerable undeveloped territory will be operated as soon as the 
market conditions are ripe. The present value of the oil produced 
here is 45 cents per barrel. 

OKLAHOMA LIVE STOCK ASSOCIATION. 

The Oklahoma Live Stock Association represents extensive inter- 
ests throughout Oklahoma. This organization of live-stock growers 
and shippers is the fitting local manifestation of a spirit just now 
increasing in influence throughout the United States. This spirit is 
for system, the raising of standard by improvement of breed, and 
the protection of the producer's fair interests. 

The growth of the Oklahoma Live Stock Association has been 
nothing short of marvelous. Originally organized in Woodward 
County in 1894 in the interest of the large holder — the range cattle- 
men only — with the sole purpose of protection against lobo wolves, 
so numerous and so destructive in those days, later including in its 
function the apprehension of cattle thieves, to-day this vast body, 
with breadth and variety of purpose, widening influence, and effectual 
power, holds the cattle industry in its grasp. 

241b— 07 15 



214 ANNUAL KEPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The association was scarcely out of its infancy when the coming 
of the farmer into western Oklahoma, breaking up the vast cattle 
ranges, witnessed the passing of the " cattle king/' as such, and the 
departure of the original picturesque cow puncher from Oklahoma 
forever. In their stead has come the farmer — the small cattle owner — 
and the consequent democratization of the cattle industry. In 
this fact, the democracy of the cause, lies the hope of the cattle 
industry and the perpetuation of the Oklahoma Live Stock Associa- 
tion. The final safeguard as well as growth of the cattle industry 
in the Southwest depends in this day upon securing the widespread 
intelligent interest and practical cooperation of the small owners of 
live stock everywhere. Once enlist the steady faith and influence 
of the people throughout Oklahoma and Indian Territory, farmer and 
merchant alike, and the independence of the cattle owner will 
be assured. Once accustom the farmer to the value of diversifica- 
tion of production and the presence on his farm of a few well-bred 
hogs and cattle, raised for market and dairy, and the Oklahoma 
Live Stock Association will have attained one of its most valued ends. 

In 1901 at the El Reno convention of the Oklahoma Live Stock 
Association $1,000,000 worth of cattle was represented. In 1906 
at the Oklahoma City convention of the association, whether directly 
or indirectly, there was represented the $90,000,000 worth of live 
stock in the new State to be. The importance of this association 
is thereby made very evident. 

W. E. Bolton, secretary of the Oklahoma Live Stock Association, 
writing last year upon the aims and work of the association, said: 

The Oklahoma Live Stock Association has been organized for twelve years and main- 
tains its organization at this time upon a basis of representing values in cooperation and 
in influencing legislative enactments rather than upon a basis of productive benefits from 
recovery of strays and errors in shipments. 

The branding iron has largely given way to the pedigree book, and a better grade of 
cattle than has ever before been seen in Oklahoma is now being produced. The association 
membership on the active list numbers more than at any time in the past six years. The 
prospects for future benefits was never more flattering than at present, and the association 
is accomplishing a great good by cooperation and the prevention of theft by assisting in 
prosecution of criminals. 

In the protection and promotion of the live-stock industry three 
things are of value: First, positive and constructive measures looking 
to improved quality of stock and increase in number of live-stock 
owners; second, prompt enforcement of all laws looking to the 
defense of the live-stock industry against unjust discrimination in 
freight rates and protection against spread of disease, especially 
among cattle; third, unanimity of feeling among all live-stock 
owners looking to the practical cooperation in all, notably the two 
above, respects. These three things are sought after b}^ the Okla- 
homa Live Stock Association. 

OKLAHOMA FEDERATION OF COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
ORGANIZATIONS. 

[A. W. McKeand.] 

The Oklahoma Federation of Commercial and Industrial Organiza- 
tions was organized in 1903 for the purpose of furthering the interests 
of Oklahoma and Indian Territories in commercial lines, and was com- 
posed of leading business men's leagues, commercial clubs, and 



GOVFENOR OF OKLAHOMA. 215 

chambers of 'jommerce all over the State. The organization has 
grown, and has on the right side of its ledger creditable accomplish- 
ments for the good of the new State. 

The officers of the association conceived the idea of sending a special 
train to Washington during the session of Congress in December, 1905. 
The train was to be loaded with business men, and not politicians, and 
their mission to urge statehood. The train left on schedule time and was 
loaded with 165 of the best and brainiest men of the new State. They 
were well received along the way, and the secretary has in his posses- 
sion 164 columns of front-page stories from the best metropolitan 
papers in the United States concerning this train and its band of 
workers, each of them talking of Oklahoma and its wonderful growth. 
This was space that money could not buy, and undoubtedly the new 
State at large reaped untold benefits from this source. 

The federation's last undertaking is to see that the new State is 
well represented with a splendid line of exhibits at the Jamestown 
Exposition, in 1907. The work is purely voluntary, funds are being 
raised and exhibits gathered, and when the exposition opens Okla- 
homa will not be ashamed of its showing. 

The association lately adopted a credit rating for the benefit of the 
retailers of the new State, compelling the buyer at retail to make the 
same kind of a statement and guaranty as the retailer makes to his 
jobber. 

These, in brief, are some of the functions of this organization. It 
is planning to make itself a power along the right lines when our first 
legislature shall assemble, and will look after the best interests at all 
times of the business men of the new State. 

It is especially interested in a railroad commission for the new State, 
and will lend its strength to see that practical business men, having 
some knowledge of rates and railroad matters, are on the first board. 

JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION. 

[A. W. McKeand.] 

In 1901 the Oklahoma legislature appropriated $20,000 for an 
exhibit at the St. Louis World's Fair. In 1903 an additional appro- 
priation of $40,000 was made. A State building was erected and a 
full line of exhibits was installed, which resulted in the capture of a 
large number of medals, while the " bread cast upon the water" has 
been constantly returning and will for many days to come. Okla- 
homa has been successful in all the expositions at which she has 
placed an exhibit and has never failed to carry away her full share 
of first prizes and gold medals. 

Next year (1907) at Jamestown, Va., will be one of the largest 
expositions ever attempted, and it will be in a part of the country 
where Oklahoma is least understood and where she needs to put the 
best foot foremost. It is not possible to have a legislative appropria- 
tion, owing to the fact that no legislature will convene in time to 
give it to us, but the undaunted southwestern push and energy that 
has made Oklahoma the marvel of the world has taken hold in a 
popular way and will furnish an exhibit. 

The Oklahoma Federation of Commercial and Industrial Organ- 
izations has undertaken to finance and push this exhibit, and it will 
be carried on with the same amount of vim as other projects under- 
taken by this body. They have gathered some excellent grain 



216 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

exhibits and are placing in cold storage a great many bushels of 
extra fine apples, pears, and other fruits, and have completed arrange- 
ments with all the fair associations in the new State for the preserva- 
tion of the best samples of the different classes of grain, and especially 
toward the gathering of a corn exhibit that will open the eyes of 
the world. 

The exhibit will cover not only the agricultural but all other 
resources of the new State in a full and complete way. Few people 
realize the vastness of Oklahoma's resources, but if they will visit 
Oklahoma at the exposition they can see for themselves. Coming 
as this exposition does just at the time of the granting of statehood 
it certainly means that Oklahoma will gain more advertising from 
it than will any other State having space on the grounds, as the new- 
ness of the country and the general advertising already given will 
attract every one toward the spot where shines the newest and the 
brightest — the new-born forty-sixth star. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

Much credit is due the excellent newspapers and periodicals 
scattered all over Oklahoma for the widespread publicity given the 
great resources and advancement of the Territory. Their influence 
in the affairs of this Commonwealth, politically, commercially, and 
in every other way, is very marked. In the cause of popular educa- 
tion the newspapers and periodicals of the Territory play an impor- 
tant part and bear a high degree of excellence, even to the small 
country publications. 

At the present time there are published in the Territory 29 daily, 
293 weekly, 13 monthly, 7 semimonthly, and 4 quarterly publications. 

Newspapers published in Oklahoma. 



County. 


Daily. 


Weekly. 


Semi- 
monthly. 


Monthly. 


Quarterly. 






12 
9 
14 
7 
4 
14 
11 
G 
8 
16 
13 
13 
11 
6 
11 
15 
15 
7 

13 
9 
9 
14 
7 
6 
22 
21 




















2 
3 










1 
3 










1 




3 














Day 




















Garfield 


3 


1 












Greer 






1 


Kay 


2 
1 
2 

1 
2 
2 
4 






Kingfisher 










1 












5 




Noble 




1 




1 


6 










1 
2 




1 
1 


1 








Roger Mills 


















1 






1 




1 














Total 


29 


293 


7 


13 


4 







GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 217 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CREDIT. 

The public and private credit of Oklahoma Territory is of the very 
best. No public bond or security of any kind issued by the Territory 
or any municipality thereof has ever been repudiated or the interest 
defaulted. School and municipal bonds and Territorial warrants all 
sell at a premium and are much sought after by eastern investors. 
People throughout the east have full confidence in Oklahoma as a place 
for investment, and farm loans are being made at 5^ and 6 per cent 
and city loans at 6, 7, and 8 per cent. No other Territory ever was 
able to secure so much cheap money. Oklahoma farm loans espe- 
cially rank high in financial circles, several of the largest loan com- 
panies stating that they have never had a foreclosure and that o t 
of large numbers of loans there is no interest in default. 

Three or four street railway systems, several interurban lines, and 
numerous electric, gas, and water plants have been financed by 
eastern capitalists and all have proven such excellent investments 
that these men and their business associates are anxious for more 
business of the same kind. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The public buildings most urgently needed are a capitol building, 
building for the school for deaf and dumb, penitentiary, reform 
school, and insane asylum. The prohibitory clause annually inserted 
in the appropriation bill by Congress deprives Oklahoma of the right 
to locate or build any public institution. A tax is annually levied 
for the Territorial building fund. 

A Federal building, located at Guthrie, has just been completed. 

INTERNAL REVENUE. 

[J. M. Simpson, collector.^ 

There was collected in Oklahoma Territory during the year ended 
June 30, 1906, $78,984.91, as follows: 

From sale of beer stamps $20, 665. 00 

From sale of tax-paid spirit stamps 14, 642. 32 

From sale of cigar stamps 8, 681. 47 

From sale of tobacco stamps 157. 32 

From sale of documentary stamps 2. 00 

From sale of special tax stamps (licenses) 33, 313. 25 

Penalties collected 1,523.55 

There were issued during the year 1,171 special tax stamps to retail 
liquor and retail malt liquor dealers and 267 licenses to wholesale 
liquor and wholesale malt liquor dealers. 

BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS. 

The legislature of 1905 enacted a law relating to building and loan 
associations, which act provided the method by which such companies 
may be permitted to transact business in this Territory and also made 
certain provisions for the regulation and inspection of such concerns. 
Foreign building and loan associations under the act mentioned must 
procure from the bank examiner of the Territory a certificate of 



218 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

authority to transact business. Before such certificate of authority 
shall be issued each company seeking a certificate of authority to do 
business within the Territory must deposit with the treasurer of the 
Territory annually a good and sufficient bond, in the sum of $10,000, 
conditioned that it will fulfill all of its contracts and obligations 
entered into with the residents of the Territory, this bond requiring 
to be approved by the Territorial treasurer. A copy of the charter, 
constitution, and by-laws of each foreign association shall be filed 
with the bank examiner. There shall be filed semiannually a sworn 
statement showing the amount of the capital stock, the assets and 
liabilities, and the kind and character of the same. 

The bank examiner may at any time investigate the condition of 
any building and loan association doing business in the Territory, 
whether foreign or domestic, and he shall, for the purpose of making 
such examination, have all the right and powers to do and perform 
all things necessary to make such examinations as he is now given 
in examinations for banks in this Territory. A provision is made 
for revoking the charter of any building and loan company in case 
of violation of this act. 

Since the enactment of the law the Aetna Building and Loan 
Association, of Las Vegas, N. Mex.; the Midland Savings and Loan 
Company, of Denver, Colo.; the National Loan and Investment 
Company, Detroit, Mich., and the Standard Savings and Loan Asso- 
ciation, of Detroit, Mich., have complied with this law, the above- 
named companies all being foreign corporations. Since the enact- 
ment of this law no complaint has been heard of the methods of these 
various concerns. 

CITIES OF THE FIRST CLASS. 

Towns in this Territory having a population of 2,500 or over may, 
by complying with the law as enacted by the legislature of 1893, 
become cities of the first' class. This act enables them to have a 
regular municipal form of government, the city being divided into 
wards, and possessing a mayor, and full quota of officers, elected. 

There are twenty-three cities of the first class in Oklahoma. A 
complete list is given below, together with the name of the county in 
which it is located: 



Cities. 


Counties. 


Cities. 


Counties. 




Woods. 

Caddo. 

Kay. 

Lincoln. 

Oklahoma. 

Canadian. 

Garfield. 

Blaine. 

Logan. 

Kiowa. 

Kingfisher. 

Comanche. 




Kay. 
















Osage Nation. 
Noble. 






El Reno 




Kay. 


Enid . 














Payne. 























GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 
POST-OFFICES, CITIES OF THE FIRST CLASS. 



219 



City. 



Alva 

Anadarko . . . 

Blackwell 

Chandler 

Edmond 

Enid 

El Reno 

Geary 

Guthrie 

Hobart 

Kingfisher . . . 

Lawton 

Nevvkirk 

Norman 

Oklahoma... 
Pawhuska... 

Perry 

Ponca 

Pond Creek. . 

Shawnee 

Stillwater... 
Teeumseh... 
Weatherf ord . 

Total . . 



Receipts by quarters. 



Sept. 30, Dec. 31, Mar. 31, June 30, 
1905. 1905. 1900. 1900. 



S2,( 



44 



1,915.13 
1,558.43 
1,145.50 
5,429.57 
3,523.72 

931.82 
7,864.44 
1,936.18 
2,196.16 
2,990.87 
1,453.53 
2,129.27 
-6,722.28 

982. 50 
2,403.95 
2,165.00 
1,127.93 
5,273.59 
2,011.27 
1,022.93 
1,199.45 



$2,838.58 



$2,944.64 



2,269.62 
2,245.25 
1,087.60 
6,054.88 
3,964.08 
1,128.87 
9,355.59 
2,797.27 
2,255.40 
3,597.55 
1,599.48 
2,505.09 
32,129.31 
1,300.20 
3,246.12 
2,618.24 
1,187.18 
6,704.51 
2,562.62 
1,224.98 
1,621.39 



$2,363.70 



2,380.26 
2,715.00 
1,131.55 
0,323.47 
4,467.12 
1,308.91 
8,896.68 
2,824.83 
2,374.63 
3,914.13 
1,765.68 
2,914.58 
32,016.02 
1,408.59 
2,524. S3 
2,516.40' 
1,185.83 
7,596.60 
2,589.50 
1,383.12 
1.4S3.66 



2,011.05 
1,751.83 
1,098.80 
5,818.75 
3,937.67 
918. 12 
9,034.39 
2,444.87 
2,007.57 
3,066.35 
1,482.72 
2,518.41 
31,805.03 
1,105.98 
2,144.50 
2,172.54 
1,050.74 
6,064.65 
2,154.80 
1,013.57 
1,235.49 



Total. 



$10,832.36 

9,182.98 
8,576.06 
8,271.11 
4,463.45 

23,626.67 

15,892.59 
4,287.72 

35,151.10 

10,003.15 
8,833.76 

14,168.90 
6,301.41 

10,067.35 

122,672.04 

4,797.27 

10,319.43 
9,472.18 
4,557.68 

25,039.35 
9,318.25 
4,644.60 
5,539.99 



,662,000.00 



Rural free 
deliveries. 



Num- 
ber. 



123 



Total 
length. 

Miles. 
168J 
104 
147 
176| 
168J 
200 
105 

77* 
2738 

79j 
199 
164 
110 
150 

3003 



187* 
124 
113J 
1521 

150 
121 



3,272/, 



COUNTIES. 

Beaver (estimated population, 35,000) : 

Cost of court-house $2, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 5, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 4, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which buildings are located 1, 000. 00 

Value of other property belonging to the county 500. 00 

Blaine (estimated population, 18,000) : 

Cost of court-house (not yet completed) 45, 000. 00 

Cost of fixtures, have cash fund for same of 5, 000. 00 

Cost of fixtures in old court-house 15, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 3, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which buildings are located 3, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges 40,000.00 

Caddo (estimated population, 31,203): 

Cost of court-house and jail 45, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 13, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 5, 000. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located Donated. 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 25, 000. 00 

Canadian (population of county, as returned by assessors for 1906, 18,899) : 

Cost of court-house 50, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings 15, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 2, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 9, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 200, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 5, 000. 00 

Value of stock, implements, etc., on poor farm 700. 00 

Cleveland (estimated population, 18,000) : 

Cost of court-house and jail 52, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 20,000.00 

Cost of steel ceUs 5,000.00 

Value of ground on which above buildings are located 5, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 100, 000. 00 



220 ANNUAL KEPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Comanche (estimated population, 36,263) : 

Cost of court-house $30, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings 3, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 12, 000. 00 

Value of ground on which said buildings are located • 70, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges, by county and Interior Department 81, 475. 00 

Custer (estimated population, 16,000): 

Value of court-house 3, 500. 00 

Real estate . 3, 000. 00 

Value of county jail and steel cells 6, 940. 00 

Safes and furnishings 2, 450. 00 

Bridges 50,000.00 

Day (estimated population, 12,000) : 

Cost of court-house 2, 500. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 2,500.00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 1, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 100. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 1, 800. 00 

Dewey (population, 11,943): 

Cost of court-house 6, 100. 00 

Cost of furnishings 3, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 1, 800. 00 

Value of grounds 2,000.00 

Cost of bridges 35, 000. 00 

Value of other county property 150. 00 

Garfield (population March 1, 30,462): 

Cost of court-house, old one 16, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house, new one to be 100, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, records, desks, chairs, about . 25, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells, about 2, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 100, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 5, 000. 00 

Grant (estimated population, 17,168): 

Cost of courthouse 8, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 5, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 6,000.00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located , . . . 20, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 50, 000. 00 

Greer (estimated population, 40,084) : 

Cost of court-house (under course of construction) 100, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 15, 000. 00 

Value of grounds on which above building is located 10, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 40, 000. 00 

Kay (population of county, by assessors, 23,377): 

Cost of court-house 8, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, etc 8, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 12, 000. 00 

Value of court-house grounds, etc 2, 400. 00 

Cost of bridges, etc 160, 000. 00 

Kingfisher (population, 18,332) : 

Cost of court-house 29, 990. 36 

Cost of court-house furnishings 9, 525. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 4, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 3, 000. 00 

Cost of steel and wooden bridges 65, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 5, 000. 00 

Kiowa (estimated population, 25,000) : 

Cost of court-house 30,000.00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 7,500.00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 17, 500. 00 

Value of ground on which above buildings are located 100, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges— steel, iron, and wooden 22, 000. 00 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 221 

Lincoln (estimated population, 35,000): 

Cost of court-house $2, 500. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 10, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 4, 000. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 30, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 100, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 5, 000. 00 

Logan (estimated population, 37,83G): 

Cost of court-house 15, 000. 00 

Cost of furnishings 15, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 15, 000. 00 

Value of ground on which above are located 10, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel and wooden 150, 000. 00 

Value of orphans' home farm 10, 000. 00 

Noble (estimated population, 12,000) : 

Cost of court-house 6, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 5, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 5, 000. 00 

Value of ground on which above buildings are located 10, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges— steel 75, 000. 00 

Oklahoma (estimated population, 55,000) : 

Cost of court-house 102, 500. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 10, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 30, 000. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 80, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 60, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 12, 000. 00 

Pawnee (estimated population, 16,266): 

Cost of court-house 14, 400. 00 

Cost of court house furnishings 8, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 6, 000. 00 

Value of grounds 20, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges 50, 000. 00 

Value of farm (not poor farm) 1, 000. 00 

Payne (estimated population, 20,709): 

Cost of court-house 4, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings, such as safes, filing cases, records, desks, 

chairs, etc 8, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 4, 000. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 3, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 40, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 6, 000. 00 

Pottawatomie (estimated population, 44,000): 

Cost of court-house 24, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings 3, 500. 00 

Cost of jail and cells 10, 000. 00 

Value of grounds 2, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges of all kinds 25,000.00 

Cost of poor farm and improvements 10, 000. 00 

Roger Mills (estimated population, 15,964): 

Cost of court-house 2,000.00 

Cost of court-house furnishings * 1, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 7 . . . 1, 000. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 500. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 5, 000. 00 

Washita (estimated population, 20,000) : 

Cost of court-house 2, 500. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings 5, 000. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 1, 500. 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 10, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 15, 000. 00 

Woods (estimated population, 48,000) : 

Cost of court-house 63,000.00 

Cost of court-house furnishings „' 125,000 00 



222 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Woods (estimated population, 48,000) — Continued. 

Cost of jail and steel cells $5, 000 00 

Value of grounds on which above buildings are located 100, 000. 00 

Cost of bridges — steel, iron, and wooden 115, 000. 00 

Value of county poor farm 5, 000. 00 

Value of other property belonging to the county 75, 000. 00 

Woodward (estimated population, 32,000 to 35,000): 

Cost of court-house 41, 000. 00 

Cost of court-house furnishings 8, 965. 00 

Cost of jail and steel cells 3, 672. 00 

Value of grounds 3, 000 00 

Cost of bridges 21 , 285. 00 

REPORTS OF UNITED STATES OFFICERS. 

The reports of local land officers concerning the public lands within 
the Territory will be found in the Annual Report of the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office. 

The reports of Indian agents and superintendents of Indian schools 
within the Territory will be found in the Report of the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs. 

The report of climate and crop conditions of the Oklahoma section 
of the Weather Bureau will be found in the Annual Report of the 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

Information in regard to irrigation in the Territory can also be 
found in the publications of the United States Geological Survey. 

TERRITORIAL ELECTION. 

The last general election in Oklahoma was held on November 8, 
1904. Elected at that time were a Delegate to Congress, 13 members 
of the council, and 26 representatives, as well as the various county 
and township officers. 

The total vote of the Territory for Delegate to Congress in 1904 
was 109,145. Of this number, Bird S. McGuire, Republican, received 
51,454; Frank Matthews, Democrat, 49,868; A. S. Loudermilk, 
Socialist, 4,443; H. E. Straughen, Peoples, 1,836, and Charles Brown, 
Prohibition, 1,544. 

PART III. 

Public schools — Common school apportionment for year 1906 — Territorial institutions of 
learning — The University of Oklahoma — Oklahoma University Preparatory School — 
Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College — Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment 
Station — Central State Normal School — Northwestern Normal School — Southwestern 
Normal School — Colored Agricultural and Normal University — Kingfisher College — 
Oklahoma School fov Deaf and Dumb — The Chilocco Indian Agricultural School and 
Indian Institute — Oklahoma Historical Society — Reform School — Separate schools — 
The penitentiary — Insane — Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane — Fort Supply Military 
Reservation — Churches and fraternal societies — Missions. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

[L. W. Baxter, superintendent.] 

The enumeration of persons between the ages of 6 and 21 in the 
Territory for the year ended June 30, 1905, was: Whites, 202,923; 
colored, 8,693; aggregating 211,616. 

The enrollment in the public schools for the same period was: 
Whites, 152,889; colored, 5,433; aggregate, 158,322. 

The number of organized school districts was 3,093. The number 
of schools taught was 3,190, and the total number of days schools 
were taught was 317,433. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



223 



The daily average attendance for males was 45,437; females, 
44,801; aggregating 90,238. 

There were 3,144 schoolhouses, valued at $2,593,848.03. One 
hundred and twenty-one were erected during the year at a cost of 
$155,236.27. 

Teachers' certificates were issued to the number of 3,372. 

The total number of teachers employed was 3,687, of whom 1,269 
were males and 2,418 females. 

The receipts from all sources for school purposes aggregated 
$1,816,002.22; and there was expended for all purposes $1 ,488,109.88. 

COMMON SCHOOL APPORTIONMENT FOR THE YEAR 1966. 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, there was apportioned 
among the common schools the sum of $338,585.60, as follows: 



Beaver 

Blaine 

Caddo 

Canadian. 
Cleveland. 
Comanche. 

Custer 

Day 

Dewey 

Garfield . . . 

Grant 

Greer 



Kay 

Kingfisher 

Kiowa 

Lincoln 

Logan 

Noble 

Oklahoma 

Pawnee 

Payne 

Pottawatomie . 

Roger Mills 

Washita 

Woods 

Woodward 



County. 



Total 

Apportionment per capita. 

Total amount in treasury. . 
Total amount apportioned . 

Balance in treasury.. 



Scholastic 
popula- 
tion. 



3,748 
5,267 
8,173 
5,9S7 
7,019 

11,292 
5,939 
2,977 
4,963 
9,177 
6,079 

12,898 
8,490 
6,406 
6,231 

11,779 
9,824 
4,225 

13, 468 
5,770 
8,090 

15, 583 
5,593 
7,462 

15,571 
9,605 



211,616 



January 15. 



$5, 434. 60 
7, 637. 15 
11,850.85 
8,681.15 
10, 177. 55 
16,373.40 
8,611.55 
4, 316. 65 
7, 196. 35 
13, 306. 65 
8,814.55 
18,702.10 
12, 310. 50 
9,288.70 
9,034.95 
17,079.55 
14,244.80 
6, 126. 25 
19,528.60 
8,366.50 
11,730.50 
22,595.35 
8. 109. 85 
10,819.90 
22,577.95 
13,927.25 



306,843.20 
• 1.45 



307, 136. 16 
306,843.20 



292." 



July 26. 



$562. 20 

790.05 

1,225.95 

898. 05 

1,052.85 

1,693.80 

890. 85 

446. 55 

744. 45 

1,376.55 

911.85 

1,934.70 

1,273.50 

960.90 

934. 65 

1,766.85 

1, 473. 60 

633. 75 

2,020.20 

865. 50 

1,213.50 

2,337.45 

838. 95 

1, 119. 30 

2, 335. 65 

1, 440. 75 



31,742.40 
.15 



31,767.75 
31,742.40 



25.35 



Total. 



$5,996.80 

8, 427. 20 
13,076.80 

9,579.20 
11,230.40 
18,067.20 

9, 502. 40 

4,763.20 

7,940.80 
14, 683. 20 

9,726.40 
20, 636. 80 
13,584.00 
10,249.60 

9,969.60 
18,846.40 
15,718.40 

6, 760. 00 
21,548.80 

9,232.00 
12,944.00 
24,932.80 

8,948.80 
11,939.20 
24,913.60 
15.368.00 



338,585.60 
1.60 



338, 585. 60 



TERRITORIAL INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING. 



There are seven institutions of higher learning supported by the 
Territory. 

The university is located at Norman, in Cleveland County, while 
the university preparatory school is located at Tonkawa, in Kay 
County. The Agricultural and Mechanical College is located at Still- 
water, in Payne County, and the Colored Agricultural and Normal 
University is located at Langston. 

There are three normal schools, viz, the Central State, at Edmond ; 
the Northwestern, at Alva, and the Southwestern, at Weatherford, 



224 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA. 

[David R. Boyd, president.] 

The State University of Oklahoma is the head of the public school 
system of the Territory. It was founded by the State in order to pro- 
vide the young men and women of the Territory with a school in 
which they might do advanced academic and professional work. It 
begins where the high school leaves off, and its training is founded 
upon that got in the secondary public schools. A sense of this close 
connection between the public schools and the university determines 
in large measure the requirements for admission to the university, its 
spirit, and course of study. 

The control of the university is intrusted to a board of regents, 
consisting of the governor of Oklahoma, ex officio, and of five mem- 
bers appointed by the governor. 

THE SCHOOLS. 

The university is made up of the following schools: The college of 
arts and sciences, the school of medicine, the school of applied science, 
the school of pharmacy, the school of mines, the school of fine arts, 
and the preparatory school. 

The college of arts and sciences embraces an undergraduate course, 
chiefly elective, and a combined course in collegiate and medical 
studies. Both courses lead to the bachelor degree. 

The school of medicine covers the first two years' work of a regular 
four-year course in medicine, and prepares the student to enter the 
third-year class in other medical colleges. 

The school of applied science covers four years' work in mechanical, 
electrical, and civil engineering and leads to the degree of bachelor of 
science in mechanical, electrical, and civil engineering. 

The school of pharmacy covers two years' work and leads to the 
degree of pharmaceutical chemist. 

The school of mines covers four years' work and leads to the degree 
of bachelor of science in mining. 

The school of fine arts embraces (a) a course in music, drawing, and 
public speaking; (6) an advanced course in music, drawing and 
painting, and public speaking; (c) a graduate course in piano, voice, 
and violin. 

The preparatory school offers a four years' course, leading to the 
college of arts and sciences. 

FOUNDATION. 

The university is founded upon the authority of an act of the legis- 
lature of the Territory of Oklahoma, entitled "An act to locate and 
establish the University of Oklahoma. " The act provided that when 
$10,000 and 40 acres of land should be given to the Territory by the 
city of Norman the school should be located at that place. These 
requirements having been met, the university was established at 
Norman in 1892. 

The law then proceeds to state more explicitly the scope and pur- 
poses of the school, as follows: 

(6787) Sec. 9. The object of the University of Oklahoma shall be to provide the means of 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of learning connected with scientific, 
industrial, and professional pursuits, in the instruction and training of persons in the theory 
and art of teaching, and also the fundamental laws of the United States and this Territory 
in what regards the rights and duties of citizens. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 225 

(6788) Sec. 10. The college department of arts shall embrace courses of instruction in 
mathematical, physical, and natural sciences with their application to the industrial arts, 
such as agriculture, mechanics, engineering, mining and metallurgy, manufactures, archi- 
tecture, and commerce, and such branches included in the college of letters as shall be neces- 
sary to proper fitness of pupils in the scientific and practical courses of their chosen pur- 
suits, and in military tactics; and in the normal department the proper instruction and 
learning in the theory and art of teaching in the common schools; and as soon as the income 
of the university will allow, in such order as the wants of the public shall seem to require, 
the said courses in the sciences and their application to the practical arts shall be expanded 
into district colleges of arts, and shall embrace a liberal course of instruction in languages, 
literature and philosophy, together with such courses or parts of courses in the college of 
arts as the regents of the university shall prescribe. 

(6789) Sec. 11. The university shall be open to female as well as to male students, 
under such regulations and restrictions as the board of regents may deem proper, and all 
able-bodied male students of the university in whatever college may receive instruction and 
discipline in military tactics, the requsite arms for which shall be furnished by the Territory. 

INCOME. 

The university is supported out of the general revenues of the 
Territory. The legislature of 1905 set apart the sum of $50,000 a 
year for two years to provide a general maintenance fund for the 
university. In addition to this, section 13 in each township in what 
is known as the Cherokee Outlet, and in the Kiowa, Comanche, and 
Wichita country opened to settlement in 1901, has been reserved for 
university, normal school, and agricultural college purposes. The 
lands so reserved are leased for the benefit of the schools named, and 
bring to the university at present about $9,000 a year. 

SITUATION. 

Norman, the seat of the university, is the county seat of Cleveland 
County. It is an excellent town of 3,500 inhabitants, situated 18 
miles south of Oklahoma City, on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Kailway, in approximately the geographical center of the two Terri- 
tories. The winters are mild and the climate is preeminently health- 
ful. The citizens of Norman are from all parts of the United States 
and are united in their hearty sympathy with educational matters. 

THE GROUNDS. 

The university campus, comprising 60 acres, lies at a slight eleva- 
tion overlooking the valley of the South Canadian, River. The 
grounds have been divided into six quadrangular plots, with drives. 
Four of these quadrangles will be given over to the buildings, one to 
athletics, and one is unassigned at present. 

THE BUILDINGS. 

University Hall. — Built in 1902-3, at a cost of $70,000, contains 
the offices of the president, secretary, registrar and regents, with 
suites of recitation rooms, offices, society halls, etc. It is built of 
buff brick with terra-cotta trimmings and basement of planed lime- 
stone, in the Renaissance style of architecture. Formal entrance 
into this building took place March 15, 1903. 

Science Hall. — The old Science Hall, with all its contents, was 
burned on the night of January 6, 1903. This was the first building 
on the campus and was completed in 1894. Among the contents 
destroyed were university and private scientific collections, an excel- 
lent library of 12,000 volumes, fixtures, furniture, physical and chem- 
ical apparatus. 



226 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The new Science Hall is a gray pressed-brick structure, 63 by 125 
feet, with limestone trimmings. More particular description of it will 
be found under the description of the laboratories of chemistry, 
biology, and geology. Occupation of this building took place in 
September, 1904. 

Carnegie Library. — The library building is a gift from Andrew 
Carnegie, esq. It is built of gray brick, and has two stories and a 
basement. The general reading room and offices are on the first 
floor. On the second floor is a large room for general meetings, 
together with three seminary rooms. In the rear is a large stack 
annex, fitted with sheet-metal stacks. For the present the women's 
gymnasium occupies the basement. The building was opened to use 
in January, 1905. 

Gymnasium. — The university management has recognized physical 
training as an essential part of the work of the university. In the 
summer of 1903 a new gymnasium 55 by 100 feet was built. This 
is divided into six rooms. The main hall, 20 feet high, has 3,200 
square feet of unobstructed floor space. The locker room accommo- 
dates 500 individual lockers. The bathroom adjacent is fitted with 
spray and shower baths and supplied with hot and cold water. The 
director's office and an individual exercising room occupy the east end. 
The building is equipped throughout with all the essentials of a good 
gymnasium. 

The women's gymnasium occupies the entire basement of the new 
Carnegie Library. The main room, 12 feet high, contains 4,000 
square feet of floor space. The east wing, 30 by 40 feet, is used as a 
locker and bathroom. The locker room is provided with 4 dressing 
rooms, each containing 20 lockers. The dressing rooms connect with 
12 individual shower and spray baths, supplied with hot and cold 
water. 

Shops. — The engineering work is carried on in two frame buildings, 
one of which has been erected during the past year. The shops and 
mechanical or testing laboratory are housed in these buildings. 

Anatomical laboratory. — This building, consisting of a large dis-' 
secting room, a class room, and a library, and a store and preparation 
room, lies west of the workshops. It was especially constructed for 
work in human anatomy. 

A smaller building adjacent to the anatomical laboratory is used 
for taxidermy and as a general preparation shop for museum material. 

THE LABORATORIES 

Abundant opportunities are provided for practical instruction in 
the laboratories of the university in chemistry and pharmacy, physics, 
biology, geology, and experimental psychology. 

Chemical and pharmaceutical laboratories. — These laboratories com- 
prise 10 rooms in the basement of Science Hall. 

Biological laboratories. — These laboratories comprise the whole of 
the first floor of Science Hall, exclusive of the lecture hall, a separate 
building for anatomy, and a separate building, consisting of a store- 
room and a large workshop for taxidermy and the preparation of 
class and useful material. 

Geological laboratories. — The geological laboratories comprise 8 
rooms on the upper floor of Science Hall. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 227 

Psychological laboratory. — The laboratory for experimental psychol- 
ogy is in University Hall, and consists of a lecture room, a room for 
general experiments, and a dark room for experiments in the sense of 
vision. The equipment is adequate for a thorough study of the phe- 
nomena of sensation, and during the present year a course in the 
phenomena of movement will be provided for. All of the apparatus 
is of the best type and manufacture, so that while it is used in regular 
courses of instruction it is also suitable for research. 

THE LIBRARY. 

The library, including departmental collections and Government 
publications which come to the university as a Government deposi- 
tory, numbers about 12,000 volumes. Selection of the books has 
been made with much care; the results of building up a library in a 
very short time with definite ideas in mind are evident. The Dewey 
decimal classification is followed. The catalogue is of the classed form, 
with the two divisions— the author and title, and the classified. The 
cataloguing is being done as rapidly as may be, using the Library 
of Congress printed cards supplemented by typewritten cards. The 
following classes have been catalogued so far: Philosophy, religion, 
sociology, philology, art, American literature, American history, 
American biography, French history, and a greater part of all other 
classes. Instruction in the use of the catalogue and of various indexes 
and library aids is given. 

The library receives many of the more important general and 
departmental magazines and most of the newspapers of Oklahoma, 
together with several of the larger dailies from various parts of the 
United States Back files of the magazines, indexed in Poole, are 
being added as rapidly as funds will permit. 

THE GYMANSIUM. 

The work in physical training is carried on in two well-equipped 
gymnasiums— one for men and one for women. The men's gymna- 
sium is a frame building, 100 by 55 feet. It is well ventilated and 
embodies the essential features of a modern gymnasium. The equip- 
ment is of the best material and includes horizontal and parallel bars, 
flying and traveling rings, climbing ropes and pole, giant stride, 
vaulting horse and springboard, suspended ladder, wrestling and 
tumbling mats, pulley weights, single and double sticks, wands, 
clubs, dumb-bells, fencing foils, punching bag, boxing gloves, medi- 
cine ball, and basket balls. The anthropometric room has an excel- 
lent equipment, including machines for determining the health and 
strength of an individual. The locker rooms are supplied with 
lockers accommodating 284 students at one time. The lockers, for 
the most part, are made of sheet steel with open-mesh sides and 
backs, making them hygienic. Bathrooms open directly from the 
locker rooms and are fitted with spray and shower baths supplied 
with hot and cold water. 

The women's gymnasium in the basement of Carnegie Library is 
fitted with various essential machines and with special Swedish appa- 
ratus, such as chest bars, booms, and ladders. The locker and bath- 
rooms are arranged for convenience and privacy. Hot water is 



228 ANNUAL KEPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

supplied to the baths by the central heating plant as well as by an 
auxiliary heating furnace when the central heating system is not in 
operation. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The Bulletin. — The official publication of the university, appearing 
quarterly, in March, June, September, and December. The object 
of the University Bulletin is twofold : To set before the public infor- 
mation about the work of the different departments of the university, 
and to provide a way to publish departmental reports, papers, theses, 
and the like. Two such reports have been already published, as fol- 
lows : A list of the ferns and flowering plants of Oklahoma, by A. H. 
Van Vleet, Ph. D., May, 1901; Invertebrate paleontology of the 
Red Beds, being an advance bulletin of the first biennial report of the 
geological survey of Oklahoma, by J. W. Beede, Ph. D., 1902. 

The News-Letter. — The News-Letter is a semimonthly publication 
established by the board of regents and intended to give official 
information concerning the work of the university. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION WORK. 

Under the head of university extension work there is offered to the 
Oklahoma public a number of lectures and addresses on subjects of 
popular interest by members of the university faculty. These 
addresses have been prepared for delivery before commercial clubs, 
county normal institutes, high schools, teachers' associations, 
women's clubs, reading circles, literary clubs, farmers' associations, or 
popular audiences. 

MORAL AND RELIGIOUS TRAINING. 

Religious exercises, consisting of scripture readings, singing, and 
prayer, are held every school day in the university chapel. Although 
attendance is voluntary, the meetings are very largely attended by 
the student body, and the purpose of cultivating the moral, religious, 
and social spirit of the university is heartily recognized. 



Tuition is free in all departments of the university except in the 
school of fine arts. 

THE UNIVERSITY DEGREE A DD7LOMA TO TEACH. 

Under certain restrictions a degree granted by the university gives 
the holder the right to teach in the public schools of the Territory. 
The law covering this point is as follows : 

(6789) Sec. 11. * * * After any person has graduated at the university and after 
such graduation, has successfully taught a public school in this Territory for sixteen school 
months, the superintendent of public instruction shall have authority to countersign the 
diploma of said teacher, after such examination as to moral character, learning, and ability 
to teach as to said superintendent may seem proper and reasonable. Any person holding a 
diploma granted by the board of regents of the Territorial university of Oklahoma shall, after 
his diploma has baen countersigned by the Territorial superintendent of public instruction as 
aforesaid, be deemed qualified to teach any of the public schools of the Territory, and such 
diploma shall be a certificate of such qualification until annulled by the superintendent of 
public instruction. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 229 

ENROLLMENT. 

The following is a summary of the enrollment for 1905-6, as shown 
by the catalogue for 1906-7: 

College of art and sciences: 

Graduate students 5 

Seniors 20 

Juniors 24 

Sophomores 33 

Freshmen 57 

Special students 13 

Total 152 

School of pharmacy : 

Second year 12 

First year 27 

Special students 4 

Total 43 

School of medicine: 

Second year 4 

First year 9 

Special students 3 

Total 16 

School of mines 8 

School of applied science : 

Second year 6 

First year 20 

Total 26 

School of fine arts: 

Graduate student 1 

Seniors 3 

Juniors . 6 

Sophomores 8 

Freshmen 6 

Preparatory and special students 109 

Total 133 

Preparatory school : 

Fourth year 19 

Third year 43 

Second year 65 

First year 82 

Special students 20 

Total 229 

Commercial course 32 

Grand total 648 

Counted twice 48 

Total enrolled to March 1, 1906 600 

241b— 07 16 



230 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

OKLAHOMA UNIVERSITY PREPARATORY SCHOOL. 

[J. H. Kelley, president.] 

The Oklahoma University Preparatory School is situated at 
Tonkawa, a rapidly growing town of about 2,500 inhabitants, in the 
southwestern part of Kay County, on the Hunnewell branch of the 
Santa Fe Railway. The town is built on an elevation in the Salt Fork 
Valley, is surrounded by some of the finest agricultural land in Okla- 
homa, has an abundant supply of excellent water, is in a healthful 
locality, and is in every respect an admirable place for the location of 
a Territorial school. 

The school at Tonkawa was founded by legislative enactment in 
1901. It is thus a State preparatory school, and in that fact is unique. 
It is strictly a secondary school, having for its primary purpose the 
fitting of young men and women for higher education. But that it 
should be the " college" of a large number of the students is inevitable. 
Its curriculum is therefore planned to give instruction in all the 
branches taught in the best secondary schools of the country. 

A certificate of graduation from the common schools of Oklahoma, 
or other satisfactory evidence of having completed the eighth-grade 
work, will admit studisnts to the first-year work. Students may be 
admitted by examination covering the common school branches and 
by certificate of work done in other reputable schools of similar rank. 

The running expenses of the school have thus far been adequately 
provided by legislative enactment. It also shares with the university 
at Norman one-sixth of the rental of section 13, reserved for higher 
education, and is entitled by the statehood bill to 150,000 acres of 
public land, the proceeds from which will increase with the develop- 
ment of the country. By special enactment of the Fifty-ninth Con- 
gress the institution was granted section 33, adjoining the town of 
Tonkawa on the north. The proceeds from this section are to be 
used only for building purposes. 

The school now has two buildings besides the heating plant. The 
first building, opened in the fall of 1902, was for four years the only 
one. It is 54 by 96 feet, constructed of limestone and pressed brick, 
and is admirably adapted to its purpose. On the first floor of this 
building are now located the departments of domestic science and 
manual training; the second floor contains several fine recitation 
rooms; the third is devoted to the commercial department, and the 
fourth is used for music rooms and society halls. 

The legislature of 1905 appropriated $60,000 for an additional 
building. This structure, to be opened to students September 4, 1906, 
is a model of school architecture and is modern in every particular. It 
contains an auditorium, having a seating capacity of 1,000; a drill 
hall, also suitable for a gymnasium; well fitted bathrooms; science 
laboratories; art room; library; offices and class rooms. 

The preparatory courses offered by the school are grouped under 
the names of classical, modern language, scientific, commercial, and 
manual training. Each of these programmes of study gives the maxi- 
mum amount of work in the subjects suggested by the heading, but 
each course covers four years and prepares for the university. The 
elective system is used to a considerable extent, the object being to 
take into account all kinds of talent and to interest, if possible, all 
classes of students. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 231 

Besides the regular required and elective courses, the school offers 
a business course of one year and a stenographic course covering the 
same length of time. These courses are as thorough as the time given 
them will allow, and they are justly popular, especially with the more 
mature students, whose school days are limited. 

Music, both vocal and instrumental, is given free to all who mani- 
fest a talent for it. Very good instruction in expression and public 
speaking may also be had. 

The newly organized departments are those of scientific physical 
training, providing for all forms of indoor and outdoor athletics; 
domestic science and sewing, and manual training, which has aroused 
a great deal of enthusiasm among the patrons, who appreciate the 
importance of such training in an agricultural community. 

In the summer of 1904 the board of regents added the military 
department, and in September the Government detailed an officer to 
take charge of the work. This department has constantly increased 
in efficiency. The preparatory school bears the distinction of having 
the only school detail in Oklahoma. 

Tuition is absolutely free in all departments. 

The enrollment has more than doubled since the opening of the 
school in 1902, being over 400 in 1906. The teaching force, at first 
numbering 7, now consists of 20 competent instructors. The 
increased facilities in room, equipment, and teachers are expected to 
attract a much larger number of students during the year opening 
September 4, 1906. 

The school has already done notable work in arousing educational 
sentiment in northern Oklahoma. Its graduates are filling respon- 
sible positions on the farm, in the office, and in the schoolroom, or else 
they are pursuing their education in the universities and colleges of 
the Commonwealth. The school is helping them to find the good 
in themselves. It is, moreover, reaching the farmer boys and girls 
whose opportunities have not been the best and whose needs the 
town high schools, in their crowded condition and with their less 
flexible organization, can not supply half so well. 

The experiment being tried by Oklahoma in its State preparatory 
school deserves, and will repay, the interested attention of educators 
throughout the country. 

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 

[A. C Scott, president.] 

This institution is located at Stillwater, Payne County. It is one 
of the so-called " land-grant" institutions, established in every State 
and Territory by an act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, and cer- 
tain subsequent and supplementary acts. It is maintained both by 
the nation and the Territory, the former, broadly speaking, providing 
instruction and the appliances therefor, and the latter providing the 
buildings. The annual income from the Government is at present 
$44,500; but of this only $22,500 is available for academic work, the 
remaining $22,000 going to the experiment station for experimenta- 
tion and the publication of results. The income from the Territory 
is $17,500, provided by a levy on the taxable property of the Terri- 
tory for purposes of general maintenance, and $2,500 for the manu- 
facture and free distribution of vaccine by the experiment station. 



232 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

In addition to these sources of income the law sets apart to this 
institution one-seventh of the income derived from the rental of 
lands granted to the Territory for the benefit of the higher institutions 
of learning. This amounts to about $9,000. There are also other 
receipts, derived from incidental and laboratory fees, farm products, 
etc., amounting in all to about $10,000. It will thus be seen that the 
total annual income of the college and station is about $75,000. 
This amount will be somewhat increased hereafter by reason of cer- 
tain Federal legislation, enacted during the past year, which will be 
subsequently referred to. 

The building equipment of the college, including buildings now under 
construction and nearing completion, represents a valuation of about 
$200,000, and the teaching equipment a valuation of $150,000. 
The college and experiment station farm of 1,000 acres, representing 
practically all classes of Oklahoma soils, is worth, exclusive of build- 
ings, $30,000. 

The past year has been one of marked growth, both in the scholastic 
work of the college and in the expansion of its material equipment 
and resources. The faculty consists of 30 members. Nine hundred 
and six students were enrolled during the year, though it should be 
added that 397 of these were in attendance but a short time, in con- 
nection with a short course in stock judging and seed selection. 
Sixteen students were graduated from the regular courses with the 
degree of bachelor of science, and 14 from the business department. 
The increased attendance was chiefly in the regular collegiate classes, 
and it may be predicted with certainty that in a very few years the 
graduating classes will number 50 or more members. Continued 
reports of the notable success of the graduates of the college in techni- 
cal, scientific, and commercial lines of activity constitute a gratifying 
feature of the work. 

Certain provisions of the statehood bill have added greatly to the 
resources and the permanent endowment of the college. By one of 
these 250,000 acres of land are granted for its benefit, and by a 
fortunate provision it was made the duty of the proper authorities 
to select these lands upon the passage of the bill. While in a sense 
this is refuse land, still it represents a market value of $500,000. It 
may be sold or leased, and the obviously right policy would seem to 
be to sell such small and scattered tracts as can not be advantageously 
leased and can be sold to adjoining owners, and to retain the portion 
in large and compact bodies. By the terms of the statehood bill also 
section 13 in Greer County has been added to the educational institu- 
tions' endowment, increasing that grant to about 321,000 acres. 
These lands are probably worth $10 per acre. The rentals from them 
hereafter, under the provisions of the statehood bill, will be divided 
into three parts, instead of seven, as at present, one-third to go to the 
university and the University Preparatory School, one-third to the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College and the Agricultural and Normal 
University, and one-third to the normal schools now established and 
hereafter to be established. 

The building equipment of the college has been practically doubled 
during the year, if Morrill Hall, which will be ready for occupancy 
throughout the coming year, be taken into account. The new shop 
building is constructed of brick and stone ; and contains the lecture 



GOVERNOK OP OKLAHOMA. 233 

rooms, drawing rooms, and office of the department of civil engineering, 
a testing laboratory, a blacksmith shop, and a foundry. A part of 
this building is also devoted to the gymnasium, thoroughly equipped, 
and furnished with suitable dressing and bathing facilities. Morrill 
Hall, so named by the legislative assembly in honor of Senator Justin 
S. Morrill, is a three-story building, the first story faced with white 
Indiana limestone and the others with red pressed brick of first 
quality. Its general dimensions are 76 by 166 feet. It contains 
the administrative and business offices of the college and station, and 
offices, lecture rooms, and laboratories for the department of animal 
husbandry, agronomy, horticulture, and agricultural chemistry. It 
is a fire resisting building, and contains fire proof vaults on the first 
and second floors. The post of the shop building and gymnasium, 
including heating plant, furniture, and equipment, is about $17,500, 
and of Morrill Hall about $75,000. 

The courses of instruction were practically unchanged during the 
past year. The courses leading to the degree of bachelor of science 
are as follows: General science course, with majors in chemistry, 
biology, or botany; agricultural course, including agronomy, animal 
husbandry, horticulture, and dairying; and the engineering courses — 
mechanical, electrical, and civil. The school of agriculture and 
domestic economy is a two years' course of twenty weeks each, begin- 
ning about October 15 and closing about March 15 of each year, in 
agronomy, animal husbandry, horticulture, dairying, farm machinery, 
steam engines and boilers, etc., and domestic economy (for young 
women), with incidental instruction in the common branches. It is 
particularly designed for young men and women who expect to stay 
on the farm and who are unable to avail themselves of a full college 
course. During each of the three years of its existence over 100 
young men and women have enrolled for its work. No more valuable 
work is given in the institution, but it is a feature of education which 
makes its way somewhat painfully and requires constant promoting. 

The business course is continued on the existing basis, with con- 
stantly increasing enrollment. The short course in general agricul- 
ture and dairying will hereafter be merged in the school of agriculture 
and domestic economy. The short course in stock judging and seed 
selection, held from January 9 to 16, attracted nearly 400 farmers 
of Oklahoma and Indian Territory, and enlisted the interest and 
enthusiasm of all. Besides the regular instructors, specialists from 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington and elsewhere were 
secured and their services added greatly to the value of the course. 

In addition to the regular courses leading to a degree, above men- 
tioned, a new course, to be known as the science and literature course, 
has been established and will be in operation during the coming year. 
It is designed for students who do not desire to specialize so closely 
as those who pursue the more technical courses, and is stronger than 
these courses in language, literature, history, etc. It affords young 
women, moreover, the opportunity, while taking the general work, 
to specialize in the various lines of domestic economy. 

Altogether the year has been one of distinct advancement, and the 
outlook could not well be more promising. 



234 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

OKLAHOMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

[John Fields, director.] 

PURPOSE OF THE STATION. 

Each State and Territory has one experiment station established 
under the act of Congress of March 2, 1887, which provided for an 
appropriation of $15,000 per annum to each station. The expenditure 
of this money is limited to certain purposes and is supervised by the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. In general it must be used in study and investigation 
which will benefit agriculture in its broadest sense. The discovery 
of new scientific truths which relate to agriculture and the application 
of existing knowledge to agriculture in Oklahoma is the business of 
this experiment station. 

In recent years many States have supplemented the Federal fund 
by additional appropriations. Increasing demands made on the 
various stations throughout the United States induced Congress to 
provide additional funds. The new act of Congress provides for an 
ultimate increase of the Federal appropriation for each experiment 
station to $30,000 per annum. The initial appropriation of $5,000 
was not available during the past fiscal year, but recent legislation 
has so amended the law that $7,000 will be received by the station 
during the current year. 

The teaching of these discoveries is a function of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College at Stillwater, of which the experiment station 
is a department. But through the publications of the station, consist- 
ing of at least four bulletins and a report each year and monthly press 
bulletins, the information which the station secures and the knowl- 
edge of methods of farming in Oklahoma which it develops are at 
the disposal of every citizen of the Territory. These are sent free to 
all who request them. They should be saved for reference and should 
be in the library of every Oklahoma farmer. 

PRINCIPLES — NOT RULES. 

Many fail to use the results of the station's experiments through 
misunderstanding the way in which they are conducted. They fail to 
appreciate the fact that there can be no rules for farming, but that 
there are general principles of wide application which should be 
studied and put into practice. All, of course, know that a method of 
preventing a disease of cattle which will be effective in Payne County 
will be equally effective in Greer and Beaver counties. Those who 
study methods of feeding understand that the underlying scientific 

Erinciples do not vary with the longitude. A chemical analysis made 
ere is as useful as if made on the farm where the results of the anal- 
ysis are put in use. The life history of an insect or the facts about a 
disease of plants are in general the same in all localities. All of these 
things are studied by the station, and the wide application of the 
results is generally recognized. 

But there is still too prevalent a tendency to disregard the results 
of experiments with farm crops and fruits conducted on the station 
farm. Some farmers in the township in which the station is located 
join with others living in western counties in refusing to study the 
results of field experiments and to apply the principles deduced 






GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 235 

"because the soil and the climate are so different." And in the same 
townships many other farmers report great success by applying the 
principles of crop production recommended by the station to their 
own special conditions, adapting their application to the varying 
circumstances. In an increasing degree Oklahoma farmers are stu- 
dents of scientific principles instead of followers of rules 

In all of its work the experiment station takes into consideration 
the whole Territory, the widely differing conditions of soil and cli- 
mate, especially as to rainfall, and the futility of any attempts at 
formulating fixed rules of farming. It is also materially aided by- 
successful farmers in every county, who furnish the station with 
valuable information. In addition, some member of the station 
staff visits each county nearly every year, observing and studying 
agricultural practices and talking with the farmers. 

INFLUENCE OF STATION WORK. 

The station has exerted a wide influence upon agricultural practice 
in Oklahoma. It is difficult to be specific without either under- 
estimating this influence or becoming liable to the imputation of 
vain boasting. In a few lines, however, the results have been 
marked. There is no question but that the results of the experi- 
ments with wheat have been widely applied. It is conservative to 
estimate that 20 per cent of the wheat growers have improved their 
methods because of the station's work in this line. This is particu- 
larly noticeable with reference to time of plowing and time of seeding. 
The work with varieties of wheat has been useful but of limited appli- 
cation, because of the station's inability to supply the demand for 
seed of the best-yielding varieties. In one case Weissenburg seed 
wheat was sold to a farmer in Kay County, where wheat is an impor- 
tant crop. This season the acreage of this variety there is quite con- 
siderable and a still larger acreage of it will be sown this fall. 

The results of experiments in pasturing wheat through three years 
have been closely followed by wheat growers. Another year's results 
will soon be published. 

In the use of manure on wheat land little progress seems to have 
been made, notwithstanding the fact that the experiments show an 
increase of 60 per cent during six years as the result of a moderate 
application of manure. 

With reference to cowpeas, the station started at the very begin- 
ning and attempted to popularize this crop, but the conditions were 
such that the people could not take hold of it and much of the effort 
seemed to have been wasted. But in recent years the practice of 
the station in following wheat with cowpeas is rapidly coming into 
general use. The effect of this will be, in time, to discourage con- 
tinuous wheat growing on the same soil, and already a strong ten- 
dency in that direction is evident. But the station has apparently 
failed to convince many growers of early potatoes that they are 
making a mistake by growing a second crop of potatoes the same 
year on the same land, and that they should use cowpeas as a reno- 
vating crop to follow the early crop of potatoes. A few farmers who 
follow thid plan report it as being quite profitable. 

In fruit growing, perhaps more than in any other line of the sta- 
tion's work, its recommendations have been largely followed. In 



236 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

the fall of 1899 a suggested list of varieties for Oklahoma was issued, 
and this has been supplemented from time to time by later and cor- 
rected lists. Local nurserymen have used the recommendations of 
the station as to varieties, and farmers and fruit growers have fol- 
lowed its suggestions as to location, method of planting, care, and 
cultivation of orchards. 

Potato growing has received a considerable share of attention, and 
Bulletin No. 52 on this subject has served as a guide to many new 
to this crop on a commercial scale. This bulletin was based upon 
experiments made here and upon the practical experience of potato 
growers in the neighborhood of Shawnee, where potato growing on a 
commercial scale was first established in Oklahoma. The horticul- 
turist visited numerous potato fields at digging time in two seasons 
and thus supplemented the results of the work here. While the sta- 
tion did not develop anything particularly new, it did determine the 
value of many varieties and the culture methods which may be 
expected to average best in results. 

The limited amount of work which the station has done in select- 
ing the seed of black-capped white Kaffir corn for large heads and 
uniformity in height of stocks so that the heads may be harvested 
by machinery has been put to practical use by many farmers in 
western Oklahoma. Kaffir corn gives promise of being developed 
in a few years into a crop for which there is a good market. 

Other examples of the practical utility of the work of the station 
might be given, but these will serve to show the manner in which 
the station has sought to fill its place in the agriculture of Oklahoma 
and to indicate future possibilities of usefulness. 

COMPLETED INVESTIGATIONS. 

A number of investigations are practically completed and await 
only available time for preparation for printing and funds to cover 
the cost of publication. Among these are the results of a thrice- 
repeated experiment in fattening steers, comparing corn meal and 
Kaffir meal, alfalfa hay and Kaffir stover; further study of the use of 
cotton-seed products in fattening steers, and additional experiments 
in feeding cotton-seed meal and Kaffir meal to hogs. 

The results of several years' experiments with cowpeas, soy beans, 
peanuts, sorghum, oats, barley, emmer, and rape are practically 
ready for publication. 

A comprehensive study of the chemistry of Kaffir corn has been in 
progress for some time and the work is about completed. 

NEW INVESTIGATIONS. 

With additional funds and land varying from the best creek bot- 
tom to the thinnest upland, the station is now in a position to take up 
experiments that were formerly impossible. Chief among these is 
work with corn and cotton, looking toward the developing of strains 
of standard varieties well adapted to Oklahoma conditions. ^ 

Provision has also been made for the beginning of experiments in 
feeding dairy cows, the station having built up a small dairy herd 
from scrub cows purchased locally. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 237 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The mailing list has grown so that an edition of 25,000 copies of 
each publication is required to supply the demand. A great deal of 
the time of the station staff is occupied in replying to the voluminous 
correspondence. But this work furnishes a means of making the 
station's work useful and is very important. The bulletins, and 
especially press bulletins, have been designed to answer the most 
important questions, and these have effected a great saving of time 
in furnishing information to inquirers. 

farmers' institutes. 

The station has continued cooperation with the board of agricul- 
ture in farmers' institute work, supplying eight different speakers, 
from one to four of whom attended twenty-two meetings. In all, the 
time of one man for sixty-three days was spent in this work. These 
meetings each year become more valuable and increase in interest. 
The system should be extended to township organization whenever 
feasible. The station can not possibly extend its work along this 
line unless specific funds are provided for the purpose. 

In the fall of 1905 the station supplied judges for five county fairs, 
the expense in each case being paid by the fair association. 

BULLETINS ISSUED. 

The following bulletins were issued during the year: 

No. 68, December, 1905. Soil Inoculation; Tubercle-forming Bac- 
teria of Legumes. (A popular edition of this bulletin, bearing the 
same number, was also issued.) A statement of the present status 
of soil inoculation and report of examination of commercial cultures 
of bacteria. 

No. 69, December, 1905. Small Fruits: Varieties and Culture, 
Diseases and Insects, and Their Treatment. A summary of the 
results of experiments with blackberries, dewberries, raspberries, 
strawberries, gooseberries, and currants, and directions for combating 
the common insects and fungi. 

No. 70, April, 1906. Hardy Bermuda Grass. A brief statement 
of the characteristics of different varieties of Bermuda grass, with 
cultural directions. 

No. 71, June, 1906. Alfalfa. Brief cultural directions and reports 
of yields of alfalfa hay on upland soil. 

No. 72, June, 1906. Tests of Dips as Lice Killers, Killing Texas 
Fever Ticks. A report of tests of commercial coal-tar dips and 
kerosene emulsion in ridding stock of lice, and directions for eradi- 
cating the Texas fever tick. 

Press Bulletins, Nos. 122 to 133. These were issued monthly, and 
sent only to newspapers. 

Circular No. 5, March, 1906. Use of Artificial Impregnator in 
Horse Breeding. Issued in a limited edition and sent only to those 
who requested it. 

BUILDINGS AND LAND. 

Morrill Hall will be completed by October 1, 1906. It will provide 
suitable quarters for the departments of agronomy, animal hus- 
bandry, chemistry, and horticulture, and will also contain the busi- 



238 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ness offices. The college now owns 1,000 acres of land, presenting a 
great variety of soil types. This farm is maintained by the college, 
the station paying only such expenses as arise from specific experi- 
ments. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORK. 

During the year the station distributed, without charge, 84,720 
doses of vaccine for the prevention of blackleg in cattle. This dis- 
tribution has been quite effective in preventing loss of young cattle, 
and it is estimated that not less than $100,000 per annum has been 
actually saved to the farmers and stockmen through this one branch of 
the station's work. 

Hardy Bermuda grass roots have been distributed to more than 
seven hundred farmers. This distribution seemed desirable because 
of the marked superiority of the variety growing here to that which 
is produced from seed. 

The entomologist inspected nurseries for the board of agriculture 
and is continuing the work this season. 

CENTRAL STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

[F. H. Umholtz, president.] 

LOCATED AND ESTABLISHED. 

The Central State Normal School of Oklahoma was located and 
established at Edmond by legislative enactment in 1890, upon the 
conditions — which were promptly met — that Oklahoma County 
donate $5,000 in bonds and that the town of Edmond donate 40 acres 
of land for a school site. Two thousand dollars additional in bonds 
was donated by the town. 

Edmond is a thriving city of more than 2,500 inhabitants, situated 
about midway between Guthrie and Oklahoma Citj, and preeminently 
distinguished for its healthfulness and for the beauty of its surround- 
ings. It is distinctively a college town, its citizens having established 
homes here largely because the town is free from many of the vices 
commonly prevalent in county-seat towns. 

BUILDINGS. 

The original structure of the normal school, built of brick, was 
completed in 1893; the wings, built of stone, were erected in 1894 
and 1895. The entire building contains 16 class rooms, gymnasium, 
two bathrooms, and a large room for manual training. 

To relieve the crowded condition and to increase the facility for 
instruction the legislative assembly of 1903 made an appropriation 
of $40,000 for the erection of an additional building. The plans of 
the new building are in accord with the highest attainments possible in 
modern educational facilities. The structure, built of pressed brick 
and stone, is three stories high and contains the following rooms: 
An assembly hall of 800 seating capacity; two cloak rooms (with 
toilet) adjacent to assembly hall; two laboratories, reception hall, 
president's office, regents' room, library, reading room, and thirteen 
recitation rooms. This constitutes the main building and is espe- 
cially adapted to normal school purposes. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 239 

A central heating plant has also been erected by which both the 
other buildings are heated throughout with steam. This building is 
located about 200 feet away from either building, thus removing all 
danger from fire or explosion. This steam plant also furnishes water 
for the lavatories, toilet rooms, and baths of the other buildings. 

LIBRARY AND LABORATORIES. 

The library and the reading room of the Central State Normal 
School are furnished with the best books and current magazines that 
can be secured. These are open to all students every day except 
Sunday. 

The laboratories — chemical, physical, physiological, and biolog- 
ical — are well supplied with modern appliances for scientific experi- 
mentation and investigation. 

TRAINING SCHOOL. 

In connection with the Central State Normal School there is main- 
tained a well-equipped training school, furnishing ample opportunity 
for practice in teaching on the part of those about to graduate 
from this institution, as well as others who are seeking professional 
excellence. 

In addition to the facilities for professional training mentioned 
above there are maintained excellent literary societies, Young Men's 
Christian Association, and Young Women's Christian Association 
rooms, an orchestra, and a lecture course of unsurpassed attractiveness. 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

The manual training department established two. years ago has 
fully met the most sanguine expectations. The scope of this depart- 
ment was greatly enlarged the past year, so as to give the greatest 
possible opportunity for development in this important field of work. 

PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

A room 60 by 60 feet, well lighted and ventilated, has been pro- 
vided for a gymnasium, and has been equipped with all the modern 
appliances for physical culture, together with necessary adjuncts, 
bathrooms, lavatories, and lockers. Cleanliness and physical vigor 
on the part of every student is thus made possible and is emphasized 
by the institution. 



The diploma given to the student upon graduation is a life certifi- 
cate, valid in all schools of the Territory. 



240 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

HISTORY AND GROWTH OF THE INSTITUTION. 

The table given below will indicate briefly the history and growth 
of the Central State Normal School : 



President. 


Year 


Enroll- 
ment in 
normal 
school 
proper. 


Enroll- 
ment in 
lower 
grades. 


Total en- 
rollment. 




1891-92 
1892-93 
1893-94 
1894-95 
1895-96 
1896-97 
1897-98 
1898-99 
1899-1900 
1900-1901 
1901-2 
1902-3 
1903-4 
1904-5 
1905-6 


62 
101 
116 
161 
156 
174 
180 
178 
176 
183 
289 
471 
539 
728 
804 




62 


Do 




101 






116 


E. R. Williams 




161 






156 


Do 




174 


Do... 


71 
72 
146 
154 
195 
287 
222 
175 
176 


251 


Do... 


250 


Do... 


322 


bo 


337 




484 


Do 


758 


Do 


761 


Do 


903 


Do 


980 







Owing to the fact that we are about to enter statehood and the 
further fact that a large part of the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations 
will thus naturally become contributing territory to this institution, 
it is quite probable that the enrollment for the ensuing year will reach 
1,200. More than 100 students have within the past ten years com- 
pleted the normal school course of study, and hundreds of others are 
now teaching in the Territory who have received a partial training 
in this school. About one-half the students who attended this insti- 
tution the past year expect to teach in some of the schools of the 
Territory next year. Therefore, more than 400 schools will be 
directly benefited through the efforts of the normal school the past 
year. It will be seen from these facts that the institution is subserv- 
ing the ends for which it was established. 



FACULTY. 



The faculty for 1905-6 consisted of 30 members, all of whom 
are men and women of special training, education, and teaching 
ability who take a sympathetic interest in the welfare of the student. 



The function of the normal schools is to prepare young men and 
young women to teach, and they must prepare them thoroughly and 
masterfully to teach whatever is to be taught in the public schools. 
Whatever is put into the public schools, and therefore into the State, 
must first be put into the normal schools. This, then, is the high 
function of the normal schools, and no low-grade, slipshod, unpro- 
fessional work can be tolerated here. The scientific spirit, so ripe 
eve^where to-day, must govern here as in the other professions. 
The child in the rural school needs the skillful touch of the trained 
master as much as does the child of the city school. And withal the 
higher type of learning required of the high school teacher and of the 
city superintendent can not be ignored by the schools that profess to 
train the teachers of the Commonwealth for their important work. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 241 

The teacher of our youth must know more than mere technical gram- 
mar, botany, and geometry, just as a medical student requires a 
much broader, a more elaborate knowledge of physiology than is 
taught in the high school, or even in the university or college; so the 
pedagogical student must have a broader knowledge and a deeper 
professional insight into the intricate subjects he is to teach than the 
institutions of general education can offer. In short, the mere smell 
of scholasticism is not sufficient; he must know something of society 
and of the business world in order that he may know adequately what 
to teach and how to teach the youth who are to constitute the citizen- 
ship of the State. 

NORTHWESTERN NORMAL SCHOOL. 

[T. W. Conway, president.] 

The Northwestern Normal School was founded by an act of the 
legislative assembly of 1897, and was the second one of the normal 
schools to be established in Oklahoma. The first session of school 
was opened September 20, 1897, in the Congregational Church, with 
an enrollment of 55 which increased to 166 before the close of the 
first school year. On the 10th of March, 1898, the board of education 
for normal schools let the contract for the present building. 

The attendance has grown from year to year until the last school 
year has had 765 different students in actual attendance at some 
time during the year. The requirements and demands of this school 
were such that the capacity of the present building was inadequate 
and the last legislative assembly gave an appropriation of $50,000 to 
be used in the erection and equipment of a science hall and library 
building. The plans are now being prepared for such a building to 
be completed early in the spring of 1907. 

The new building when completed will adequately accommodate 
all of the science departments, library rooms, training department, 
besides giving ample room for a well equipped gymnasium. 

It is the purpose to make the new building compare favorably in 
design and equipment, with the present building, which is recognized 
as one of the most magnificent buildings in the West. It will occupy 
a commanding position on the campus, 200 feet west of the present 
building and at the head of Seventh street. 

The manual training and musical departments that are now in 
rented or temporary buildings will be installed in the old building in 
rooms now occupied by the science departments, library and train- 
ing school. 

The Northwestern Normal School from the first has maintained 
all the necessary departments of a modern normal school and has 
been improving each department from year to year until now the 
school will compare favorably with the most efficient schools in the 
United States. 

The latest of the departments to receive special attention and 
emphasis has been the manual training department, which was 
specially organized two years ago, since which time it has been devel- 
oping power and popularity and is now recognized as one of the 
most essential departments in connection with the school. It is 
the aim to thoroughly equip the manual training department with all 
modern appliances, including domestic science just as soon as the 



242 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

new building is completed, so that the rooms in the old building can 
be secured. 

During the past several years an attempt has been made to direct 
all physical sports and games by individual members of the faculty, 
so that the physical development may go hand in hand with the 
growth of the mind. It has been at times a pretty severe task and 
one that taxed the resources of the faculty to its limit. Very fair 
results have been secured in all physical training but the results have 
not been commensurate with the great efforts put forth, owing to 
the lack of systematic direction and oversight. A man has been 
selected to take charge of all physical culture work, and hereafter, 
under wise and judicious supervision of a trained person, the best 
results in the harmonious development of mind and body may be 
reasonably expected. 

The training department during the past year has grown in effi- 
ciency and popularity until now it fulfills the purpose for which it was 
created. This department is awakening in the student a just appre- 
ciation of the work of the teacher and arousing in him the spirit of 
service of the true teacher. This department of the normal school 
is made professional, not by the exclusion of primary and common 
school branches, but by the inclusion of the professional study of the 
same. All the common branches are studied in their direct relation 
to the teaching process, and in this way correct methods of teaching 
are acquired, besides giving a more comprehensive view of the scope 
and meaning. In this department every pupil is a student teacher; 
he must think the object as the learner thinks it; he must also think 
the process by which the learner knows, and he must think the 
means the teacher is to use to cause the learner to take the steps of 
the process. 

Here is where he puts into practical operation those philosophical 
and elemental principles that he has learned in his study of the art of 
teaching, school supervision, school law, history of education, and 
philosophy of education. 

The demand has been so great for trained teachers for the past 
two or three years that the department of training is not able to 
send forth material fast enough to accommodate the many calls 
that are made for skilled teachers. 

The school faculty now consists of 26 members, all thoroughly 
prepared by experience and education to give excellent service to 
the State. 

SOUTHWESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

[J. R. Campbell, president.] 

The Oklahoma Southwestern State Normal School was opened 
in September, 1903. At the beginning there was established ten 
departments — psychology and education, history and civics, mathe- 
matics, English language and literature, ancient and modern lan- 
guages, science, drawing and art, elocution and physical training, 
vocal and instrumental music, and a training school, consisting of 
one teacher with kindergarten and first grade. 

At present the work has become so heavy that the department of 
science has been divided into three departments, consisting of physics, 
chemistry, and agriculture; biology; and physical geography, phys- 
iography, geology, astronomy, and taxidermy. The introduction of 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 248 

agriculture into the regular work of the normal has proved to be 
one of the most promising features of the school. The demand for 
agriculture, as well as for manual training, is increasing constantly. 
The department of languages has been divided into the departments 
of Latin and of modern languages, respectively. The demand for 
German, French, and Spanish is increasing yearly. There is now a 
regular department of manual training, which is becoming very 
popular in the institution. This department is united with the 
physical training for men, under one instructor. The training school 
has been increased by one teacher, who has charge of the first, sec- 
ond, and third grades. Since the opening of the school it has offered 
a commercial course, which was popular, though this course has now 
been abandoned. Commercial subjects will be offered as before, 
but they will hereafter be considered as a part of the academic work 
of the school and not as a separate course. 

There are now twenty regular instructors in the school, besides 
a secretary and a librarian, an increase of nine members since the 
opening of the normal. 

One important difficulty which has confronted the institution is 
the scarcity of high schools for preparing the students for the courses 
of the normal. There are few villages and towns in the section which 
maintain any sort of a high school course. It is quite impossible for 
young men and women to get the preparatory work in the high schools 
because they are so few in number. To meet this need, at the outset, 
three years were given to the preparatory work, thus making the 
normal course cover a period of seven years. But the rural schools 
are increasing greatly in efficiency of work done. Better teachers 
are taking the places of the inefficient ones and the grade of work is 
becoming more and more satisfactory. At the beginning of the 
third year of the school the first year of the preparatory work was 
dropped. At the same time a graduate year was added to the courses 
offered. High schools are now being established in the surround- 
ing villages, and their courses coordinate with those of the normal. 
From the present outlook in a few years they will do practically all 
of the work now being done by the subnormal department. It is 
the desire of the management of the normal that such shall be the 
case. Only enough preparatory students are desired as will be 
necessary to carry on a model high school department for the benefit 
of students who are to go out into the high schools of the State as 
instructors. 

The demand for special training in the music and art departments 
has exceeded all expectations. Since the opening of the normal 
these departments have been crowded to overflowing. In the 
music department only piano and voice training are offered. There 
is a constantly increasing demand for training in stringed as well 
as wind instruments. 

The school year consists of forty weeks, divided roughly into three 
terms, besides a summer term of six weeks. During the summer 
term the regular work of the normal institute course is offered, 
with an examination at the close. This examination is given by 
the State board of education, and the certificates granted are valid 
in any county of the State. Besides the regular institute course 
work, work is given in the regular courses of the normal. The num- 
ber of teachers coming to take the normal credit work during the 
summer term is increasing yearly. 



244 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

During the year 1903-4 the enrollment was 327 in the depart- 
ments or the normal and 29 children in the training department. 
In 1904-5 the enrollment was 404 students and 35 children in the 
training school. In September, 1905, the first year of the subnor- 
mal department was discontinued, and no students were received 
into the normal who had not finished the eighth grade of the public 
schools. In spite of this fact there were enrolled during 1905-6 
416 students. A conservative estimate for 1906-7 would be at 
least 500. 

The interest of the surrounding country in the Southwestern 
Normal School is increasing yearly. High schools are coordinating 
their courses with those of the normal, so their students may enter 
with advanced credits. Teachers in the rural schools are training 
their pupils so they may enter the normal without examination. 
Many of the teachers themselves are spending a part of each year 
at the normal, besides taking special reading courses in absentia. 
Even boards of education are beginning to demand normal-trained 
teachers for their schools, and often send direct to the normal for 
teachers. 

The first class to be graduated from the regular normal course 
was the class of 1905. There were two members of the class each 
bringing advanced credits from other schools. The class of 1906 
consisted of three members. The class of 1907 will be the first com- 
posing students who have finished all their work, at the Southwest- 
ern Normal School. All other classes have brought credits from 
other institutions. There has been one graduate from the music 
department and a score or more who have completed the commer- 
cial course since the normal started. 

All rooms of the buildings are in constant use. During the past 
year the heating plant was moved from the basement of the main 
building to another erected for the purpose. This has proved very 
satisfactory for various reasons. It has made possible the heating 
of ten basement rooms which were formerly of little service. Six 
of the rooms are now used for recitation rooms and laboratories, 
while others are converted into bathrooms for both men and women. 

Every prospect is favorable for the success of the Southwestern 
Normal School educationally. The people of the southwest are 
enthusiastic for the education of their children and are determined 
to build up a strong educational center which will insure to them 
intelligent manhood and womanhood. 

COLORED AGRICULTURAL AND NORMAL UNIVERSITY. 

[Inman E. P*g«, president.] 

The Colored Agricultural and Normal University was established 
by the legislature of 1897 for the purpose of giving to the negro 
educational advantages similar to those offered to the white people 
at the normal schools, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and 
the Territorial University. It was located at Langston after its 
citizens and those in its vicinity donated 40 acres of land. 

The school was opened in the fall of 1898 with 4 teachers and 41 
students. One building, consisting of four recitation rooms, had 
been erected, but it was not completely equipped for the reason that 
only $5,000 had been appropriated for all purposes by the legislature, 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 245 

which had acted on the supposition that for a number of years the 
attendance would be small and that consequently the needs would 
be few. 

Nearly eight years have passed since the work of the institution 
began. The enrollment at the close of the last school year was 334. 
The number of teachers and officers was 17. The following depart- 
ments were in operation : The elementary normal college preparatory, 
collegiate, agricultural, and domestic. All these departments were 
well equipped with the necessary furniture, apparatus, and machinery. 
The main building has been more than doubled in size. A dormitory 
for the accommodation of 100 girls has been erected, and another 
for the accommodation of over 100 more is rapidly approaching com- 
pletion. A dormitory for the accommodation of 150 young men 
has been erected. A residence has been provided for the president 
on the grounds of the university, in order that the students in the 
dormitories may be under his immediate supervision. A boarding 
department has been established, which furnishes board, including 
fuel and light, for $6 a month, and arrangements have been made 
to enable the young women to do their own laundry work. A 
mechanical building has been erected with a sufficient number of 
rooms to make it possible to give instruction in mechanical drawing, 
woodworking, blacksmithing, machine and foundry work. A barn, 
costing over $3,000, has been erected and the farm has been supplied 
with horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry. Several wagons 
have been made for the use of the farm by the young men in the 
mechanical department, and the necessary farming implements have 
been purchased. The number of acres has been increased from 40 
to 160. 

The students who reside on the university grounds do all the work 
connected with the dormitories and the principal part of the work 
in the boarding department. Besides giving proper attention to 
their normal and academic work, all students are required to learn 
some handicraft. They devote one hour and thirty minutes each day 
to these industrial exercises, and many of them have become so 
proficient in the mechanic arts that they have been employed to 
erect buildings under the direction of the superintendent of the 
mechanical department. The girls in cooking, sewing, and millinery 
are making similar progress, and some are already earning a liveli- 
hood by following the trades which they have learned in the domestic 
department of the institution. It is gratifying to me to be able to 
report that both young men and women have elected the work of the 
agricultural department, and that they realize the importance of this 
kind of education in the present period in the history of their people. 

Emphasis is placed not only upon the work of the various industrial 
departments, but also upon that of the normal department in which 
the Territory is fitting young men and women to teach in the public 
schools which are conducted for the elementary education of the race. 
The law creating this institution makes the diploma which is given 
to the graduates of this department a certificate which entitles its 
holder to the privilege of teaching in the schools of Oklahoma for a 

Eeriod of five years without further examination. This provision 
as served as an inducement to a number of candidate^ for positions 
in the schools to avail themselves of the instruction given in this 
department. Already four classes have completed its course, and 
241b— 07 17 



246 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

their members have easily found employment, and, as a rule, have 
given satisfaction. 

Students who enter the institution for the purpose of taking the 
courses which are offered the college preparatory and the collegiate 
departments receive no less attention than those who enter to take 
other courses, and thus far those who have done so have made a 
record which fully justifies the legislature in making provision for 
the higher education of the negro. 

KINGFISHER COLLEGE. 

[J. T. House, president.] 

This institution, observing the choicest traditions of a long line 
of American colleges remarkable for intellectual achievement, is not 
an educational experiment. It is not a technical school nor a manual 
training school nor a normal institute nor a university. It seeks to 
be in every respect a broad-gauged, thorough champion of the college 
idea — that of liberal training for the sake of character development. 

The college is now in its twelfth year. It is well equipped with 
buildings, library, laboratories, etc., has a faculty of twelve members, 
and an enrollment in its student body of about 200. 

The management of the institution has been so constantly in 
receipt of letters from prospective students inquiring for opportunity 
to work their way in college that a strong effort is now making to 
meet the den and. The college has now nearly 300 acres of land, 
upon which are young fruit trees, alfalfa, etc. With this as a basis 
it is proposed to develop dairying, market gardening, and other 
industries that will give employment to students outside of school 
hours. 

Kingfisher has been the beneficiary of the famous philanthropist, 
Dr. D. K. Pearsons, of Chicago. Through him the college has received 
$100,000 endowment and is about to receive an additional sum. 

A distinguished citizen of Kingfisher, Ex-Governor Seay, is deeply 
interested in helping poor boys and girls to an education. He is 
planning to do this through the college and it is believed that he wiil 
shortly find a way to fulfill his desire. 

OKLAHOMA SCHOOL FOR DEAF AND DUMB. 

[H. C Beamer, superintendent.] 

The school opened September 1, 1905, with a fair number of pupils 
enrolled. The number varied but little from that of the previous 
year, but individual cases show gratifying improvement. 

The aim and endeavor of the management to take charge of and 
instruct all deaf children of the Territory of suitable school ago a i e 
frequently defeated by parents or guardians keeping them at home to 
work, and also by the unwillingness of parents to be separated from 
their children. It is a matter of regret that many over whom we have 
no control are thus deprived of the advantages furnished by the 
school. If we had a compulsory school law in some of the rural dis- 
tricts it would aid us gretitly. The parents fail to realize the fact 
that an education is much more necessary to a deaf child than it is to 
one who hears. Because a child is deaf parents and friends should 
not give up all thought of instruction and discipline. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 247 

The same teachers were retained, three having served four years 
and one two years in the school. They, as well as others connected 
with the school, have been of great service to us in building up and 
carrying on the work successfully. 

The school work in general during the year was very satisfactory. 
The success attained indicated certain, steady progress in all branches. 

Besides the school work the girls were taught mending, sewing, 
embroidery, and general housework. The boys have the care of the 
school buildings and their dormitories; also have a carpenter shop 
and tools, lumber, etc., furnished them to draw out their ingenuity. 
Some show quite a good deal of skill. 

Outdoor amusements are furnished for all — baseball and croquet 
for the older ones, while the smaller ones have wagons, dolls, etc., for 
their amusement. Physical culture is given the boys and girls on the 
grounds in the open air for their health and the development of their 
bodies. 

The general health of the pupils this year has surpassed that of any 
preceding one, there being no sickness of any account and no deaths. 
The pupils have shown great interest and made good advancement in 
their school work, the most having passed in their June examination. 
They have their grade cards, showing their promotion to their several 
grades at the commencement of the next year. 

The following is a list showing number of pupils from the several 
counties enrolled: 

Logan 9 

Noble 3 

Oklahoma 3 

3 Pawnee 4 

Payne 3 

Pottawatomie 7 

Roger Mills 1 

Washita 1 

Woods 5 

Woodward 6 

Total 80 

From information obtained there should be upward of 100 deaf 
mutes of school age in Oklahoma Territory. 

Mr. H. C. Beamer, 

Superintendent Oklahoma School for Deaf. 

Sm: The class-room work of this school for the past two years has been good, and the 
results are encouraging. Our aim has been to develop the minds and morals of our pupils, 
so as to prepare them for family and citizenship responsibilities. 

In three years our most advanced grade will be prepared for Gallaudet College, Washing- 
ton, D. C, which was founded and is maintained for deaf students by the National Govern- 
ment. This certainly speaks well for the work of a school only 8 years old. 

During the first four or five years of our course special lessons in language and numbers, 
which have been prepared by the teachers of our own school and by teachers of leading 
eastern schools, are used. After that books which are used in public schools are used by us. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Peasl H. Dunham, Principal. 



Beaver 


1 


Blaine 


2 


Caddo 


2 


Canadian 


3 


Cleveland 


1 


Comanche 


4 


Custer 


1 


Dav 


1 


Garfield 


3 


Greer 


5 


Kingfisher 


3 


Kiowa 


9 


Lincoln 


3 



248 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Guthrie, Okla., July 27, 1906. 
Mr. H. C. Beamer, 

Superintendent Oklahoma School for Deaf and Dumb, Guthrie, OMa. 

Dear Sir: It gives me pleasure to inform you that the general health of the children dur- 
ing the year was excellent, there being no sickness of any consequence. Aside from a few 
cases of la grippe and bad colds there is nothing worthy of mentioning. 

Permit me to take this occasion to say that in my opinion the superior health of these 
children is due in a very large measure to the painstaking care and constant attention 
bestowed upon them by Mrs. Beamer. 

During the nine years of your superintendency of this school there has been only three 
deaths, and when it is considered that you have had some very frail children to care for this 
fact is remarkable. 

The sanitary arrangements of the school are good; the ventilation all that could be 
desired, and you are not overcrowded. Therefore, sir, permit me to congratulate you upon 
the successful closing of the present school year. 

Yours truly, J. W. Duke, Visiting Physician. 

THE CHILOCCO INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL AND INDIAN INSTITUTE. 

[S. M. McCowan, superintendent.] 

The Chilocco Indian Agricultural School was opened for pupils 
in 1884 at Chilocco. The reserve contains 8,960 acres of good agri- 
cultural land, situated in Kay County and running along the Kansas 
State line, east and west, 4^ miles. About 3,000 acres of this tract 
is under cultivation, the rest being in meadow or pasture land. The 

Eer capita appropriation provides for an enrollment of 700 pupils, 
ut the average attendance generally runs from 20 to 60 over this 
number. These pupils are from many States and Territories and 
represent some 40 different tribes. 

Chilocco has about 40 buildings and is known as the best-equipped 
institution in the Indian service for imparting practical agricultural 
knowledge to the Indian pupil. The principal crops are wheat, corn, 
oats, broom corn, sorghum, millet, blue grass, alfalfa, prairie hay, 
and garden products. A large beef and an extensive dairy herd is 
maintained. The school dairy produces about 10,000 gallons of 
milk each quarter. Splendid peach, apple, apricot, plum, and cherry 
orchards and a large, well-equipped poultry yard are features of the 
school. These, with the nursery and vineyards, afford practical 
instruction in these industries so closely allied to all farm work. 

While the agricultural instruction, stock raising, dairying, etc., 
are Chilocco's leading features, training along all other industrial 
lines is given the students. Boys are taught carpentry, cabinet- 
making, blacksmithing, wagon making, painting, paper hanging, 
show and harness making, printing, plumbing, machine work, 
stone and brick laying, steam and electrical engineering, etc. 
Girls are trained in the knowledge of domestic art, such as sewing, 
baking, cooking, laundering, housekeeping, nursing, etc. The 
departments and shops are all equipped with modern and up-to-date 
machinery, and are in charge of competent instructors. Some 70 
people make up the school faculty. 

The literary course is designed to give a thorough grammar school 
training. Music and military tactics are included in the course. 
There is a school library of over 1,500 volumes, especially selected 
to meet the requirements. Religious instruction, while nonsec- 
tarian, is not neglected, and the object of the school is to graduate 
young men and women with well-formed characters, as well qual- 
ified as possible — industrially, mentally, and morally — for successful 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 249 

competition with the youth of any race or color. Athletics — base- 
ball, football, tennis, basket ball, etc. — is encouraged, but no attempt 
is made to organize professional teams. The school has a fine trained 
concert band, which is in demand at neighboring towns and which 
has an international reputation. 

The Bureau of Indian Affairs established this year at this school, 
to be opened September 1, 1906, a normal training department, 
where may be prepared and educated advanced Indian young men 
and women to pass civil-service examinations and be qualified to 
become teachers in day and reservation schools throughout the serv- 
ice. A business course is a part of this normal training. 

One of the leading features of Chilocco's methods of instruction 
is its experimental plots and individual gardens. The plots are about 
1 acre in size and are arranged side by side along McCowan avenue 
for over a mile. Each student in the senior grades has charge of 
one of these plots and is required to make weekly observations of his 
experiment and to note all conditions relative to growth, weather, 
insects, etc. ; also at harvesting time to make written report of these 
observations and experiments. Pupils in the literary work each 
have a garden plot in season in connection with their class-room 
work in nature study and plant growing. 

The school, under the management and supervision of Superin- 
tendent McCowan, has progressed and grown to such an extent that, 
in size and equipment, it is now second to none in the Indian service. 
During the past year many improvements have been made, of which 
might be mentioned the following: Shop equipment, thoroughbred 
cattle and hogs, brooding and incubator houses m poultry yard, stone 
cottage for the assistant superintendent, new creamery, agricultural 
experimental laboratory, granitoid walks, curbing, fountains, etc. 

The yearly appropriations for the school provided for by Congress 
are from $140,000 to $180,000. 

OKLAHOMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

[W. P. Campbell, custodian.] 

The collection of this society is in the Carnegie Library building, 
an absolute fireproof structure, at Oklahoma City. The collection 
occupies a floor space of 2,500 feet, and the estimated bulk (including 
furniture) is 22,000 pounds. 

The last territorial legislature appropriated $4,000 for the biennial 
period of 1905-6, which has enabled the society to make flattering 
progress. The prime feature of the collection is, perhaps, the news- 
paper files of the Territory, there being at this date 2,200 bound 
volumes, with 521 publications coming regularly, to be bound as 
fast as they accumulate. These files are daily consulted and will 
grow in value. 

There are, besides, a valuable array of manuscripts, unbound 
pamphlets, public documents of both Territories, bound books of 
various character, including works of local authors, relics, curios, 
photographs, etc. The latest accessions include the large silk banner 
of Theodore Roosevelt, used on President Day at St. Louis, 1904; 
the visitors' records in the Oklahoma Building at St. Louis and 
Chicago; large banner used by Captain Payne while exploiting this 
region before it was opened to settlement; a number of books and 
pamphlets printed in the Indian languages — Cherokee and Creek; 



250 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

three bound volumes, containing an aggregate of 287 publications 
from various States, each replete with write-ups by various editors 
during the national editorial excursion here in June, 1905. 

In response to request, a majority of the members of the Fifty- 
ninth Congress furmshed the society with autographs and photo- 
graphs to be placed in the statehood alcove of this society. The 
various pens used in the free homes bill are the property of the 
society, a donation from ex-Delegate D. T. Flynn. 

REFORM SCHOOL. 

Oklahoma is without a reform school for youthful offenders 
against the law. An act was passed in the legislature of 1905 author- 
izing the governor to ' ' enter into a contract with responsible parties 
within the boundaries of Oklahoma for the safe-keeping, careful rear- 
ing, and education of youthful offenders, who may have been found 
guilty of violation of law, or are found to be incorrigible by some 
court." An appropriation of $5,000 was also made for carrying this 
act into effect. 

This sum was found to be wholly inadequate for the purpose in- 
tended, since some fifty or more of the inmates of the penitentiary at 
Lansing belong properly in a reform school. It has not been deemed 
prudent and possible under existing circumstances and conditions 
to enter into a contract with private persons for the safe-keeping and 
education of the youths above named. The citizens of Anadarko, 
in Caddo County, sought to have the institution located adjoining 
that city, on ground occupied by the Indian agency, and if not 
required for the use of the agency have intended to petition Congress 
to set apart this land for the purposes of a reformatory. 

The Territory is much in need of an institution of this kind, since 
the sentencing of a mere boy, as often happens, subjects him to 
associations in the penitentiary that are degrading and morally 
wrong, totally blunting whatever high sensibilities remain in the boy's 
nature, thus destroying his chances for usefulness when released from 
prison. The environment of a State prison is inconceivably demoraliz- 
ing to the tender nature of an erring boy, and a reform school should 
be established by the State at the next meeting of the legislature. 

SEPARATE SCHOOLS. 

Separate schools for white and colored children are maintained by 
strict legislative provision. The legislature of 1901 enacted a sepa- 
rate school law, which begins: 

In all counties separate schools for white and colored children are hereby established, and 
such schools shall be permanently maintained, and the board of county commissioners 
shall annually levy a tax on all taxable property in their respective counties sufficient to 
maintain said separate schools. 

This law not only prohibits the attendance of negro children at 
white schools, but prevents effectually the attendance of white chil- 
dren at negro schools. Every child, whatever its race, is assured of 
school advantages, the law requiring it. Wherever there is a negro 
child in a school district provision must be made for its common 
school education by the establishment and maintenance of a school, 
employment of a teacher, or sending of the child, at the district's 
expense, to an adjoining district or to the Territorial school for 
negroes in Langston. A white child is provided for likewise. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 251 

PENITENTIARY. 

Oklahoma has no penitentiary of its own. Contract is held with 
the authorities of Kansas for the care and keeping of Oklahoma pris- 
oners in the Lansing prison, 40 cents per day for each prisoner being 
paid by the Territory for that purpose. 

The following statement is submitted by Warden Haskell : 

Number over 18 years of age 369 

Number under 18 years of age 18 

Total number, June 30, 1906 (males, 380; females, 7) 387 

Number received during the year 147 

Number discharged during the year ISO 

Occupation of prisoners: Coal mining, manufacturing of binding 
twine and furniture, tailoring, cooking, and farming. 

INSANE. 

Oklahoma's insane are cared for by private contract with the 
Oklahoma Sanitarium Company, located at Norman, Okla. The 
Territory pays $200 per annum for each patient. It was intended, 
by virtue of the act of the last legislature locating the insane asylum 
at old Fort Supply Military Reservation, to move the patients to the 
new institution within the year. However, an injunction was 
granted by the district court, preventing the removal of the patients, 
and the necessary repairs and preparation of the buildings were 
stopped. The injunction is still in effect, pending the decision of the 
supreme court of Oklahoma, and the Oklahoma Sanitarium Company 
still has the care of Oklahoma's insane. 

OEXAHOMA HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE 

[D. W. Griffin, M. D., resident physician.] 

At the close of the year ended June 30, 1905, there were domiciled 
in the institution: 

Males 289 

Females 173 

Total 462 

Received during the year: 

Males admitted on commitments 178 

Females admitted on commitments 94 

Males returned from parole 17 

Females returned from parole 10 

299 

Total treated during the year 761 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Died 


25 
122 

8 
4 


14 
60 
10 
2 


39 




182 




18 




6 








159 
315 


86 
201 


245 


On hand June 30, 1906 


516 







252 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Of the 516 patients on hand, the causes assigned are as follows: 



Heredity 187 

111 health 45 

Privation 12 

Unknown 29 

Epilepsy 70 

Imbecile 08 

Idiocy 29 

Work and worry 14 

Intemperance 10 

Masturbation 2 



Syphilis 6 

Senility 21 

Domestic trouble 6 

Paralysis 7 

Injury to head 1 

Childbirth 7 

Narcotism 2 



Total. 



516 



Ages and number of males and females admitted. 



Age. 


Males. 


Females. 


Under 16 


3 

55 
50 
42 
25 
13 
6 
1 


6 


Between 16 and 31 


27 


Between 30 and 40 


25 




20 




13 


Between 60 and 70 


4 


Over 70 


6 




3 








Total 


195 


104 







Grand total, 299. 



Number of patients from counties. 



County. 


Number. 


County. 


Number. 




4 

6 

16 

31 

24 

20 

10 

4 

9 

15 

11 

15 

31 

30 




9 






21 






33 




Noble 


10 






64 






20 






25 


Day 




43 






7 




Washita 


19 






26 






13 


Kay 


Total 




Kingfisher 


516 









Number and causes of deaths during year. 



Cause. 



Exhaustion 

Consumption 

Old age 

Epilepsy 

Paralysis 

Cancer of stomach 
Typhoid fever 



Number. 



Cause. 



Appendicitis . . 
Heart disease . 
Chronic diarrh< 

Burns 

Brain syphilis. 

Total 



Number. 



The sanitarium is located 1 mile east of Norman, Okla., on the 
main line of the Santa Fe Railroad, on 50 acres of land, part of 
which is used as a garden for the benefit of the inmates, part for a 
walk, the rest being planted in shade trees which are several years 
old and give a complete shade where planted. This grove is par- 
tially converted into a park — the parade ground for the benefit of 
the patients — where they are allowed to go morning and afternoon of 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 253 

every day when the weather is suitable. Benches and walks are 
provided, and inmates are allowed their discretion in enjoying these 
while in the parade ground. 

During the year many improvements have been made. We have 
constructed additions to both our male and female hospitals, 50 feet 
by 30 feet each, that will accommodate 40 patients; repairs and 
whitewashing have been kept up where needed ; all wards nave been 
painted, and our new laundry building, to replace the one burned, 
is well on the way to completion. 

FORT SUPPLY MILITARY RESERVATION. 

The history of the proposed removal of the Hospital for the Insane 
from Norman to Fort Supply is related fully by the last annual report 
of the governor of Oklahoma, as follows: 

By act of Congress of February 8, 1899, that portion of the Fort Supply Military Reserva- 
tion remaining under the control of the Federal Government was set apart to be used by 
the Territory of Oklahoma for the purposes of an insane asylum. 

The land (1,760.25 acres) thus set apart included the buildings and waterworks and 
sewerage systems of said reservation. The seventh legislative assembly of the Territory 
of Oklahoma, by joint resolution, accepted the reservation from Congress under the condi- 
tions of the Congressional act, which provided that the authority to use the buildings and 
grounds might be revoked at the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior. 

After the passage of this act by the seventh legislative assembly, the Commissioner of 
the General Land Office transferred the reservation to the custody of the Territory of 
Oklahoma. The seventh legislative assembly provided that the asylum should be located 
at Fort Supply as soon as a railway — steam or electric — should be built to that place. 

The eighth legislative assembly passed an act repealing the law paseed by the seventh leg- 
islative "assembly, and provided for the removal of the asylum from Norman, Okla., to Fort 
Supply as soon as the buildings could be repaired and the proper arrangements made for 
the transfer. 

The eighth legislative assembly made an appropriation of $85,000 for the maintenance 
of the insane for the year 1905, and $50,000 for maintenance for the year 1906. An appro- 
priation of $25,000 was made by the eighth legislative assembly for repairs on the buildings 
at Supply. 

Under the act passed by the eighth legislative assembly two trustees were appointed, who, 
with the governor, constitute the board of managers of the insane asylum. An architect 
was employed to prepare plans and specifications and the board proceeded to advertise 
for bids. 

The members of the Oklahoma Sanitarium Company, who have a contract with the 
Territory for keeping the insane, commenced an action in the courts to enjoin the Territory 
from carrying out the provisions of the act passed by the eighth legislative assembly, claiming 
that it was at variance with an act of Congress which restrains the Territory from making 
provision for any public building. Later Judge Hainer, sitting as a district judge in Logan 
County, Okla., issued an order restraining the Territory from proceeding to carry out 
the act of the eighth legislative assembly and from expending public moneys for repairs or 
otherwise on the buildings at Fort Supply. The decision of the court was to the effect that 
the act of the eighth legislative assembly was in violation of a Congressional restriction, 
which prohibited the location of any public buildings in Oklahoma during the years 1905 
or 1906. The Territory has appealed from the decision of the district court to the supreme 
court. The case is now pending in the supreme court. 

The eighth legislative assembly greatly handicapped the Territory by making an appro- 
priation which was inadequate for repairing the buildings at Fort Supply, and also by 
making an inadequate appropriation for maintenance for the years 1905 and 1906. Under 
the present contract the cost of keeping the insane reached something over $22,000 for each 
quarter. The $85,000 appropriated will not be sufficient to maintain these unfortunate 
wards of the Territory under the contract system, and in my judgment it would not be 
sufficient to maintain them even were the asylum conducted under the direct supervision 
of the Territory, and it is a foregone conclusion that the $50,000 appropriated for the year 
1906 will be wholly inadequate. 

The appropriation of $25,000 made by the legislature for repairing the buildings at Fort 
Supply was wholly inadequate. When the trustees for the asylum advertised for bids, 
although the bids were never formally passed upon, as an injunction had been granted 



254 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

restraining the trustees from proceeding with the work, yet it was ascertained that the bids 
would have ranged all the way from $90,000 to $125,000. 

Whatever may be the result in the supreme court when a hearing is had on the appeal, 
it is evident that an increased legislative appropriation will have to be made before the 
buildings at Fort Supply can be prepared in a proper manner for taking care of the insane. 
The members of the board of trustees have also decided to submit the matter to Congress 
and try to have the former Congressional restriction against the Territory erecting a public 
building removed. 

CHURCHES AND FRATERNAL SOCIETIES. 

Oklahoma is well supplied with churches, nearly every denomina- 
tion being represented. The various church societies have furnished 
me the following statistics. Many fine church edifices are to be 
found in some of our cities. 

The west is a fertile field for the fraternal society. All of the old 
orders are represented, and in some localities have beautiful and 
costly homes. Most of the existing orders have reported their 
membership and amount of property owned. Below will be found a 
table containing them: 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Number of church buildings 19 

Value of church property in all $09, 000 

Number of rectories 9 

Number of organized missions.' 20 

Number of other regular stations 16 

Number of communicants 961 

Number of clergy 9 

Number of Sunday schools 15 

Membership of Sunday schools 338 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Number of church buildings 185 

Value of church buildings $352, 800 

Number of parsonages 93 

Value of parsonages $12, 700 

Church membership 17, 278 

Number of ministers who are pastors 167 

Number of local preachers not pastors 100 

Number of organized missions 2 

Number of Sunday schools 232 

Number of Epworth leagues 155 

Number of Junior leagues. 56 

Membership of Sunday schools 18, 000 

Membership of Epworth leagues 4, 000 

Membership of Junior leagues 1, 900 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH SOUTH. 

Number of church buildings 299 

Number of parsonages 159 

Value of church buildings $396, 258 

Value of parsonages $111 , 137 

Church members 33, 520 

Number of ministers 200 

Number of organized missions 711 

Number of Sunday schools , 330 

Membership of Sunday schools 24, 702 

Number of Epworth leagues 150 

Membership of Epworth leagues 4, 482 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 255 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

Number of church buildings 57 

Value of church buildings $152, 000 

Number of manses 19 

Value of manses $36, 000 

Church membership 5, 000 

Number of ministers 55 

Number of organized churches 70 

Number of Sunday schools 63 

Membership of Sunday schools 5, 500 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

Number of churches 440 

Number of church buildings 165 

Value of church buildings $260, 000 

Number of parsonages 30 

Value of parsonages $36, 000 

Church membership 21, 000 

Number of ministers 400 

Organized missions 200 

Sunday schools 200 

Membership of Sunday schools 15, 000 

Number of Baptist Young People's Union organizations 85 

Membership of Baptist Young People's Union organizations 1, 800 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

Number of church buildings 72 

Value of church buildings $100, 000 

Number of parsonages 37 

Value of parsonages $29, 600 

Church organizations 80 

Membership 2, 600 

Number of ministers 57 

Number of Sunday schools 116 

Membership of Sunday schools 5, 800 

Number of Christian Endeavor societies 26 

Membership 846 

FRIENDS. 

Number of church buildings 15 

Value of church buildings $20, 000 

Number of parsonages 10 

Value of parsonages $7, 500 

Church membership 2, 000 

Indian members 300 

Indian missions 5 

Number of ministers 25 

Number of Sunday schools 30 

Membership of Sunday schools 1, 500 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

Number of organized churches 402 

Number of church buildings 187 

Value of church buildings $350, 000 

Church membership 26, 000 

Number of ministers 180 

Number of Sunday schools 248 

Membership of Sunday schools 23, 000 

Number of Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor 76 

Membership of Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor 2, 521 



256 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

Bishop 1 

Churches 60 

Priests 35 

Chapels 7 

Stations visited 100 

New residences for priests 3 

Church membership 20, 000 

Academies 3 

Colleges for boys 1 

Schools for boys and girls 20 

Schools for colored 2 

Convents 17 

Monasteries 1 

Hospitals 1 

Number of Sunday schools 30 

Membership of Sunday schools 2, 000 

MEMBERSHIP OF COLORED CHURCHES. 

Missionary Baptist 8, 682 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 3, 640 

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church * 820 

Methodist Episcopal Church (colored wing) 840 

Primative Baptist 486 

Colored Presbyterian 141 

Congregational 412 

Church of God 201 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES OF CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR. 

Number of societies 209 

Number of members 7, 306 

Number of junior societies 62 

Number of members 1, 860 

Total number of societies 271 

Total membership 9, 166 

New societies organized during year ending June 30, 1U, J 44 

SUNDAY SCHOOLS. 

Number of Sunday schools 1, 453 

Number of officers and teachers 7, 391 

Number of scholars 48, 986 

Fraternal organizations. 



Name of order. 



Organi- 
zations. 



New 
organi- 
zations. 



Members 



New- 
members. 



Value of 
property. 



Masons 

Knights Templar 

Eastern Star 

Odd Fellows 

Rebekah lodges 

Ancient Order United Workmen 

Knights of Pythias 

Woodmen of the World 

Grand Army of the Republic 

Confederate Veterans 

Order of Elks 

Women's Christian Temperance Union 

Women's Federated Clubs 

Women's Relief Corps 

Ladies of the Maccabees 

Scottish Rite Masons 



141 

13 

58 

229 

155 

105 

63 

116 

84 

36 

7 

110 

82 

39 

25 

1 



6,777 
607 
2,878 
13,000 
7,654 
3,810 
3,250 
4,636 
1,854 
1,516 
1,071 
1,200 
2,000 
890 
531 
1,009 



837 

68 

300 

1,291 

1,121 

782 

425 

1,287 

249 

78 

233 

300 

300 

36 

297 

139 



$2,250.87 

194,000.00 

8,000.00 

1_V>.00 

3,500.00 



2,085.00 
'39," 430.' 20 



1,000.00 

1,800.00 

28,625.00 

115,000.00 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



257 



MISSIONS. 

The industrial schools maintained by various religious denomina- 
tions are mentioned below, together with their location: 

Cache Creek, boarding (Reformed Presbyterian), Anadarko. 

Mary Gregory Memorial (Presbyterian), Anadarko. 

Methvin, boarding (Methodist), Anadarko. 

St. Patrick's, boarding (Catholic), Anadarko. 

St. John's, boarding (Catholic), Pawhuska. 

St. Louis, boarding (Catholic), Pawhuska. 

St. Benedict's Academy (Catholic), Sacred Heart. 

St. Patrick's, boarding (Catholic), Anadarko. 

St. Mary's Academy (Catholic), Sacred Heart. 

Friends' Mission, Tecumseh. 

PART IV. 

Territorial secretary — Territorial treasurer — Territorial auditor — Territorial superin- 
tendent of public instruction — Territorial attorney-general — Territorial adjutant- 
general — Territorial bank commissioner — Territorial oil inspector — Territorial 
grain inspector — Territorial librarian — Territorial game warden — Territorial insur- 
ance commissioner — Board for leasing school lands — Board of agriculture — Live 
stock sanitary commission — Board of railway assessors — Board of equalization — 
Board of health — Board of asylum trustees — Board of pharmacy — Board of dental 
examiners — Board of osteopathic examiners — Board of embalmers. 

TERRITORIAL SECRETARY. 

[Charles H. Filson.] 

During the past year there have been issued 919 notarial commis- 
sions, distributed among the various counties as shown below: 



Beaver 32 

Blaine 20 

Caddo 50 

Canadian 24 

Cleveland 16 

Comanche 97 

Custer 22 

Day 12 

Dewey 14 

Garfield 31 



Grant 19 

Greer 

Kay 49 

Kingfisher 18 

Kiowa 33 

Lincoln 33 

Logan 40 

Noble 20 

Oklahoma 91 

Pawnee 38 



Payne 22 

58 i Pottawatomie 40 

Roger Mills 28 

Washita 19 

Woods 49 

Woodward 44 



Total 



919 



Number of commissioners for Oklahoma in other States and countries 2 

Number of notarial commissions issued during the year ended June 30, 1906 919 

Number of requisitions granted 51 

Number of requisitions honored 28 

Number of corporations chartered 1, 285 

Amount collected in fees and turned into Territorial treasury. 

Received from insurance 120, 782. 32 

Received from corporations, notaries, and miscellaneous items 12, 382. 95 



Total 33,165.27 



Classified list of corf orations chartered. 



Churches 133 

Banks 59 

Mining and oil 130 

Railroads 35 

Telephone 70 



Mills and elevators 26 

Miscellaneous 832 



Total 1,285 



258 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



TERRITORIAL TREASURY. 

[C. W. Rambo, treasurer.] 

Below is given a statement showing the amount of taxes collected, 
by counties, from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906; also a statement 
showing the receipts from sources other than taxation, together with 
a list of Territorial depositories and amount of securities furnished 
by each. 

Amount of taxes collected, by counties, from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906. 



Beaver $13, 200. 75 

Blaine 13, 169. 74 

Canadian 20, 511. 20 

Cleveland 13, 767. 83 

Custer 14, 618. 22 

Dewey 6, 734. 33 

Garfield 29, 447. 92 

Grant 18, 591. 11 

Greer 37,212.15 

Kay 27, 084. 59 

Kingfisher 20, 058. 79 

Lincoln 25, 450. 54 

Logan 30,138.97 

Noble 18,114.72 



Oklahoma $45, 075. 29 

Payne 22, 176. 60 

Pawnee 23, 212. 32 

Pottawatomie 25, 683. 86 

Roger Mills 10, 359. 77 

Washita 16, 119. 34 

Woods 44,161.37 

Woodward 18, 376. 35 

Day 3,092.96 

Comanche 27, 464. 78 

Caddo 17, 867. 39 

Kiowa 19, 318. 42 



Total 561,009.31 



Receipts from sources other than taxation. 

J. R. Campbell (proceeds from sale of stove) $15. 00 

William Grimes, secretary of Oklahoma 13, 467. 90 

Charles H. Filson, secretary of Oklahoma 18, 542. 27 

Paul F. Cooper, bank commissioner 4, 500. 00 

J. W. Foose, Territorial librarian 1, 047. 68 

F. A. Ashton, coal-oil inspector 6, 935. 74 

Common school fund (leasing board) 323, 419. 59 

Public building fund (leasing board) 76, 400. 00 

Common school indemnity (leasing board) 6, 056. 04 

College fund (leasing board). 76, 350. 00 

Greer County, sections 13 (leasing board) 6, 200. 00 

Greer County, sections 33 (leasing board) 4, 800. 00 

Interest on daily balances 17, 559. 07 

Condemnation school lands 800. 80 

Northwestern Normal School (music department) 551. 25 

Southwestern Normal School (music department) 627. 00 

Central Normal School (music department) 858. 20 

United States, for agricultural and mechanical colleges 25, 000. 00 

The National Bank of Boyertown, interest refunded 9. 00 

I. E. Page, president Langston College, amount overpaid Hollingsworth 8. 75 

I. E. Page, proceeds from sale of cotton (agricultural department) 14. 02 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company, reclamation for broken 

furniture 30. 79 

Governor T. B. Ferguson, proceeds from sale of stove 4. 00 

W. B. Kendall, county treasurer, interest on Territorial funds while in his hands 1. 32 

Snyder & Brown (advertising) 54. 50 

C. W. Rambo, amount to correct interest on warrant 3. 60 

W. O. Cromwell, rebate in case of Territory v. United States Fidelity and 

Guaranty Company .70 

Condemnation sections 33 fund 50. 00 



Total 583,307.22 



GOVEKNOE OF OKLAHOMA. 259 

Enumeration of Territorial depositories, with the amount of securities furnished by each. 

Guthrie National Bank $104, 916. 65 

National Bank of Commerce 100, 925. 84 

Guthrie Savings Bank 23, 213. 87 

Logan County Bank 17, 916. 19 

Western National Bank (Oklahoma City) 103, 213. 06 

American National Bank (Oklahoma City) 22, 969. 80 

State National Bank (Oklahoma City) 21, 172. 35 

Oklahoma City National Bank • 25, 567. 90 

Chandler National Bank (Chandler) 12, 936. 00 

State National Bank (Shawnee) 27, 851. 12 

First National Bank (Edmond) 11, 542. 85 

First National Bank (El Reno) 26, 210. 22 

First National Bank (Weatherford) 13, 490. 75 

First National Bank (Watonga) 18, 338. 08 

First National Bank (Newkirk) 18, 703. 63 

First National Bank (Kingfisher) 36, 700. 00 

Farmers' National Bank (Ponca City) 15, 000. 00 

Pawnee National Bank (Pawnee) 28, 257. 00 

Citizens' National Bank (El Reno) 11, 119. 14 

Citizens' Bank of Mulhall 5, 408. 29 

Tonkawa State Bank (Tonkawa) 5, 266. 76 

National Bank of Pond Creek 4, 593. 78 

First National Bank (Arapaho) 18, 171. 23 

Garfield Exchange Bank (Enid) 9, 977. 07 

Alva National Bank (Alva) 25, 236. 28 

First National Bank (Geary) 4, 015. 63 

Statement showing the balance on hand at close of business on May 31, the amount received 
and paid out from June 1 to June 30, and the balance on hand at close of business on 
June 30, 1906. 

General revenue fund $22, 363. 66 

Common school fund 16, 888. 51 

Common school indemnity fund j 6, 113. 11 

Public building fund 447, 306. 69 

University, Agricultural and Mechanical ColL ge and Normal School fund.. . 5, 980. 03 

University fund 620. 84 

University fund tax, 1903 490. 48 

University fund tax, 1904 703. 96 

University fund tax, 1905 5, 578. 86 

University fund tax, 1906 12. 07 

University lease fund 101. 29 

University building fund 4, 611. 58 

University equipment fund tax , 1903 74. 85 

University equipment fund tax, 1904 165. 60 

Normal School fund 1, 896. 21 

Normal School fund tax, 1903 ' 1,753. 26 

Normal School fund tax, 1904 4, 479. 75 

Normal School fund tax, 1905 5, 449. 12 

Normal School fund tax, 1906 7. 78 

Normal School building fund 6, 441. 99 

Normal School lease fund 823. 24 

Northwestern Normal School fund 5, 627. 83 

Northwestern Normal School fund tax, 1 903 6, 095. 54 

Northwestern Normal School fund tax, 1904 3,924.67 

Northwestern Normal School fund tax, 1905 3, 368. 51 

Northwestern Normal School fund tax, 1906 7. 78 

Northwestern Normal School building fund 15, 564. 70 

Northwestern Normal School lease fund 8, 884. 83 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University fund 65. 58 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University fund tax, 1903 364. 47 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University fund tax, 1904 1, 026. 75 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University fund tax, 1905 4, 465. 54 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University fund tax, 1906 4. 28 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University lease fund 734. 67 



260 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University building fund $1 , 509. 32 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University girls' dormitory fund 1,811.61 

University Preparatory School fund 129. 15 

University Preparatory School fund tax, 1903 2, 641. 73 

University Preparatory School fund tax, 1904 2, 712. 54 

University Preparatory School fund tax, 1905 843. 91 

University Preparatory School fund tax, 1906 4. 28 

University Preparatory School lease fund 8, 444. 92 

University Preparatory School building fund 10, 970. 65 

Agricultural and Mechanical College levy fund 44. 07 

Agricultural and Mechanical College levy fund tax, 1903 51. 75 

Agricultural and Mechanical College levy fund tax, 1904 912. 85 

Agricultural and Mechanical College levy fund tax, 1905 1, 704. 19 

Agricultural and Mechanical College levy fund tax, 1906 4. 28 

Agricultural and Mechanical College building fund 12. 52 

Agricultural and Mechanical College Morrill Hall fund 4, 227. 10 

Southwestern Normal School fund tax, 1903 , 2, 079. 77 

Southwestern Normal School fund tax, 1904 8, 649. 70 

Southwestern Normal School fund tax, 1905 3, 996. 83 

Southwestern Normal School fund tax, 1906 7. 78 

Southwestern Normal School lease fund 1, 097. 92 

Southwestern Normal School beautifying fund 550. 66 

Southwestern Normal School building fund 1 , 647. 85 

Deaf and Dumb School fund 1, 685. 84 

Deaf and Dumb School fund tax, 1903 761. 54 

Deaf and Dumb School fund tax, 1904 3, 683. 55 

Deaf and Dumb School fund tax, 1905 946. 94 

Deaf and Dumb School fund tax, 1906 4. 28 

Blind School fund 7, 219. 82 

Board of education fund 2, 621 . 06 

Greer County sections 13 fund 22, 653. 39 

Greer County sections 33 fund 20, 230. 68 

Condemnation school lands fund 21 , 174. 73 

Library fund 1, 206. 64 

Bond interest fund 8, 048. 97 

Interest land-lease fund 1 , 818. 53 

Statutes and session laws fund 117. 00 

Condemnation sections 13 fund 1 , 238. 24 

Condemnation sections 33 fund 2, 622. 57 

Permanent school fund 100. 00 

Total 732,587.18 

Balance on hand June 1, 1906 754, 850. 58 

Amount received from all sources from June 1 to June 30 15, 275. 94 

Total 770,126.52 

Amount paid out from June 1 to June 30 37, 539. 34 

Balance on hand at close of business June 30, 1906 732, 587. 18 

Total 770,126.52 

The funds are deposited in the following banks: 

Capitol National Bank, Guthrie $158, 634. 59 

Less outstanding checks 6. 99 

158,627.60 

Guthrie National Bank, Guthrie 84, 225. 04 

National Bank of Commerce, Guthrie 75, 508. 34 

Guthrie Savings Bank, Guthrie 18, 653. 76 

Logan County Bank, Guthrie 14, 755. 06 

Western National Bank, Oklahoma City 66, 478. 96 

American National Bank, Oklahoma City 19, 406. 91 

State National Bank, Oklahoma City 17,513.10 

Oklahoma City National Bank, Oklahoma City 21, 301. 02 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



261 



Chandler National Bank, Chandler $12, 315. 43 

State National Bank, Shawnee 27, 301. 58 

First National Bank, Edmond 10, 738. 01 

First National Bank, El Reno 21, 903. 01 

First National Bank, Weatherf ord 9, 460. 94 

First National Bank, Watonga 17, 589. 23 

First National Bank, Newkirk 18, 372. 31 

First National Bank, Kingfisher 27, 557. 22 

Farmers National Bank, Ponca City 15, 431. 22 

Pawnee National Bank, Pawnee 25, 309. 04 

Citizens National Bank, El Reno 10, 107. 94 

Citizens Bank of Mulhall, Mulhall 5, 029. 85 

Tonkawa State Bank, Tonkawa 2, 326. 79 

National Bank of Pond Creek, Pond Creek 5, 237. 91 

First National Bank, Arapahoe 13, 078. 27 

Garfield Exchange Bank, Enid 9, 177. 90 

Alva National Bank, Alva 25, 168. 74 

Not deposited 12. 00 

Total 732, 587. 18 

The differences in the balances as shown by our statement and 
those of the banks arise from the fact that checks have been issued 
which have not been presented for payment. 

TERRITORIAL AUDITOR. 

[L. W. Baxter.] 
Statement of warrants. 



Fund. 



General revenue 

Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College: 

Building 

Land lease 

Old tax lew 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax levy 

1905 tax levy 

Board of education 

Central Normal School 

Land lease 

Old tax levy 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax levy , 

1905 tax levy 

Colored Agricultural 

and Normal Univer- 
sity: 

Building 

Land lease 

Old tax levy 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax levy 

1905 tax levy 

College for Agricull u- 

ral and Mechanical 
Arts 

Common school 

Common school in- 
demnity 

Deaf and dumb: 

Old tax levy 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax lew 

1905 tax levy 

Library 



Issued July 
1, 1905, to 

June 30, 1906, 
inclusive. 



$332, 469. 22 



594.27 
10,970.96 



2,817.78 

1,869.76 

17,500.00 

1,006.68 

12, 471. 83 



5, 447. 48 

'30,'oo6.'66' 



1,242.84 

11,742.53 

109. 55 

1,604.70 

2,158.09 

17,500.00 



25,000.00 
323, 133. 60 

5,808.92 

5, 444. 70 
5, 416. 42 
1 , 224. 40 
11,715.73 
1,153.20 



Outstand- 
ing July 1, 
1900. 



$590,330.76 



2.05 



6,812.77 



18.08 



720. 00 
12, 444. 56 



22.47 

8.50 

3.00 

315.00 

9, 515. 88 



91.40 



Fund. 



Northwestern Normal 
School: 

Building 

Land lease 

Old tax lew • 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax levy 

1905 tax lew 

Southwestern Normal 

School: 

Building 

Beautifying 

Land lease 

1903 tax lew 

1904 tax levy 

1905 tax levy 

University: 

Building 

Land lease 

Old tax levy 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax lew 

1905 tax levy 

University equipment : 

1903 tax lew 

1904 tax lew 

University Prepara- 
tory School: 

Land lease 

Old tax levy 

1903 tax levy 

1904 tax levy 

1905 tax levy 

1905-6 building 



Total. 



Issued July 
1, 1905, to 

June 30, 1906, 
inclusive. 



$7,206.95 
"i, 073." 25 
36,666.66 



638. 73 
9,909.62 
1, 155. 91 

'30,'666."66' 



19,890.70 



23.97 
3,242.23 
49,939.83 

3,863.10 
3,759.02 



2,705.27 

"i"i66."s2 



17.415.39 
46,906.80 



1,057,240.25 



Outstand- 
ing July 1, 
1906. 



$40,057.04 



5.00 

43.61 

6.57 

10,916.22 



90.10 



5.74 
5,820.37 
11,422.60 



119. 55 
12.00 



65.00 
21,070.07 



56.50 



5,873.19 
35, 190. 17 



751,038.20 



241B— 07 



-18 



262 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TliE INTERIOR. 

THE OKLAHOMA PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

[L. W. Baxter, superintendent of public instruction.] 

The Oklahoma public schools have made commendable progress 
the past year. The growth has been steady, quiet, and yet effective. 
Teachers are better qualified and better paid ; old buildings have been 
repaired and new ones built; the schoolrooms and school grounds 
have been beautified; school district officers have manifested an 
increased interest ; the public at large are more deeply enthused and 
more persistently determined that every school shall be properly 
equipped and supplied with a thoroughly qualified teacher; gradation 
is more perfect, and instruction more scientific and effective. Thus 
the fruitage is rich and abundant, promising much for the future. 

The educational system properly divides itself into three divisions: 
The grades, the high school, and the higher education represented by 
the State institutions. 

Oklahoma has established one State university, one agricultural 
and mechanical college, three State normal schools, one university 
preparatory school, and one colored agricultural and normal univer- 
sity. During the past year three institutions were attended by 4,334 
students, at a cost to the State of $368,668.63. Each school has 
splendid buildings, excellent equipment, and a strong faculty of ener- 
getic and conscientious workers. 

Numerous private colleges and denominational schools have sprung 
up in various localities and have generally succeeded in building up 
good schools. Some especially have taken high rank and are doing 
the very highest grade of work. 

In a few short years the young men and women who are now going 
out from these institutions of learning will control the destiny of the 
future commonwealth. 

The high schools, "the university of the masses," is growing in 
favor each year. There are now over 75 schools in the Territory 
doing high school work. Under the county high school law, two 
counties, Logan and Woods, have established county high schools. 
The first has just completed its third year with an enrollment of over 
400; the latter, its first year, with over 100 students. Both institu- 
tions are well organized, well equipped with excellent buildings and 
most competent faculties. Both high schools are most liberally pat- 
ronized by the rural districts, thus elevating, enriching, and dignify- 
ing country life. 

But after all the common school is the school of the masses, "the 
anchor and hope of a free people." Oklahoma is divided into con- 
venient and accessible school districts 3 miles square. Thus every 
boy and girl has a school brought to his doorway. These schools 
are taught by properly certificated teachers. The course of study 
is prescribed by the State board of education. This course of study 
articulates with the high schools and the State institutions. The 
articulation is so perfect that a pupil may begin in the most distant 
rural school and graduate at any of the State institutions without a 
break. 

The schools are supported principally by levies made on the taxable 
property of the Territory. For the year ended June 30, 1905, the 
total amount expended for school purposes was $1,488,109.88. New 
buildings have been erected during the year in every part of the 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 263 

Territory. The present value of buildings and grounds is 
$2,593,848.03. The enumeration of school children between the 
ages of 6 and 21 years was: Males, 108,721; females, 102,895; total, 
211,616. The enrollment was: Males, 81,540; females, 76,782; total, 
158,322. The daily attendance of all pupils was: Males, 45,437; 
females, 44,801; total, 90,238. All of these were increases over the 
preceding year. 

The number of teachers employed were: Males, 1,269; females, 
2,418 ; total, 3,687. The average wages of teachers holding first-grade 
certificates was $50.44 per month. The demand for well-equipped 
teachers in every part of the Territory is on the increase. The efforts 
put forth by our teachers to better prepare themselves is not exceeded 
by- any other body of teachers. The introduction of the nationalized 
Illinois course of study has greatly facilitated uniformity and given 
definiteness to the work. The plan of the rural school graduation 
has been in operation for several years and has proven a great incen- 
tive to the children of the rural schools to complete the work of the 
grades and receive a diploma. Very many of these boys and girls are 
greatly encouraged to go to the higher schools. Since the adoption 
of this plan 6,4£5 pupils have passed these examinations successfully. 

The schools are supported by taxation and rentals from the school 
lands donated by the General Government for educational purposes. 
Each school district is allowed to levy 20 mills on the assessable 
property of the district for school purposes annually, while the school- 
land rentals aggregated $338,585.60, and amounted to $1.60 per capita 
for the common schools, being an increase over the preceding year of 
$0.28 per capita. 

The county superintendents fix the boundaries of the various 
school districts to suit the convenience of the people. In many 
localities the people are forming consolidated districts and organizing 
a graded or union school with two or more teachers. The tendency 
is toward consolidation with transportation of pupils. This will be 
one of the radical improvements in our school system in the near 
future. 

County superintendents report healthy associations of teachers in 
every county where monthly meetings are held during the sessions of 
the schools. They have reported numerous visits made by them to 
the various district schools, where advice, encouragement, and lectures 
have been given by them to teachers, pupils, and patrons. A county 
normal institute has been held in each county lasting from four to six 
weeks during the summer. Instruction and lectures were given by 
licensed instructors and conductors examined by the State board of 
education. The persons teaching in these normals are generally 
members of the faculties of some of the State institutions, city superin- 
tendents, high school principals or teachers, thus insuring the best 
talent. A small enrollment fee of $1 is charged for four weeks of 
instruction, and this, with the examination fees collected during the 
year, pay the expenses of these schools. In some instances the county 
commissioners aid the institute by a donation of $100 from the funds 
of the county. 

The teachers of the Territory held their annual association or con- 
vention at Enid during the holidays. Over 600 teachers enrolled, 
besides the many visitors that attended. Many prominent speakers 
and lecturers from abroad were present and addressed the convention. 



264 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The next meeting will be held at Shawnee. A joint session with the 
teachers of the Indian Territory has been arranged, and the two asso- 
ciations will be united. 

The separate school law, requiring a separate school for the white 
and colored youth, continues to be popular with the people of both 
races. The school in the district where the pupils of either race are 
in the minority is called the separate school. These separate schools 
are maintained by taxation of the entire county wherein they are 
located. 

Kindergarten schools are maintained in the cities of the first class 
in accordance with a late law and are becoming very popular. The 
State normal schools also maintain kindergartens for the training of 
teachers. 

The moral and humane law passed by the last legislature is receiving 
support and is being generally observed. Teachers are endeavoring 
to find the best means of complying with the observance of the law. 
Associations of noble men and women are being formed for the teach- 
ing of its principles. 

The crowning glory of American statehood is its public schools, and 
the people of Oklahoma are not behind, but are leaders in the idea of 
education. Our population, being made up of the most energetic 
people from every State in the Union and the entire civilized parts of 
the earth, it follows that they are profoundly interested in the cause 
of education, and firmly believe it to be the only means for the preser- 
vation of the Union and the perpetuation of American manhood. 

LEGAL DEPARTMENT. 

[W. O. Cromwell, attorney-general.] 

The volun»e of work in the office of the attorney-general during the 
first half of the past year showed a slight increase, and the office was 
able, with the usual force, to keep the same from accumulating. Since 
the passage of the enabling act, approved June 16, 1906, the numerous 
inquiries and additional work of a legal nature necessarily devolving 
upon an office of this sort has materially increased. While it is true 
that no legal obligation devolves upon the office, as at present consti- 
tuted, to express opinions upon matters governing affairs over in the 
Indian Territory, yet no good reason can be assigned for refusing to 
aid, so far as possible, in informing those who are sufficiently inter- 
ested to make requests as to the character of constitution most advis- 
able for the new State. 

Under the laws of the Territory as now constituted the attorney- 
general is required to appear for the Territory and prosecute all pro- 
ceedings, civil or criminal, in the supreme court in which the Territory 
is an interested party. It is also the duty of the attorney-general, at 
the request of the governor, to prosecute those criminal or civil cases 
on behalf of the Territory in which it may appear that his services are 
needed. He is required, under the law, to advise county attorneys 
and to give written opinions to the heads of all departments or either 
branch of the legislature when requested so to do in writing. In addi- 
tion to these general duties imposed upon this office there are many 
special acts requiring the attorney-general to look after specific 
matters. 



GOVERNOR OP OKLAHOMA. 265 

The volume of criminal business has not, we are pleased to say, 
increased during the last year, but, on the contrary, has decreased. 
We look upon this as a very healthful condition and as showing a 
desire upon the part of the citizens of the Territory to keep rather than 
to break its laws. 

The civil litigation in which the Territory is interested in the vari- 
ous courts has rapidly increased within the past year. Suits growing 
out of the failure of the Capitol National Bank of this city have been 
thus far successfully carried on, the original amount of the judgment 
obtained against the American Bonding Company, which was surety 
for the bank, being $244,053.21. This case was tried in the district 
court of Logan County. Judgment for the full amount was awarded 
and time taken by the defendant company to perfect an appeal to the 
supreme court. The appeal has not yet been filed in the supreme 
court and is therefore undetermined. 

The usual number of habeas corpus cases have been brought by 
persons incarcerated in the State Penitentiary at Lansing, Kans., 
where the Oklahoma prisoners are kept under contract with the said 
State. 

There are twenty-six counties in Oklahoma, each having a county 
attorney authorized to call upon the attorney-general for advice per- 
taining to the duties of the offices, and the majority of these officers 
have found it necessary within the past year to ask for but few opin- 
ions from this office. Fewer opinions have been asked for from this 
office by county attorneys than during the preceding year. This can 
be accounted for, however, by the fact that the county attorneys were 
newly elected at the election occurring November 4, 1904, and during 
the first year were naturally more or less new to the office, and, in fact, 
some of the most important laws now upon the statute book were 
placed there by the legislature of 1903, which made it necessary for 
county attorneys to ask freely for an interpretation of those laws by 
this office. 

One of the most important cases now pending in the supreme court 
of the Territory is the case involving the removal of the Hospital for 
the Insane to the Fort Supply Military Reservation near Woodward, 
in Woodward County, Okla., the insane of the Territory having previ- 
ously been cared for at the Sanitarium in Norman, Cleveland County, 
Okla. , which is operated by the Oklahoma Sanitarium Company. The 
case was submitted at the January, 1906, term of the supreme court, 
but no opinion has been handed down by that tribunal. 

Considerable business has been transacted in the United States cir- 
cuit court of appeals in criminal cases appealed from the supreme 
court of our Territory. 

The several habeas corpus cases have entailed a large amount of 
work and necessitated a number of trips to Leavenworth, Topeka, and 
St. Louis, some being brought in the district court of Leavenworth 
County, Kans., others in the United States district court for the dis- 
trict of Kansas, and still others begun in the United States circuit 
court of appeals at St. Louis. The Moran case, now pending in the 
Supreme Court of the United States, is the most important criminal 
case now on the docket of this office. 

The most important civil case is the case of the Territory of Okla- 
homa v. The American Bonding Company of Baltimore, mentioned 
heretofore, in which the district court of Logan County gave judg- 



266 ANNUAL KEPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ment for the full amount for which the Territory sued. As the bank 
has paid dividends, the claim of the Territory has been materially 
reduced, and now, less interest, is only about half of the amount for 
which claim was originally made. 

This office is pleased to state that, so far as requests from the heads 
of the different departments of the Territorial government for opin- 
ions from this office relative to departmental duties are concerned, 
the work has not increased, except from the departments of the Ter- 
ritorial secretary and the Territorial treasurer. 

So far as we are able at present to judge, there will be a heavy 
increase in the work in this department incident to the organization 
and putting into operation of a State form of government. 

THE MILITIA. 

TAlva J. Niles, adjutant-general.] 

The militia of Oklahoma is composed of a highly intelligent class 
of young men, as is shown by the official reports of United States 
army officers who have inspected it. Though there is much room for 
improvement, it has been through the efforts of these young men that 
Oklahoma has to-day one of the best organized and disciplined 
organizations of citizen soldiers in the United States. 

The law known as the "Dick bill, " which was enacted by Congress 
in 1903, provided that — 

In organization, armament, and discipline the organized militia of the several States and 
Territories, including the District of Columbia, shall be the same as that which is now pro- 
vided for the regular and volunteer armies of the United States within five years from the 
date of the approval of this act. 

In complying with this law much progress has been made, and it 
may be said that with a few exceptions the Oklahoma militia now 
conforms with the provisions of that act. 

From the appropriation of $1,000,000, provided for by the Dick 
bill for arming the militia, there was set aside last year for the 
Oklahoma militia the sum of $13,103.13, and this year, b}~ reason of 
an increase by Congress in the national appropriation, Oklahoma 
receives the sum of $26,206.26, with the provision that at least 
$6,551.56 of that amount shall be used in establishing rifle ranges. 
The balance of the allotment, $19,654.70, will be used for providing 
other necessary equipment. 

While the National Government is doing its full share in providing 
arms and equipment for our militia, it is a matter of deep regret that 
our own local law is not as responsive to it as it is believed it should 
be in the way of appropriating money to provide for the proper care 
of this equipment and for putting it to proper use. Our Territorial 
appropriation for armory rent for the several organizations, includ- 
ing light, fuel, etc., only allows $20 per month to each organization 
for the first three months of the year and $15 per month for the 
remaining nine months, which amount is entirely inadequate for the 
purpose for which it is intended, and in several of the organizations 
the members are compelled to pay as much as $15 each month from 
their own personal funds, in addition to the amount paid by the 
Territory, m order that they may be enabled to provide a suitable 
armory in which to properly care for the many thousands of dollars' 
worth of supplies and equipment furnished them by the United 
States Government. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 267 

The Oklahoma troops will all attend and participate in the maneu- 
vers with the Regular troops at Fort Riley, Kans., this year for the 
first time, and they will also be represented by a rifle team in the 
national rifle competition, which is to be held at Seagirt, N. J., 
beginning September 4 next, the expense of both sending the troops 
to Fort Riley and the sending of the rifle team to Seagirt to be paid 
by the National Government. Much interest is being shown and 
much work is being done by every member of the guard preparing it 
for the maneuvers, and it is believed that more good will be accom- 
plished there by reason of their coming in close contact with the 
troops of the Regular Army than at any previous encampment. 

During this year the following organizations have been disbanded 
or transferred: 

Company C, First Infantry, stationed at Pond Creek, disbanded 
for the reason that it fell below the standard in efficiency, and for 
the further reason that its strength fell below the minimum required 
by law. 

The Hospital Corps, stationed at Woodward, was transferred to El 
Reno, for the reason that the latter place offered better opportunities 
for the building up and maintenance of a better organization. 

Troop A (cavalry), stationed at Edmond, and commonly known 
as "Troop A Band," was transferred to the First Infantry and desig- 
nated the " First Infantry Band." This transfer was made for the 
reason that the so-called Troop A was armed with musical instru- 
ments and had no resemblance of a troop of cavalry, though it was 
and is an excellent band, and as the First Infantry was without a band 
it afforded an excellent opportunity to make the transfer. 

Company C has been reorganized at Shawnee and promises to be 
one of the best organizations in the guard. 

On March 1, this year, Capt. Alva J. Niles, at that time captain 
and quartermaster, First Infantry, was appointed adjutant-general. 

Since that time many changes of much importance have been made 
in the guard. Prior to March 1 all blankets, ponchos, messing outfits, 
and equipments of a similar character were kept stored in the adjutant- 
general's armory, except when in use by the troops at encampment, 
about six days each year, but it was considered greatly to the advan- 
tage of the service to have these equipments with the several organi- 
zations at all times where the men could learn how to use and care 
for them themselves, as they would have to do were they called 
into actual service. They were issued and distributed accordingly. 

A thorough system for the examination of commissioned officers 
has been introduced, and its effect is very noticeable, even at this 
early date. All candidates for commissions and for promotion are 
required to undergo a written examination and make a satisfactory 
showing before the examining board before receiving their commis- 
sions. For the purpose of instructing the officers under them each 
major has been assigned to command of his respective battalion and 
permitted to conduct correspondence with them direct, though all 
letters are required to be in triplicate — one copy for the adjutant- 
general and one for the colonel in command. The majors conduct 
the most of their school of instruction by correspondence, submitting 
field problems for their company officers to work out in their own 
way and requiring them to submit their solutions by a given date. 



268 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

This system of instruction is proving highly satisfactory to all con- 
cerned. The expense of conducting it is all borne by the officers 
themselves. 

There has been a slight reduction in the strength of the guard in 
the past few months, which is explained by the following extract 
from an order published to the commands on June 13, this year, and 
directed to the colonel in command of the First Infantry: 

You are directed to issue orders to the company commanders of your command to call 
upon each member of their company in person and ascertain whether or not he expects to 
attend camp this year, and if any of them find that they can not attend, for business reasons 
or otherwise, then they must make application for a discharge immediately, as the law, 
which requires every officer and enlisted man to attend encampment, unless he is specially 
excused by the governor, will be strictly enforced hereafter. You will instruct your com- 
pany commanders to fully kiform the members of their command of this fact, that they 
may have an opportunity to obtain an honorable discharge in case they do find that they 
will be prevented from attending encampment. 

The reduction caused by the above order is only slight, for the 
reason that in nearly every case new men have enlisted to take the 
place of those who have applied for a discharge, and it is expected 
to have 100 per cent attendance at the maneuvers this year. Here- 
tofore the average has been less than 75 per cent. The above order 
was necessary in order to insure a full attendance, but unfortunately 
it has compelled a few very good men to leave the guard, some for 
the reason that their business would not permit them leaving home 
for so long a time, and many for the reason that their employers will 
not permit them to leave their work. It is a lamentable fact that 
Oklahoma has a few business men who, either for lack of patriotism 
or other reasons, will not grant the few days' leave to their clerk to 
attend these encampments, yet this class of business men are usually 
the first to call upon the militia for protection when their lives or 
their property are in danger. In many cases the clerk goes to camp 
anyway, and in most cases he is discharged by his employer for doing 
so. It is not in tended to subject any of those business men to unjust 
criticism, but it seems that it should be a duty they owe to themselves 
and to their country to grant any man in their employ a few days 
each year in which to attend camp, in case he is a member of the 
militia, where he could receive instructions in preparing himself to 
perform the duties which would be imposed upon him in case he 
should be called into actual service. 

All enlisting will be suspended on August 1 until after the return 
from the maneuvers, in order that all new recruits recently enlisted 
can receive proper drilling and training in preparing them for their 
duties at maneuvers. If enlisting were continued until September 1, 
it is believed the total strength of the guard would reach 1,000, but 
it is considered to the good of the service to suspend enlisting on 
August 1 in order that a more efficient body of troops can be taken 
to camp. 

The total strength of the militia at the present time is 772 officers 
and men, of which 95 per cent would respond to a call to arms in case 
of domestic emergency. They are distributed as follows: 

General staff 7 

Regimental field officers 5 

Regimental staff officers 6 

Battalion staff officers 6 

Medical officers 3 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



269 



F< gimental noncommissioned staff 2 

Battalion noncommissioned staff 3 

Company A, First Infantry, Guthrie 47 

Company B, First Infantry, Chandler 71 

Company C, First Infantry, Shawnee 53 

Company D, First Infantry, Blackwell 48 

Company E, First Infantry, Pawnee 45 

Company F, First Infantry, Waton<ra 52 

Company G, First Infantry, Hennessey 37 

Company H, First Infantry, Edmond 55 

Company I, First Infantry, Alva 51 

Company K, First Infantry, Enid 50 

Company L, First Infantry, Perry 47 

Company M, First Infantry, Oklahoma 60 

Engineer Corps, Lawton 43 

Hospital Corps, El Reno 20 

Signal Corps, Blackwell 32 

Band, Edmond 29 

Total 772 

Official roster. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Station. 


Governor Frank Frantz 


Commander in chief 






Adjutant-general and chief of staff, 
ex officio quartermaster-general, 
commissary-general, paymaster- 
general, and chief of ordnance. 


Do. 




Enid. 








Maj. John W. Duke 




Do. 




Aid-de-camp 


Watonga. 
Guthrie. 


Capt. Leslie G. Nihlack 


do 


Capt. Henry R. Hoffman 


do 


Oklahoma City. 







FIRST INFANTRY. 



Col. Roy Hoffman, commanding 

Lieut. Col. Charles West 

Maj. Elta H. Jayne 

Maj. Ralph Ramer 

Maj. Jacob C. Herr 



Chandler. 

Enid. 

Edmond. 

Oklahoma. 

Chandler. 



REGIMENTAL STAFF, FIRST INFANTRY. 



Maj. F. H. Racer 

Capt. Charles Barrett 

Capt. Mont F. Highley 

Capt. Samuel H. Harrelson. . 

Capt. Job Ingram 

First Lieut. Ross Way 

First Lieut. Walter Ferguson 
First Lieut. John C. Pinson. . 



Surgeon 

Commissary 

Adjutant 

Quartermaster 

Chaplain 

Battalion adjutant. 

do 

do 



Woodward. 

Shawnee. 

Oklahoma. 

Do. 
Kingfisher. 
Walter. 
Shawnee. 
Chandler. 



INSPECTORS OF RIFLE PRACTICE. 



Capt. A. L. Emery 

First Lieut. Orville G. Frantz. 



Inspector of rifle practice. 

Assistant inspector of rifle practice. 



Watonga. 
Guthrie. 



UNASSIGNED. 



Second Lieut. Oliver J. Perren 




Pond Creek. 






Prague. 

Chandler. 

Lawton. 


Second Lieut. Lewis E. Martin 

Second Lieut. Mark W. Tobin 









270 ANNUAL, REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



Official roster — Continued. 

NONCOMMISSIONED STAFF. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Station. 


Andrew W. Wickline 


Sergeant-major 


Oklahoma City. 


Ira A Lookabout 


Quartermaster-sergeant 


Ralph H. Day 


Battalion sergeant-major 


Oklahoma City. 




do 


Elisha M. Castleberry 


do 






First color sergeant 




Frank L. Martin 


Second color sergeant 











COMPANY OFFICERS, FIRST INFANTRY. 



Name 



Capt. George E. Dunnica 

First Lieut. Charles S. Curran 

Second Lieut. John C. Gilbert 

Capt. Bennet G. McCoy 

First Lieut. Roy H. Dawson 

Second Lieut. Samuel J. Foster 

Capt. E. R. Waite 

Capt. Eltie Wright 

Second Lieut. Dwight Randall 

Capt. James M. Grimsley 

First Lieut. Henry Sternberg 

Second Lieut. Albert T. Wilson 

Capt. Arthur L. Edgington 

First Lieut. Walter A. Ferguson 

Second Lieut. Stephen A. Hamilton. . 

Capt. John P. Alley 

Second Lieut. Jesse J. Combes 

Capt. C. B. Blake, jr 

Second Lieut. Francis Coram Oakcs. . 

Capt. Gus Hadwiger 

First Lieut. Arthur J. Lewis 

Second Lieut. Charles L. Reed 

Capt. Benjamin F. Lewis 

First Lieut. Howard Carter 

Second Lieut. Winfield Scott 

Capt. Herman F. Wetzel 

First Lieut. Robert E. Delaney 

Second Lieut. John J. Rubash 

Capt. Fred W. Hunter 

First Lieut. Robert L. Carle 

Second Lieut. Ellis Stephenson 

Capt. Frank Ben King 

First Lieut Frank Levant Ketch 

Second Lieut. Samuel Irad McElhoes. 

Capt. Fred H. Clark 

First Lieut Hugh Scott 

Capt. Frank H. Robertson 

First Lieut. Edward A. Lentz . . .' 

Second Lieut. Fred N. Irby 



Organization. 



Company A . 

'.'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Company B . 

do 

do 

Company C . 
Company D 

Company E . 

.'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Company F. 

.'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Company G. 

Company H . 

Company I. 

'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Company K. 

.'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Company L . 

'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Company M . 

'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Engineers... 

do 

do 



Station. 



Hospital Corp? 

Signal Corps. . . 

do 

do 



Guthrie. 

Do. 

Do. 
Chandler. 

Do. 

Do. 
Shawnee. 
Blackwell. 

Do. 
Pawnee. 

Do. 

Do. 
Watonga. 

Do. 

Do. 
Hennessey. 

Do. 
Edmond. 

Do. 
Alva. 

Do. 

Do. 
Enid. 

Do 

Do. 
Perry. 

Do. 

Do. 
Oklahoma City. 

Do. 

Do. 
Lawton. 

Do. 

Do. 
El Reno. 

Do. 
Blackwell. 

Do. 
Tonkawa. 



BANKING. 



[Herbert H. Smock, bank commissioner.] 



Consolidated statement of the condition of all the Territorial hanks in the Territory ofOMahoma 
at the close of business May 24, 1906. 



RESOURCES. 

Loans and discounts $8, 316, 992. 88 

Overdrafts 324, 184. 88 

Bonds, warrants, and securities 305, 128. 00 

Banking house, furniture, and fixtures 647, 723. 47 

Other real estate owned 66, 290. 52 

Due from banks 3,705,996.19 

Cash 936,181.80 

Cash items 202,873.62 

Total 14,505,371.26 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 271 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock paid in $2, 934, 700. 00 

Surplus fund 361 , 266. 03 

Undivided profits 480, 016. 17 

Individual deposits $9, 121, 819. 28 

Certificates of deposit 1, 151, 423. 70 

Cashiers' checks 72,846. 19 

Due to banks 247, 429. 07 



Total deposits 10, 593, 518. 24 

Bills payable 110, 880. 34 

Bills rediscounted 24, 990. 58 

Total 14,505,371.36 

Total number of banks reporting 283 

Average reserve held per cent. . 46 

Reserve required do 20 and 25 

Per cent of capital and surplus to deposits 31 

Number and capital of hanks doing business in the Territory of Oklahoma on the 30th day of 

June, 1906. 



Capital. 

2 banks $12, 000 

2 banks 12, 500 

17 banks 15,000 

6 banks 20, 000 

16 banks 25,000 

2 banks 30,000 

1 bank 40, 000 

2 banks 50, 000 



Capital. 

86 banks $5,000 

lbank 5,500 

1 bank 6 , 000 

lbank 7,000 

1 bank 7,500 

1 bank 8,000 

147 banks 10 , 000 

1 bank 10, 200 

1 bank 10, 500 

Average capital employed, $10,342. 

During the year ended June 30, 1906, the number of Territorial 
banks increased 30, the capitalization increased $443,500, the loans 
increased $2,048,900, and deposits increased $2,200,408. 

The department examined 262 banks during the year ended 
June 30, 1906, and collected fees amounting to $4,075, which were 
turned over to the territorial treasurer. 

During the year ended June 30, 1906, 53 new banks were organized 
under the Territorial banking laws. During the same period 12 
Territorial banks nationalized, 10 liquidated or merged with other 
banks, and 1 bank has closed. The banking field in Oklahoma is 
well covered at the present time. 

It is believed that our banks, and the methods employed by this 
department in their supervision, will compare favorably with those 
of other and older States, and our banking laws above the average 
in point of safeguarding the interests of the public. 

NATIONAL BANKS. 

There were 113 national banks in operation. The required 
reserve is 18.62 per cent. The actual reserve on hand is 32.93 
per cent. 



272 ANNUAL. REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



Altus 

Anadarko 

Alva 

Blackwell 

Carmen 

Canton 

Chandler 

Cherokee 

Clinton 

Cordell 

Cement 

Cushing 

Custer City 

Davidson 

Enid 

El Reno 

Elk City 

Erick 

Eldorado 

Fairview 

Frederick 

Geary 

Guthrie 

Guymon 

Gage 

Hennessey 

Hobart 

Hooker 

Jefferson 

Kingfisher 

Lawton 

Longdale 

Mangum 

Medford 

Mountain View. 

Newkirk 

Norman 

Oklahoma City. 

Okeene 

Pawnee 

Perry 

Ponca City 

Prague 

Sayre 

Shawnee 

Shattuck 

Snyder 

Stillwater 

Stroud 

Waurika 

Weatherf ord . . . 

Wellston 

Woodward 

Waynoka 



OIL INSPECTION. 
[F. A. Ashton. inspector.] 



Total 46, 550 



Barrels 
furnished by 
Waters-Pierce 

Oil Co. 



Oil. 



747 
1,178 
1,082 
2,075 
1,356 



1,459 
2, 522' 



581 



3,195 
1,263 



50 

237 

958 

3,200 

458 

65 

735 

1,768 



730 

697 

1,246 



1,461 
"187" 



3,991 
734 

1,079 
863 
616 



1,013 

3,642 

65 

101 
1,434 

125 
1,326 

801 



2,050 
124 



Gas. 



1,512 
2,114 
1,108 



951 



20 



3,486 
1,014 



16 
25 

989 

1,878 

218 



477 
1,438 



735 
1,058 



645 



12 

737 
371 
4,777 
614 
901 
858 
736 



340 
2,025 



733 
10 



616 



921 
70 



33,861 



Barrels 
furnished by 

other 
companies. 



Oil. 



12 


13 


30 


21 


7 




112 


8 


55 


5 


84 


30 


130 


46 


17 


3 



140 
59 

434 

212 
90 

152 
40 



50 



14 

200 

5 



550 
52 



41 
103 



1,198 
'"i76" 



1,801 



216 
17 
12 



6,112 



Gas. 



105 
30 
11 
26 
18 



10 
84 

3 
15 

4 
210 



758 
"5i 



110 

"n 



1,762 



Fees 
received. 



$117.20 

207.30 

268.20 

418.90 

254.20 

18.00 

215.80 

17.10 

357. 40 

26.40 

3.00 

62.60 

25.50 

9.00 

747.40 

264.00 

15.15 

26.70 

8.70 

9.00 

39.30 

194. 70 

507.80 

108. 90 

9.75 

124.80 

366. 45 

1.20 

140.05 

143.80 

345.95 

9.00 

210.60 

11.85 

38.85 

196.50 

73.50 

1,113.65 

134. 80 

232.05 

172. 10 

143.90 

1.35 

144.05 

824.88 

9.75 

59.55 

230.15 

23.05 

132.60 

145. 35 

1.05 

298.40 

29.10 



9, 288. 13 



Paid to 
Terri- 
torial 
treas- 
urer. 



$87.90 

155.48 

202.15 

314.18 

190. 65 

13. 50 

161.85 

12.82 

268.06 

19.80 

2.25 

46.95 

19.13 

6.75 

560.55 

198.00 

11.36 

20.03 

6.53 

6.75 

29.48 

146.03 

380.85 

81.68 

7.31 

93.60 

274. 54 

.90 

105.29 

107.85 

259.49 

6.75 

157. 96 

8.89 

29.14 

147. 38 

55.13 

835.24 

101. 10 

174. 04 

129.08 

108. 23 

.99 

108. 04 

618. 66 

6.31 

44.66 

172. 61 

17.29 

99.45 

109.01 

.79 

223.80 

21.83 



,966.10 



This report shows that there were inspected from June 30, 1905, 
to June 30, 1906, 46,550 barrels of oil, 33,861 barrels of gasoline 
(for the Waters-Pierce Oil company), and 6,112 barrels of oil, and 
1,762 barrels of gasoline (for other companies), making a total of 
88,385 barrels inspected during the year. There were 18,039 more 
barrels of oil handled than of gasoline. 

There has been collected as fees during the year $9,288.13, and 
of this amount $2,322.03 has been paid to deputies, the balance, 
$6,966.10, being turned into the Territorial treasury. 

There are 27 deputies in the Territory, and the average fee paid 
to each during the year was $86. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 275 

There have been eight oil companies doing business in Oklahoma 
during the last year, namely: Waters-Pierce Oil Company, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. ; Richardson-Gay Oil Company, Corsicana, Tex. ; Musko- 
gee Oil Company, Muskogee, Ind. T. ; Burrows Oil Company, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. ; F. R. Harris, Hobart, Okla. ; Red River Oil and Supply 
Company, Oklahoma City, Okla.; Uncle Sam Oil Company, Kansas 
City, Kans.; and National Oil Company, Kansas City, Mo. 

GRAIN INSPECTION. 

[C F. Prouty, inspector.] 

Report of cars inspected during period from February 26, 1906, to June, 1906, inclusive. 

Total number of cars inspected (305, at 35 cents per car) $106. 75 

Paid deputy inspectors for inspecting 305 cars, at 20 cents 61. 00 

Chief inspector received on salary 45. 00 

Total 106.75 

TERRITORIAL LIBRARY. 

[J. W. Foose, librarian.] 

The library has been placed in more commodious quarters, thereby 
rendering it more convenient and comfortable and increasing its 
patronage to fully three times that of previous years. It is generally 
used by the lawyers throughout the Territory. 

We have added 80 new shelves and 72 new Globe- Wernecke book- 
cases to accommodate the accessions of this year. A newly-fitted 
directors' room for the judges of the supreme court, a reading room 
and librarian's office, the English reports complete, the American 
and Century digests, together with a full list of late text-books, con- 
stitute the most valuable acquisitions of the last year. 

Volume 14 of the Oklahoma reports has been issued, 1,000 copies 
of which have been received by the library for sale and distribution. 
The sales of our publications have doubled in the last year. 

The library and fixtures, including the Oklahoma publications on 
hand for sale, have a value of $70,000, on which is carried an insurance 
of $35,750. 

There are 8,288 volumes on the shelves at this time, being an 
increase of 886 over the number at this time last year. 

We have received during the past year the following volumes: 

By purchase 715 

By donation 1 

By exchange with other States 17C 

As a depository for United States documents 210 

We have now on hand Oklahoma publications numbering 7,090. 

GAME AND FISH. 

[Eugene Watrous, game and fish warden.] 

The matter of compiling this report has been a difficult one owing 
to the fact that there have been so many changes among the deputy 
county wardens, on whom I depended for information as to the work 
done by them. Some resigned, others changed place of residence 
without making any report. A few yet remain to be heard from in 



274 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

response to circular letter issued by this office some three months 
ago asking report from each and every deputy warden. The 
following is complete as far as possible to obtain: 

Number of arrests 22 

Number of prosecutions 16 

Number of convictions 13 

Amount of fines $1, 340 

Number of jail sentences 2 

Number of quails seized 17, 650 

Number of prairie chickens 100 

Number of nets and seines seized 6 

Cases pending on appeal 2 

The above includes work done by deputies of the different counties 
throughout the Territory and reported to this office. 

Following are the receipts and disbursements of this office alone : 

Received in cash, portion of fines allowed by law $140. 00 

From sale of game, by order of court 125. 00 

Total 265.00 

Expenses: 

Railroad fare, hotel and other traveling expenses while in performance of offi- 
cial duties 187. 00 

Printing and stationery 75. 00 

Postage 25. 00 

Special deputy hire 10. 50 

Drayage and other incidentals 10. 25 

Total 307.75 

Game confiscated and not sold was donated for charitable purposes. 
A quantity, however, unfit for use was buried. 

This office has cQmmissioned during the past year 23 deputy 
county game and fish wardens. A majority of these wardens, while 
looking after the enforcement of the game and fish laws, have received 
no compensation for their services. Those who were successful in 
apprehending and causing the arrest and conviction for violation of 
the game and fish laws, received for such services only such portion 
of the fine and property confiscated as provided by law, which, as 
a matter of fact, did not cover cost of making such arrest and prose- 
cution, calculating from a reasonable valuation of time and traveling 
expenses. 

Under these conditions it has been difficult to get good service. 
The framing of the present law was done, no doubt, with good inten- 
tions, but it lacks very much in efficiency to meet the requirements 
to successfully protect our game and fish. 

Since my appointment to the office of game and fish warden I have 
gone over and made a careful study of the entire Territory as to the 
natural conditions and resources as a game and fish harbor and the 
kinds contained therein. We find the entire Territory a natural and 
ideal habitation for the Bob White and prairie hen. The jack rabbit 
and cotton tail abound in most parts, wild turkey and deer are quite 
numerous in the hilly portions, and are becoming more so every year. 
Our mild winters are favorable to the game birds, and the numerous 
streams make it possible for easy propagation of nearly all kinds of 
fish adapted to ponds and small rivers. The song bird and the non- 
game bird are becoming more numerous with the development and 
planting of trees throughout the prairie districts of the Territory. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 275 

Oklahoma to-day is the sportsman's paradise, and with proper protec- 
tion to the game can always be maintained as such. To successfully 
accomplish this a new game law must be enacted. Some of the prin- 
cipal features differing from our present law are: A gun license, bag 
limit, change in dates for open season for certain kinds of game, 
imprisonment penalty for violations (prohibiting spring shooting and 
sale of water fowls), and a provision for transporting of game for 
propagating purposes. 

The first item is of most importance for the reason that in this 
manner a fund can be created, without any appropriation or direct 
taxation, to be used in defraying the expenses of maintaining the 
office of game and fish warden and employing deputy wardens 
to assist in enforcing the law. In this manner only can the work 
be done successfully. A gun license can be imposed, small enough so 
that no one would object to paying it, yet large enough to make the 
work self-supporting. In fact the adoption of the license system 
has practically solved the question of raising funds for enforcing the 
game laws, or at least has shown how game protection may be made 
self-supporting. Five years ago comparatively few States had adopted 
the system of hunting licenses. Now thirty-six States require non- 
resident, and sixteen require resident hunters to secure license. In 
nine States — Idaho, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, 
North Dakota, Kansas, Washington, and Wisconsin — the game 
wardens department is at present maintained without special appro- 
priation or the cost of a dollar to the general taxpayer of the State, 
and in some cases the receipts from licenses are more than sufficient 
for the ordinary expenses of the department. Thus at the close of 
the year 1905 the balance in the game-protection fund of Missouri 
was more than $40,000, while that of Illinois was nearly $100,000. 

There is no reason why this plan should not work in Oklahoma 
even to a further purpose than protecting the game we now have. In 
this manner funds can be raised to establish game refuges in one or 
more parts of the State for the purpose of propagating different 
kinds of game birds which we do not now have, but which are known 
to be adapted to our climate and conditions. With proper manage- 
ment Oklahoma can be made the banner game State of the Union. 

By close inquiry we find the Bob White more numerous throughout 
Oklahoma this season than for several years. There are two reasons 
for this: First, on account of our last winter being very mild, none 
perished from exposure; and secondly, on account of the rigid prose- 
cution among market hunters, not so many were killed during the 
last season. There is no reason why the timber portion of Oklahoma 
can not be stocked with Mongolian and English pheasants, grouse, 
and other game birds, the cost of establishing and care taking of which 
can be paid out of the game protection fund created by the gun- 
license system. 

In conclusion, while it is true that Oklahoma has in the past years 
permitted the wanton destruction of game, it is a gratifying fact that 
there remain sufficient numbers which will rapidly multiply if only 
granted the protection provided for in the proposed new game law 



276 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

INSURANCE COMMISSIONER. 

[Charles H. Filson, secretary, ex officio insurance commissioner.] 

The business transacted by the several fire, life, and casualty insur- 
ance companies licensed to do business in Oklahoma for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1906, is quite satisfactory, and shows that the 
business done in Oklahoma has been of a profitable character. 

The total amount of premiums collected by the fire companies in 
1905 was $1,011,193.91; losses incurred, $319,650.82; the amount of 
risks written by all companies was $81,352,219.52. 

The life insurance companies in Oklahoma for 1905 wrote risks 
amounting to $8,366,589.61, upon which they collected premiums 
aggregating $825,010.27, having paid in losses $116,432.08. 

The fact that every strong company in the United States is repre- 
sented in Oklahoma, and that the number of companies licensed to 
transact business of insurance in this Territory is shown by the 
reports to be greater than in many of the surrounding States, indi- 
cates a very high degree of confidence in the integrity of our citizen- 
ship and a desirable class of property. 

SCHOOL LANDS 

[Fred L. Wenner.] 

One of the greatest problems confronting the people of the new 
State of Oklahoma will be that of the proper disposition of the large 
area of land granted to the State for educational and other purposes. 

The original act opening Oklahoma to settlement reserved in all 
that portion of the territory then thrown open sections 16 and 36 in 
each Congressional township for the benefit of the public schools of 
the future State of Oklahoma. Each successive act providing for 
the opening of Indian or other lands made similar reservations, and 
the acts opening the Cherokee Strip, the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, 
and Wichita reservations, as well as the act attaching Greer County 
to Oklahoma, made additional reservations of sections 13 and 33 in 
each township, the former for the benefit of the higher educational 
institutions of the Territory and the latter for public building pur- 
poses. 

The statehood enabling act makes additional grants of a certain 
specified acreage of land to each of the higher educational institu- 
tions, making a grand total of land reserved for educational and 
other purposes in the new State of 3,100,875 acres. Other Terri- 
tories have allowed their school lands to lie idle until statehood was 
attained and then often sold them for a mere pittance and after- 
wards lost a large part of the proceeds by bad investments or improper 
safeguarding of the funds. 

Oklahoma, as a Territory, has from the first leased her school and 
other reserved lands, bringing into the school and other funds a con- 
stantly increasing revenue and causing the lands to be improved and 
developed. It now remains for the State to decide whether these 
lands shall be sold or not; and, if so, to provide for a proper invest- 
ment and protection of the proceeds. The lands reserved for the 
State, if placed on the market at this time, would bring approxi- 
mately $29,000,000, and in addition to this the State has $5,000,000 
in cash given by the statehood bill in lieu of the common school lands 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 277 

in the Indian Territory. This immense fund would be divided for 
different purposes about as follows: 

Common school fund S22, 000, 000 

College fund 8,000,000 

Public building fund 4, 000, 000 

Total 34,000,000 

Surely this is a magnificent endowment. 

The acreage of lands as reserved in the Territory previous to the 
passage of the statehood bill, divided in their proper classifications, 
was as follows: 

Acres. 

Common school land 1, 413, 803 

College land 322, 007 

Public building land 315, 005 

Total '. 2,050,875 

Of the common school lands, 1,199,151 acres are regular 16 and 36 
sections and 214,651 acres are indemnity lands secured in lieu of 
sections 16 and 36 which were lost to the Territory for various 
reasons. Sections 13 and 33 in Greer County have heretofore been 
classified separately, having originally been reserved for such pur- 
poses as the State legislature should specify, but under the provisions 
of the enabling act sections 13 in Greer County are declared to be 
reserved for the higher institutions of learning and sections 33 for 
public building purposes, and hence are no longer classified separately. 

All of these lands are now under lease, and it is provided in the 
enabling act that if the State decides to sell them they must be sold 
at a public sale with the preference right to the lessee to take the 
land at the highest bid. The land and the improvements are to be 
appraised separately, and if the lessee does not elect to take the land 
at the highest bid the person securing it must pay to the lessee the 
appraised value of the improvements. In no case is any land to be 
sold for less than the appraised value. The proceeds of the sale of 
the common school lands must be invested and forever remain intact 
as a fund for the benefit of the public schools of the Territory, 
only the income to be used. The proceeds from the sale of sections 
13, or college lands, must also be invested by the State, the income 
alone to be used for the benefit of the educational institutions, the 
same to be divided as follows: One-third of the proceeds to the 
university and the university preparatory school, one-third to the 
normal schools, and one-third to the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College and the Colored Agricultural and Normal University. The 
proceeds from sections 33, or public building lands, shall be appor- 
tioned and disposed of for the erection of such charitable and penal 
institutions and other public buildings as the State legislature may 
see fit. 

The lands granted to the higher educational institutions under the 
provisions of the enabling act are in area as follows: 

Acres. 

Oklahoma University 250, 000 

Agricultural and Mechanical College 250, 000 

Normal schools 300, 000 

University Preparatory School 150, 000 

Colored Agricultural and Normal University 100, 000 

Total '. 1,0:0,000 

241b— 07 19 



278 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

These lands are not under lease and no restrictions are placed on 
their sale. Under the provision of the act granting these lands it 
was provided that they should be selected from the remaining public 
domain lying within the Territory by the board for leasing school 
lands. It was only by prompt action and a careful search of the 
records of all the land offices of the Territory that the Department 
was able to find sufficient lands to fill the grant, and their selection 
completely exhausted the public domain, so that Oklahoma will 
enjoy the unique distinction of being admitted as a State without 
any public domain lying within her borders. Much of this land 
selected for the colleges is of an inferior quality, being small tracts 
which have been passed over by settlers or the land in the extreme 
western portion of Beaver County; but, having control of the land 
in lar^e areas, the State by proper administration can lease or sell 
these lands to good advantage. 

Oklahoma first began leasing her reserved school lands in 1891, 
Congress at that time passing an act authorizing the governor of 
the Territory to lease these lands for the benefit of the school fund. 
The income the first year was less than $5,000, but so rapidly has 
the area of land to be leased and the value of same grown that this 
income had increased to the sum of $537,486.36 for the year ending 
June 30, 1906. 

The school-land department has grown from this small beginning 
until to-day it is the largest department of Territorial business, 
employing an office force of eight persons and from two to eight 
or ten persons in the field. 

Under an act of Congress of date March 4, 1894, the leasing of the 
school and other reserved lands was placed in the hands of a board 
composed of the governor, secretary of the Territory, and super- 
intendent of public instruction. The governor being designated as 
'ex officio chairman, upon him falls the greater responsibility for the 
administration of this very important department of the Territorial 
government. 

Renting land to nearly 10,000 lessees, collecting rentals averaging 
$1,800 a day, looking after the protection of the land from timber 
and mineral depredations, settling the many disputes and contro- 
versies coming up almost daily over the possession of certain lands, 
classifying and appraising the land and issuing new leases on the 
same every three years, makes this a very important department, 
requiring careful supervision and active executive management. 
The members of the board designated by law are all officials having 
other duties that require practically all of their time and attention, 
hence they elect a secretary upon whom devolves the management 
of the department working under a set of rules formulated by the 
board according to the act of Congress. The secretary thus becomes 
the executive head with authority to act upon all matters coming 
within the scope of the rules. Appeal can be taken from any action 
of his directly to the board by any person interested and all matters 
not specifically covered by the rules come directly before the board 
for action. When the enormous value of the lands, together with 
the large amount of funds handled each year is considered in connec- 
tion with the many other duties required, it is readily seen that the 
position of secretary is a very important trust and one of great 
responsibility. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 279 

In addition to the lands the improvements thereon, though recog- 
nized as the property of the lessee, come more or less under the 
jurisdiction of the department for the reason that the Territory has 
a lien upon same for any past due rentals. These improvements 
are valued at from $4,000,000 to $5,000,000. The department has 
constantly on hand 18,000 or 20,000 notes aggregating in amount 
$1,000,000 to $1,500,000. 

The net proceeds of the department, less expenses of every kind 
during the past year, apportioned by funds, were as follows: 

Common school fund $301, 026. 81 

Colleges 79, 329. 61 

Public building 79, 339. 58 

Common school indemnity 42, 466. 80 

Greer County 13 6, 790. 37 

Greer County 33 4, 977. 45 

Total '. 513,930.62 

Of these funds the receipts from the common school fund and 
85 per cent of the receipts of the common school indemnity fund 
were distributed to the various school districts throughout the 
Territory per capita of school population. Fifteen per cent of the 
common school indemnity fund was paid directly to the school 
districts from which it was received. The entire receipts of the 
college fund were divided among the seven educational institutions 
of the Territory and the public building and Greer County 13 and 33 
funds were turned over to the Territorial treasurer to be held by 
him for the State. The gross expenses of the department during 
the past year were $23,500.99, or less than 4| per cent of the receipts; 
but deducting from this gross expense $5,029 of fees collected by 
the department leaves a net expense of $18,471.99, or 3§ per cent of 
the receipts. The total net receipts of the different funds from first 
leasing up to June 30, 1906, were as follows: 

Common school fund $1, 970, 702. 91 

Common school indemnity fund 161, 519. 02 

College fund 451 , 264. 68 

Public building fund 446, 366. 54 

Greer County 13 fund 23, 903. 51 

Greer County 33 fund 20, 903. 62 

Total 3,074,560.28 

Under the present rules the school and other reserved lands lying 
east of range 14 are leased in quarter-section tracts, with an occa- 
sional 80-acre lease. West of range 14 the land has always been 
leased in such sized tracts as was deemed for the best interests of 
the school fund and the community. In former years most of the 
western land was leased in large areas for grazing purposes only, 
but the increased demand for land and the gradual pushing west of the 
agricultural line have caused these large leases to be cut into smaller 
tracts. It is now the exception for any lessee to have more than 
one section and even a majority of the section leases have been cut 
up into half-section or quarter-section tracts. 

There are a few large cattle ranges still located on school land, but 
these are also being gradually cut into smaller tracts, and the day is 
fast coming when practically all leases even in the western part of the 
Territory will be for less than one section. Where the land is suilablo 



280 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

for agricultural purposes the board has encouraged the cutting up of 
the leases into smaller areas, but in the present great demand for land 
in the western part of the Territory there is a danger of going to an 
extreme in this matter, the State being really caused a Toss by the 
cutting of inferior land into quarter-section tracts and attempting to 
use the same for general agricultural purposes. Where the land is 
rough and adapted only for grazing it is deemed best to keep the 
leases in section tracts at least. In Beaver County the section leases 
are not divided into smaller tracts, unless the land by inspection is 
found to be agricultural land and adapted to general farming purposes. 

A careful inspection of every quarter-section of land is being made 
and recorded in the office, together with a plat of same and its value, 
and a full report as to whether it is adapted for agricultural or graz- 
ing purposes. 

During the past year there has been very little trouble in regard 
to timber depredations upon the school lands, the prompt action of 
the previous year in the prosecution of offenders and confiscating 
timber having put a stop to stealing of walnut and other valuable 
timber from the land. The department has had considerable trouble, 
however, with persons who insisted in staking off and filing on 
mineral claims upon the school and other reserved lands. These 
parties were first content with staking off their claims and making 
a filing on same with the register of deeds, but later in the winter, 
encouraged by the proposed Warren amendment to the statehood 
bill, some of these mineral claimants went upon a section of valuable 
oil land near the town of Cleveland, erected a derrick and prepared 
to drill for oil. It was necessary for the secretary of the board and 
his special agents to go and take personal possession of the lands, 
eject the intruders, and tear down and remove the derrick. The 
elimination of the Warren amendment from the statehood bill and 
the insertion of the provision for leasing land for mineral purposes has 
put a stop to the invasion of the lands for mineral claims and it is 
expected that the State will soon reap a large revenue from these 
mineral leases. 

The provision for leasing is somewhat indefinite and it is feared 
that according to the wording the lands can not be leased for mineral 
purposes until the State government has taken full charge. If this 
be the case, the State will suffer a large loss in the interim by the 
drainage of oil and gas from beneath the school lands by wells which 
have been put down adjoining the same. One of the first acts of the 
State government should be to lease all of the lands possible for 
mineral purposes and also to condemn and sell a large amount of 
valuable walnut timber which is now standing upon the school lands 
and which has reached its maturity and is in many cases deteriorating 
in value. 

The present rules governing the department give general satisfac- 
tion and under the provisions of the statehood bill they are ratified 
by Congress and are to remain in full force until the State legislature 
makes other provisions. These rules have grown up as the result of 
many years of experience in leasing the lands and with the extension 
of the time of lease from three to five or ten years and a few minor 
changes they could not be improved upon. Under the rules each 
lessee has a preference right to renew his lease at its expiration at 
the appraised rental fixed by the board. This rental is based upon 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 281 

the appraised value of the raw land, each tract of land to be leased 
being appraised as near as possible at its actual selling value as raw 
land, and the rental fixed at about 4 per cent of this actual value. 
The lessee who has lived on the land, improved it and given it good 
care, is granted a reduction below the 4 per cent, and the nonresident 
who has not improved the land for a home or given it the best of 
care is charged an increase above the 4 per cent. In case ot the death 
of a lessee his lease and lease right is considered a part of his estate and 
so administered. Lessees can transfer their leases to other persons 
promptly and effectively; can borrow money by giving an assign- 
ment for security which is filed with the department, and are granted 
all other reasonable privileges. Every possible effort is made to 
protect them in their rights and interests in the land and in their 
improvements thereon. 

The preference right to release, coupled with the preference right 
to purchase, guaranteed in the enabling act, gives the lessee a per- 
manent interest in the land under lease to him and he continues a 
permanent lessee or transfers said interest to others as he sees fit. 
There are very few forfeitures of leases and practically no loss to the 
Territory from failure of lessees to pay rentals. 

The following tables show the receipts and expenditures of the 
school land department during the past year; total receipts and 
expenditures of each fund; the net receipts for each year from the 
beginning; apportionment of school fund by counties the past year; 
and other valuable statistical information relating to the lands and 
the work of the department: 

Receipts and expenditures for the year ended June 30, 1906. 

On hand June 30, 1905 $986. 38 

Received from June 30, 1905, to June 30, 1906 537,486.36 

Total 538,472.74 

Expenses for the year $23, 500. 99 

To the Territorial treasurer 498, 118. 85 

Returned to applicants 56. 75 

Balance on hand 16, 796. 15 

Total 538,472.74 

Receipts and expenditures for each fund for the year ended June 30, 1906. 

Common school: 

Cash received $315,181.88 

Expenses 14,120.32 

Returned to applicants 34. 75 

Net receipts 301 , 026. 81 

315,181.88 

College: 

Cash received 82,633.22 

Expenses 3, 283. 61 

Returned to applicants 20. 00 

Net receipts 79, 329. 61 

82, 633. 22 

Public buildings: 

Cash received 82, 623. 19 

Expenses 3, 283. 61 

Returned to applicants 2. 00 

Net receipts 79,337.58 

82, 623. 19 



282 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

Common school indemnity: 

Cash received $44, 812. 45 

Expenses $2, 345. 65 

Net receipts 42, 466. 80 

44, 812. 45 

Greer County: 

Section 13 — 

Cash received 7, 024. 27 

Expenses 233. 90 

Net receipts 6, 790. 37 

7, 024. 27 

Section 33— 

Cash received 5, 211. 35 

Expenses 233. 90 

Net receipts 4, 977. 45 

5, 211. 35 

Total receipts and expenditures of each fund to June 30, 1906. 

Common school: 

Cash received $2,116,093.38 

Expenses $139, 571. 66 

Money returned to applicants 5, 818. 81 

Net receipts 1,970,702.91 

2,116,093.38 

Colleges: 

Cash received 480, 567. 04 

Expenses 27,535.20 

Money returned to applicants 1, 767. 16 

Net receipts 451, 264. 68 

480,567.04 

Public buildings: 

Cash received 475,018.87 

Expenses 27,472.24 

Money returned to applicants 1, 180. 09 

Net receipts 446,366.54 

475, 018. 87 

Common school indemnity: 

Cash received 172,320.08 

Expenses 10,798.56 

Money returned to applicants 2. 50 

Net receipts 161, 519. 02 

172, 320. 08 

Greer County : 

Section 13 — 

Cash received 25,523.99 

Expenses 1,703.98 

Money returned to applicants 16. 50 

Net receipts 23,803.51 

25, 523. 99 

Section 33— 

Cash received 22,607.60 

Expenses 1,703.98 

Net receipts 20, 903. 62 

22, 607. 60 

Grand total of all funds: 

Cash received 3,292,130.96 

Expenses 208, 785. 62 

Money returned to applicants 8, 785. 06 

Net receipts 3,074,560.28 

3,292,130.96 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 
Notes on hand. 



283 




Amount. 



Common school fund 

College 

Public buildings 

Common school indemnity 
Greer County: 

Section 13 

Section 33 

Total 



$753, 222. 75 
160, 716. 47 
165,017.42 
104,245.45 

11,874.00 
11,330.00 



1,206,406. 



Net proceeds from leasing school lands. 



1891 $4,536.82 

1892 21, 346. 13 

1893 19,164.67 

1894 4£,;«>9.98 

1895 88, 627. 97 

1896 71, 740. 68 

1897 98,467.81 

1898 173,442.83 

1899 133,047.19 



1900 $177,190.24 

1901 , 213, 303. 67 

1902 435, 915. 85 

1903 322, 880. 54 

1904 335, 780. 00 

1905 419, 197. 28 

1906 513, 928. 62 

Total 3, 074, 560. 28 



Common school apportionment for the year 1906. 
[$1.60 per capita.] 



County. 


Scholastic 
population. 


Amount 
apportioned. 


County. 


Scholastic 
population. 


Amount 
apportioned. 




3,748 
5,267 
8,173 
5,987 
7,019 

11, 292 
5,939 
2,977 
4,963 
9,177 
6,079 

12, 898 
8,490 
6,406 


$5,996.80 
8, 427. 20 
13,076.80 
9, 579. 20 
11,230.40 
18,067.20 
9, 502. 40 
4, 763. 20 
7,940.80 
14, 683. 20 
9, 726. 40 
20,636.80 
13,584.00 
10,249.60 


Kiowa 


6,231 

11,779 
9,824 
4,225 

13, 468 
5,770 
8,090 

15, 583 
5,593 
7,462 

15,571 
9,605 


9,969.60 
18,846.40 
15, 718. 40 

6, 760. 00 
21,548.80 

9,232.00 












Noble 




Oklahoma 










12,944.00 

24,932.80 

8, 948. 80 


Day 


Pottawatomie 




Roger Mills 


Garfield 




11,939.20 
24,913.60 








Woodward 


15, 368. 00 




Total 






211,616 


338,585.60 







Amount of distribution each year. 
(COMMON SCHOOL FUND.) 



Year ending 
June 30 — 


N umber 
of chil- 
dren. 


Amount 

per 
capita. 


Total 
amount. 


Year ending 
June 30— 


Number 
of chil- 
dren. 


Amount 

per 
capita. 


Total 
amount. 


1892 


31,920 
43,939 
74,384 
77,770 
88,093 
88,745 
90, 585 
101, 474 


$0.83 
.56 
.72 

!C2 
.86 
1.34 
.97 


$21,662.60 
20, 416. 86 
45,858.48 
54, 665. 65 
53, 591. 43 
76 853. 00 

12l',383.90 
98, 428. 78 


1900... 

1901 


114,737 
128,797 
145, 131 
178, 964 
191 , 459 
204,739 
211,616 


$1.13 
1.20 
1.84 
1.02 
1.15 
1.32 
1.60 


$129,652. 81 


1893 


150, 201. 92 
266, 638. 74 


1894 


1902 


1895 


1903 : 


181,828.88 


1896... 


1904 


220, 177. 85 


1897 


1905 


270, 177. 85 


1898... 


1906 


338, 585. 60 


1899 









284 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 
Acreage of reserved lands by counties. 



County. 


Common 
school. 


Common 

school 
indemnity. 


College, 
section 13. 


College 
indem- 
nity in 
lieu of sec- 
tion 13. 


Public 
building, 
section 33. 


Public 
building 

indemnity 
injieu oi 

section 33. 


Total. 




207,271.84 
32, 172. 42 
45,801.36 
31,254.55 
16,752.58 
62,978.59 
34, 560. 00 
38,069.80 
33, 639. 20 
38, 400. 00 
38, 400. 00 
64,936.41 
24, 677. 61 
31,632.48 
40, 120. 78 
32, 515. 72 
26, 230. 00 
15, 360. 00 
24, 587. 70 
16,747.38 
26,811.76 
19, 529. 56 
41,728.27 
36, 120. 02 
97,693.48 

121, 160. 21 


15,078.63 


236.' 88' 

16,863.02 
640. 00 


2, 560. 00 




1,640.00 

640. 00 

4,200.00 


226, 550. 47 




1,988.95 
17, 460. 40 
2, 187. 40 


35,038.25 
98, 114. 78 




5, 190. 00 
640. 00 


8, 600. 00 




34,721.95 








16,752.58 
162, 643. 57 




18, 630. 63 

4, 4S0. 00 

640. 00 

4, 720. 00 


25,034.87 
1,920.00 


12,800.00 


27, 559. 48 


15,640.00 
1, 440. 00 




42, 400. 00 


Day 






38, 709. 00 












38, 359. 20 
75, 402. 07 
76,815.95 


l}arfield . . 


19, 200. 00 
19,200.00 
32, 080. 46 
11,693.43 




17,802.07 
19,215.95 
30, 836. 21 
14,077.45 












Greer 


21, 154. 67 


10,834.42 


10,783.00 


170, 625. 17 


Kay 


50, 448. 49 








31,632.48 


Kiowa 


15, 077. 67 
68, 160. 00 


18, 824. 20 


10,080.00 


17, 280. 02 


12, 320. 00 


113,702.67 




100, 675. 72 












26, 230. 00 


Noble 




7,680.00 




7, 454. 00 




30, 494. 00 




26, 399. 91 






50, 987. 61 




5,511.00 

3,758.38 




6, 133. 38 
£,852.37 




28, 391. 76 










33, 422. 51 




6,810.00 
3, 360. 00 






26, 409. 56 


Roger Mills 










45, 088. 27 


2, 560. 00 
SO, 490. 45 
61, 440. 00 








38, 680. 02 








46,092.92 
57, 462. 00 




194, 276. 85 




24,240.00 






264, 302. 21 










Total 


1, 199, 151. 72 


214,651.51 


277, 132. 69 


44, 874. 42 


268, 402. 60 


46, 663. 00 


2,050.875.94 



Number of lessees and their holdings. 



County. 


Quar- 
ter sec- 
tion. 


o 

o 

a> 

w 


<v 

ce a 

3 O 

a 

.a 


J 

z 


CO 

.2 

'+3 

8 

co 


i 

o 
'£ 

8 

CO 
CO 


Lessees holding 4 sec- 
tions or more. 


Total 
num- 
ber les- 
sees. 


Total 

number 
sections. 




42 

225 

614 

203 

105 

816 

87 

11 

45 

475 

479 

342 

321 
199 
244 
678 
161 
199 
326 
213 
209 
160 
41 

78 
860 
120 


31 


9 


134 


14 


3 


9 lessees hold 131 \ sec- 
tions. 


I'.'l 

225 

622 
203 
112 
893 
153 
74 
111 
475 
479 
547 

321 
200 
407 
678 
163 
199 
326 
215 
209 
191 
113 

138 
963 
492 


335. 25 




56.25 


Caddo 














153. 50 
















50.50 
















26.25 




55 
41 
12 
32 


4 
3 

1 
6 


16 

22 
48 
27 


1 


1 




271. 75 






65.75 


Day 


2 






61. 50 




i 




61.75 


Garfield 




118.75 
















119.75 




113 


12 


74 


2 


1 


3 lessees hold 21 sec- 
tions. 


265. 75 


Kay 


80.25 
















49.75 




106 


9 


44 


2 


2 




174.75 






169. 50 
















40.25 


Noble 














49.75 
















81.50 
















53.25 
















52.25 
















40.00 


Roger Mills 


29 

33 

34 

125 


2 

4 
6 
10 


40 

23 

58 

214 






1 lessee holds b\ sec- 
tions. 


72.00 






62.00 




3 
14 


2 
2 




307. 00 


Woodward 


7 lessees hold 56J sec- 
tions. 

20 lessees hold 214 sec- 
tions. 


405.00 


Total 


7,253 


611 


66 


700 


38 


12 


8,751 


3,223.75 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 285 

In addition to above there are about 150 lessees of 80-acre tracts 
and 150 lessees of lots on additions to town sites located on school 
lands, making the total number of lessees in excess of 9,000. 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

[C. A. McNabb, secretary.] 

Early in the year 1905 the office of this department was moved 
into more commodious quarters, which at the time promised to be 
sufficient for some years, but the increased volume of work, files, 
records, and office equipment have made deep inroads on the avail- 
able space, until the need of larger quarters is already apparent. 

The correspondence from the office has been very large during the 
pa-t year and is increasing steadily. It now requires a mighty effort 
on the part of the present force to keep up the work, and if the pres- 
ent rate of increase is maintained and the work is to be kept up to 
its present standard it is inevitable that the office force will have 
to be increased soon after the first of the year 1907. 

With the increased work which will come with statehood and the 
doubling up of the territory to be covered at least three more clerks 
must necessarily be emploj^ed. 

The labor of collecting and compiling crop statistics, which has 
been undertaken by this department within the past year for the 
first time, is being ably handled by the present statistical clerk, 
J. E. Woodworth, but no one who has not had some experience 
along that line can realize what difficulties are met with in getting 
the machinery into the proper working order for the collection of 
data that is reliable. Our aim is to be conservative in our estimates 
and claims, and we have used our best endeavors to instill that 
principle into those who have so kindly consented to make reports 
to this office. 

We know that in some instances our figures have been much too 
low and that they have not expressed the true conditions in some 
counties, but our figures were based upon acreage reports certified 
up to this office by the county clerks, which represents the most 
reliable method of obtaining official and correct data. In no instance 
have our estimates for any locality or for the Territory as a whole 
been overdrawn. We solicit the aid and cooperation of all inter- 
ested persons in arriving at reliable conclusions. The truth is good 
enough for Oklahoma. 

farmers' institutes. 

Although the work along the line of farmers' institutes in Oklahoma 
is yet in its infancy, it can be truly said it has assumed proportions in 
many of the counties that compare favorably with institutes held in 
the older States where they have been held for some years, and, too, 
where they have been fostered by lavish expenditure of public 
funds. Lack of sufficient appropriation has hampered the secretary 
in this branch of his labors, yet 23 of the 26 counties of the Territory 
have regularly chartered institute organizations which hold frequent 
sessions attended by many farmers who recognize the value of the 
lessons to be learned there and who are ever ready to put into prac- 
tice the lessons taught. The press has rendered much assistance in 
calling attention to these institutes and in arousing the people to the 



286 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

necessity for better education on the subjects with which they are 
coming in daily contact on the farm. Their words of encouragement 
have strengthened the agricultural sentiment for improved methods 
and more thorough work. 

Applications for institute lecturers are becoming so frequent that 
the secretary has found it quite impossible to meet the demand. 
There is sufficient call along this line, if met, as it certainly should be, to 
occupy the entire time of a thorough, live, institute man. That great 
good would result from the spreading of the gospel of improved agri- 
culture there is no question. This class of meetings is especially 
instituted as a medium through which to reach the farmer who has 
passed the age when he can attend an agricultural college or other 
institution. 

It is the purpose to take the latest discoveries or developments in 
scientific agriculture and place them before the farmer in such a man- 
ner that they may be thoroughly understood ; also to give the farmers 
the practical experience of those who have been most successful in 
agricultural lines and the stimulation resulting from contact with 
each other and discussion of their work. An endeavor is made at all 
times to have the subjects taken up of practical interest to the locali- 
ties in which the meetings are held. 

Arrangements have been perfected for holding a two days' insti- 
tute in each of the 26 county seats of the Territory in the fall of 1906 
on a scale somewhat more elaborate than has yet been undertaken. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

This department has from time to time during the past year sent 
out brief crop bulletins in limited numbers. We hope to be able to 
issue a regular quarterly publication after the first session of our new 
State legislature, which we have reason to believe will make an appro- 
priation enabling us to supply this much-needed article. This pub- 
lication will contain information along the line of agriculture that will 
enable the farmer to arrive at a better understanding of those things 
which relate directly to his business and add materially to his 
prosperity. 

This issue of our biennial report is limited to 2,500 copies because 
of lack of funds to print a greater number. That this number will be 
woefully inadequate to meet the demand for it there is no doubt, but 
we must keep our expenditures within the bounds of appropriations. 

OKLAHOMA LIVE-STOCK SANITARY COMMISSION. 

[Thomas Morris, secretary.] 

The law creating the live-stock sanitary commission as it now 
exists was passed by the legislative assembly in 1901. 

Ample provision was made for the protection of the live stock of 
the Territory from contagious diseases and power given the commis- 
sion to make rules and regulations for their enforcement. 

The rich native grasses which cover the whole of the Territory 
make cattle raising the chief live-stock industry. Also, owing to 
our close proximity to the South, the tick or Texas fever is the prin- 
cipal disease with which we have to contend. In order to protect 
our native cattle from this disease, quarantine lines have been estab- 
lished to prevent southern cattle from coming in. Also strict rules 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 287 

were made for the enforcement of this quarantine, and no cattle are 
admitted except under the strictest supervision. 

For the enforcement of these laws we have a force of seven inspect- 
ors whose duty is to look after the health of the live stock and to 
prevent the introduction and spread of disease. 

In addition to the work as above outlined, we began last year a 
systematic investigation of parts of the Territory where infection 
still exists with the view of placing additional areas above the Fed- 
eral line. In prosecuting this work we began a range inspection by 
townships of the country adjoining and below the Federal line. In 
this work every pasture was visited and inspection made. Where 
infection was found the cattle were quarantined and owners were 
compelled to disinfect them. 

As a result of this work, a large part of Caddo and Kiowa counties 
was placed above the line and all restrictions were removed from 
Washita and Roger Mills counties. 

The Department of Agriculture, through the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, has taken up the work of tick extermination in the differ- 
ent States in connection with their sanitary boards, and we now have 
seven Federal inspectors working jointly with our own force in 
range inspection, and, judging from the work so far accomplished, we 
shall be able to make a great deal better showing this year than last. 

Cattle mange has been prevalent for some years in Woodward and 
Beaver counties. By dipping all infected and exposed cattle in lime 
and sulphur dip we have eliminated the disease in Woodward County 
and are pursuing the same course in Beaver County with excellent 
results. 

Owing to our mild climate and the fact that cattle do not have to 
be closely stabled, we have no trouble with tuberculosis and do not 
believe the disease exists in the Territory. 

The time of the State veterinarian is mostly taken up looking after 
glanders and other diseases in horses, although frequent calls have 
been made to look after hydrophobia and black leg. Glanders has 
been quite prevalent during the past year, but we now seem to 
have the disease under control. Since last report three horses have 
been condemned and killed on account of being affected with glanders, 
and one jack on account of maladie du coit. 

A number of cases of hog cholera or swine plague were reported 
during the past year. These outbreaks all originated with or were 
disseminated by hogs shipped from other States. On account of 
this we were compelled to make a rule requiring that all hogs shipped 
into the Territory be accompanied by a bill of health showing that 
they are free from disease. 

There have been less violations of the law than in former years. 
Fifteen arrests were made during the past year which resulted in 4 
convictions, 3 acquittals, and 8 grand jury indictments awaiting the 
action of the district court. 

We also have a law requiring that all animals, the flesh of which 
is to be sold for food, shall be inspected before slaughter and all 
unhealthy animals condemned. This law is a protection to the peo- 

f)le and is growing more popular every year. The work is done by 
ocal inspectors in more than 300 cities, towns, and neighborhoods, 
who collect a small fee for each animal inspected. During the year 



288 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

ending June 30, 1906, these inspectors reported the inspection and 
slaughter of 36,943 cattle, 48,399 hogs, and 476 sheep and goats. 
Forty-three head of cattle and 45 hogs were condemned as being 
unfit for food. 

The following are the expenditures of the board during the past 
year: 

Per diem and mileage of members of the board $411. 71 

Secretary's salary 1 , 200. 00 

Contingent (office expenses) 597. 21 

Inspectors' salary and expenses 10, 000. 00 

Live stock killed (indemnity) 719. 00 

BOARD OF RAILWAY ASSESSORS. 

At the annual meeting of the board of railway assessors, which is 
composed of the governor, secretary, and auditor of the Territory, 
the various railway, telegraph, and telephone companies were assessed 
as follows: 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe: 

Main line $5, 600 

Kiowa division 3, 700 

Hutchinson and Southern 3, 000 

Tonkawa division 3, 000 

Eastern Oklahoma — 

Newkirk-Shawnee branch 3, 600 

Guthrie branch 3, 000 

dishing branch 2, 700 

Seward branch 3, 000 

St. Louis and San Francisco: 

Texas and Oklahoma main line 5, 200 

Oklahoma City and Western — 

Oklahoma City to Lawton 3, 000 

Lawton to Texas line 2, 800 

Blackwell branch 3, 000 

Blackwell, Enid and Southwestern — 

Choctaw Northern Crossing 3, 000 

From Crossing to Texas 2, 800 

Arkansas Valley and Western 2, 900 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific: 

Mainline 5,400 

Enid and Anadarko 3, 500 

Billings branch 3, 400 

Guthrie branch 3, 000 

Mangum line 3, 800 

Faxon line 2, 500 

El Paso line 3, 000 

Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf: 

Main line to Geary 5, 200 

From Geary to Texas line 3, 500 

Tecumseh line 3, 000 

Choctaw Northern 3, 700 

Choctaw, Oklahoma and Western 2, 500 

Grade 400 

Kansas City, Mexico and Orient: 

Completed to Fairview 3, 000 

Fairview to Oakwood 2, 500 

South of Oakwood 2, 000 

Grade 400 

Ungraded right of way 100 

Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma: 

Mainline 3,700 

Wybark branch 2,800 

Guthrie branch 2, 800 

Shawnee branch 2, 900 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 289 

Fort Smith and Western f 2, 900 

St. Louis, El Reno and Western 2, 600 

Denver, Enid and Gulf: 

Guthrie to Enid 2, 900 

Enid to Nashv ille 2 400 

Nashville to Cherokee 2] 200 

Grade 400 

Ungraded right of way 100 

Midland Valley: 

To Pawhuska 2, 500 

To Foraker 2, 000 

Grade 400 

Ungraded right of way 100 

Guthrie, Fairview and Western: 

Grade. , 300 

Ungraded right of way 100 

Denver, Kingfisher and Gulf: 

Grade 200 

Ungraded right of way 100 

Shawnee Traction Company 5 } 000 

Guthrie Street Railway Company 9 225 

Oklahoma City Street Railway Company 49^ 130 

On motion, the rolling stock of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf, 
and St. Louis and San Francisco was assessed as follows: 

Locomotives $3, 000 

Passenger cars 2, 000 

Tourist and emigrant cars 2, 000 

Mail, baggage, and express cars 1, 500 

Refrigerator and fruit cars 210 

Steam-shovel, steam-derrick cars 2, 000 

House cars 175 

Pile driving cars 1, 500 

Cattle cars 175 

Platform cars 130 

Cabooses 300 

Hand cars 12 

Push cars 10 

Standard Pullman cars 6, 000 

Coal cars 150 

On motion, the rolling stock of the Denver, Enid and Gulf, Fort 

Smith and Western, Missouri, Kansas and Texas, Kansas City, 
Mexico and Orient, St. Louis, El Reno and Southwestern, and 
Midland Valley was assessed as follows: 

Locomotives $1, 800 

Passenger cars 1, 200 

Tourist and emigrant cars 2, 000 

Mail, baggage, and express 900 

Refrigerator and fruit cars 210 

House cars 175 

Cattle cars 175 

Platform cars 130 

Cabooses 200 

Hand cars 12 

Push cars 10 

Standard Pullman cars 6, 000 

Coal cars 150 

Steam-shovel, steam-derrick cars 2, 000 

Pile driving cars 1, 500 

All tools, materials, and all other personal property were assessed 
as returned. All section houses and stock yards were assessed as 
returned. All railroad telegraph wires were assessed at $52 per mile 
for first wire and $12 for each additional wire. 



290 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

All office furniture, switch boards, supplies, instruments, etc., were 
assessed as returned. 

All sidetracks were assessed at $2,000 per mile. 

On motion, the express companies were assessed as follows: 

American Express Gompany was assessed, personal property as 
returned, net receipts as returned. 

United States Express Company, personal property as returned, 
net receipts as returned. 

Wells Fargo Express Company, personal property as returned, net 
receipts 50 per cent of receipts as returned. 

On motion, the telephone companies were assessed as follows: 

Class 1, $35 per mile for the poles and first wire, $5 per mile for 
each additional wire. 

Class 2, $30 per mile for poles and first wire and $5 per mile for 
each additional wire. 

Class 3, $25 per mile for poles and first wire, $5 per mile for each 
additional wire. 

Class 4, $20 per mile for poles and first wire, $5 per mile for each 
additional wire. 

Class 5, $15 per mile for poles and first wire, $5 per mile for each 
additional wire. 

Class 6, $10 per mile for poles and first wire, $5 per mile for each 
additional wire. 

Office furniture, switch boards, instruments, batteries, and build- 
ings were assessed as returned. 

On motion, the Western Union Telegraph Company, the Postal 
Telegraph Company, and the American District Telegraph Company 
were assessed at $52 per mile for poles and first wire and $12 per 
mile for each additional wire. 

Office furniture, switch boards, tools, and material, instruments, 
batteries, etc., were assessed as returned. 



BOARD OF EQUALIZATION. 

[L. W. Baxter, secretary.] 

The Territorial board of equalization met in the office of the auditor 
at 10 o'clock a. m., July 11, 1906. 

Present: Governor Frank Frantz, president of the board; Secre- 
tary of the Territory Hon. Charles H. Filson, and Auditor L. W. Bax- 
ter, secretary of the board. 

The secretary of the board presented the various exhibits with 
equalizations; which, after examination and discussion, w#re adopted 
by the board. 

On motion, the following changes in values, with the exception of 
moneys and credits, were ordered made: 



County. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


County. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 

8 


Kiowa 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 
8 




4 

- 7 

12 




4 








Logan 


5 






Payne 




9 


Day 


10 




8 






7 
20 




4 










9 




17 




7 
8 






12 















GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 291 

On motion, levies for the year 1906 were made, as shown in the 
apportionment of taxes, for the various funds. 

The auditor was ordered to forward the foregoing equalizations, 
with the various levies, to the county clerks. 

On motion, the secretary was ordered to report the tax levy, with 
the amount of taxes due from each county, to the Territorial 
treasurer. 

On motion, the board adjourned. 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

[Dr. J. W. Baker, secretary-superintendent.] 

The health of the general public of Oklahoma is better than at 
this time last year. The superintendents of public health of the 
various counties report a less amount of sickness than last year, 
with no epidemics of any nature existing during the past year. 
During the year past we have had a number of cases of smallpox, 
but not enough to call an epidemic. There have been at various 
times over the Territory during the past year some cases of scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, measles, and chicken pox, but they have been recog- 
nized by the physicians in charge of the cases and have been promptly 
reported to the county health officer and placed in quarantine and 
a further spread of the disease prevented. In September and Octo- 
ber of last year the board feared that we might be in some danger 
from parties leaving the fever districts of the South and coming to 
this Territory, so at a meeting of the board it was decided, with the 
advice of the attorney-general of the Territory, to place a quaran- 
tine restriction on the east and south borders of the Territory as a 
measure of precaution for the people of Oklahoma. 

For the year ending June 30, 1906, there were 99 applicants before 
the Territorial examining board for examination for license to prac- 
tice medicine and surgery in this Territory. There were 69 of that 
number attained the grade required by the board for license to prac- 
tice medicine and surgery and 30 who failed to make the necessary 
grade to entitle them to license to practice in this Territory. 

During the past year there were no applicants for examination to 
entitle them to practice midwifery in this Territory. 

The action of the last legislature in creating an examining board 
of embalmers takes this branch of work out of the hands of the Ter- 
ritorial board of health by creating a separate board. 

As to fees received by this board, there are no fees except those 
as allowed by the statutes, which are as follows: $800 allowed the 
secretary as salary; $300 as a contingent fund; and $200 as clerk 
hire. At the last meeting of the legislature the appropriation com- 
mittee allowed the board of health as follows: Salary, $600; con- 
tingent fund, $200; clerk hire, $200. Of the contingent fund, this 
office expended, in excess of the amount allowed by the legislature, 
$104.72. The other fees of the office are as follows: President, as 
salary and traveling expenses, $100; vice-president, as salary and trav- 
eling expenses, $100, together with the fees received for examination 
of applicants, which amounts to $499 for the past year, which latter 
amount is shared equally by the president and vice-president. 

In regard to prosecutions by this board for violations of the law 
governing the practice of medicine and surgery, there have been 



292 ANNUAL REPOKTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

prosecutions for violation in the following counties: Kay, Canadian, 
Custer, Cleveland, Beaver, Woods, Grant, and Pottawatomie. The 
only convictions that were secured were in Grant and Beaver coun- 
ties. We have had considerable trouble in attempting to enforce the 
law governing the practice of medicine and surgery, owing to the fact 
that the county officers seem to pay little attention to our demands 
for them to aid us in enforcing the law. 

The number of registered physicians in the books of registration 
are 2,980, and there is probably less than one-half this number 
engaged in the actual practice in this Territory. Almost every State 
is represented in this number. 

The personnel of the county superintendents is as follows : 

H. K. Wilson, Enid, Garfield County. A. O. Pierson, Woodward. Woodward 
C. F. Rutledge, Alva, Woods County. County. 

C. W. Fisk, Kingfisher, Kingfisher County. D. W. Durrett, Pawnee, Pawnee County. 

G. G. Munger, Oklahoma, Oklahoma County. D. F. Janeway, Stillwater, Payne County. 

C. F. Cotteral, Guthrie, Logan County. D. C. Adams, Taloga, Dewey County. 

C. R. Hume, Anadarko, Caddo County. J. M. Bonham, Hobart, Kiowa County. 
T. H Brewer, Lawton, Comanche County. L. S. Munsell, Beaver, Beaver County. 

G. H. Nieman, Ponca, Kay County. A. H. Bungardt, Cordell, Washita County. 

D. D. Brengle, Perry, Noble County. J. II. Baugh, Meeker, Lincoln County. 
K. G. Gosson, Custer, Custer County. R. F. Koons, El Reno, Canadian County. 
A. L. Edgington, Watonga, Blaine County. Hunter Montgomery, Shawnee, Pottawato- 
C. C. Newman, Grand, Day County. mie County. 

C. S. Bobo, Norman, Cleveland County. M. H. Levi, Elk City, Roger Mills County. 

H. H. Hulen, Pond Creek, Grant County. R. C. Baker, Granite, Greer County. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE OKLAHOMA HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

[L. W. Baxter, ^lerk.] 

The bill accepting the offer made by Congress to the Territory of 
Oklahoma and granting to the Territory the Fort Supply Military 
Reservation and the buildings thereon for the purpose of an insane 
asylum, and providing for the care of the insane of the Territory of 
Oklahoma, was approved by the governor on March 1, 1905. 

This bill provides that — 

the control of the hospital, the care and preservation <h all property shall be vested in a 
board of trustees, consisting of the governor, as ex officio chairman, and two suitable persons 
of different political affiliations appointed by the governor with the approval of the council. 

The governor duly appointed Hon. Otto A. Shuttee, of El Reno, 
and Hon. Edgar B. Marehant, of Aline, Okla. This board met regu- 
larly in the office of the governor on May 1, 1905, and organized at 
that time. 

The board visited Fort Supply on May 4, 1905, and carefully 
inspected the buildings and premises. The board also elected a 
superintendent, who should take charge the latter part of the month. 
An architect was employed, who visited the premises and prepared 
plans and specifications for converting Fort Supply Reservation into 
a hospital for the insane. 

Later a steward was elected, advertisements for repairing the build- 
ings published, and a board of examiners appointed and confirmed. 
At this juncture the Oklahoma Sanitarium Company appealed to the 
court for an order restraining the board from making any improve- 
ments at Fort Supply. The district court granted a temporary 
injunction. The matter is still pending in the courts. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 293 

TERRITORIAL BOARD OF PHARMACY. 

[P. B. Lillie, secretary.] 

The board of pharmacy consists of three members appointed by 
the governor. 

During the year just closed the board has held four regular meetings 
for the examination of candidates for the practice of pharmacy in 
Oklahoma. At these regular meetings a total of 125 candidates have 
been present for examination, 48 of whom have passed and received 
certificates of registration. Last year 79 candidates took the exam- 
ination and 43 passed, showing a notable increase in the number of 
candidates and a greater test of qualifications. 

Eighty-three candidates have made application for registration 
upon diploma, and 75 of these have been registered, making a total 
of 123 registered during the year. But a small portion of those who 
secure registration upon diploma have as yet come to Oklahoma, but 
many of them are young men who are looking this way and only 
awaiting an opening. The majority of them are looking for an 
opportunity to embark in business for themselves. 

Our law permits the registration of graduates of pharmacy from 
such colleges and schools as the board may recognize, but requires 
four years of practical experience outside of the college course. Our 
own school or pharmacy, however, is exempted from this provision, 
and the board is required to register graduates of the pharmacy 
department of the university at Norman upon presentation of diploma 
with one year practical experience. 

On October 17 a special meeting of the board was held to report on 
grades of examination held October 10 and to consider other matters, 
among which was the application of the Alva Normal School to have 
their graduates of the pharmacy department recognized by the board 
for registration without examination. The secretary had been or- 
dered to examine the course of study and to secure all needed informa- 
tion. After having done so he found the educational qualifications 
met all the requirements of the board, and their diplomas were duly 
accepted by the board as evidence of qualification to practice phar- 
macy without examination. 

The general advance all along the line in pharmacy legislation is 
for better educated men, and several of the States now require candi- 
dates for full registration as pharmacists to be graduates of colleges 
of pharmacy before they can become candidates for registration upon 
examination. 

There are 110 towns and post-offices in Oklahoma where merchants 
are selling patent medicines and ordinary household drugs, not 
poisonous, in connection with their general business for the conven- 
ience of the public. All these merchants are requested to furnish 
evidence of good moral character and reliability before permit is 
issued, and are also requested to make the same affidavit as to the use 
of intoxicants and opiates. Class A permits are issued only upon 
evidence of satisfactory experience and reliability. The most of the 
drug stores conducted under class A permits are by physicians. 
There are 107 towns and post-offices where stores are operated under 
class A permits. 

The secretary has issued during the year 36 class A permits to 
persons to conduct drug stores in towns of less than 300 inhabitants 
241b— 07 20 



2y4 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

where there is no registered pharmacist, and 27 class B permits to 
merchants in towns where there is no registered pharmacist. 

The following is a financial report for the year ended June 30, 1906: 

Total receipts for examinations, dues, licenses, permits $4, 394. 00 

Balance on hand July 1, 1905 242. 76 

4,636.76 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salary of the secretary $500. 00 

Salary of stenographer 480. 00 

Expenses of secretary's office, including stationery, printing, rent, 

board expenses, etc 816. 98 

Per diem and traveling expenses of board members 2, 202. 24 

Attorneys' fees, Pratt food case 337. 54 

4,336.76 

Balance on hand, July 1, 1906 300. 00 

The pharmacists of Oklahoma have taken no backward step during 
the past year. At their regular annual meeting, held in Guthrie 
May 8 to 11, there was a very enthusiastic gathering. Prominent 
men in the profession were present and made interesting addresses 
on scientific and educational subjects. To keep those interested 
and benefited who can not attend the meeting, the complete pro- 
ceedings of the association together with the annual report of the 
secretary of the board of pharmacy, are published, and every 
registered pharmacist is supplied with a copy without expense. 

BOARD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS. 

[A. C Hixon, secretary.] 

The legislature of 1905 passed an act regulating the practice of 
dentistry, which was approved by the governor and went into effect 
June 1 . 

The law provides for the appointment by the governor of 5 legal 
practitioners of dentistry who have resided in Oklahoma for a period 
of at least two years. Quarterly meetings are held for the examina- 
tion of candidates. The law was most carefully drawn, and provides 
for the registration of all licensed dentists in their respective counties 
by the county clerks. The board is given power to prosecute all 
parties who practice or attempt to practice dentistry without having 
complied with the provisions of the law. 

Out of the funds coming into the possession of the board each 
member of the board shall receive as compensation the sum of $5 per 
day for each day actually engaged in conducting examinations, and 
in addition shall be entitled to mileage at the rate of 3 cents per mile 
for all distances necessarily traveled in going to and coming from 
meetings of the board, and shall be entitled as well to the legitimate 
expenses incurred by him while going to and from and attending 
meetings of the board. No part of said compensation, mileage, or 
expenses shall be paid out of the Territorial treasury. 

The number of dentists licensed to practice in Oklahoma to date 
is 472. Amount collected in fees during the year, $779; disburse- 
ments, as per vouchers, $715.45; amount on hand, $63.55. 

The board held three meetings during the year. 

There were five prosecutions during the year, three of which resulted 
in the parties being fined the minimum under the law, and the other 
two leaving the Territory before trial. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 295 

The percentage of dentists registered that are graduates is about 
90, as compared with 10 per cent nongraduates. I will say that the 
registered dentists of Oklahoma compare favorably with those of any 
other State in the Union as regards proficiency, reliability, etc. 

OSTEOPATHIC EXAMINING BOARD. 

[J. A. Price, secretary.] 

The board met the first Tuesday in July, 1905. At this meeting 
10 passed the required examination and were granted certificates to 
practice in the Territory. The second meeting of the board was held 
the first Tuesday in January, 1906. Six applicants were successful 
in meeting the professional requirements and were granted certifi- 
cates, making a total for the year of 16 granted certificates. 

Total number in the Territory at present holding certificates from 
the board is 71. The board has collected in fees $160. Each mem- 
ber of the board is allowed a fee of $10 per day and necessary expenses 
for each and every day actually spent in official duty. The secretary 
receives a fee of $25 per annum for his services. 

The board is pleased with the professional ability of those coming 
to the Territory the past year, and feel that they will add to the 
efforts the board has put forth to give to the people of Oklahoma 
osteopathy in its purity. We have largely succeeded in driving from 
our borders the many pretenders and fakes who have infested the 
Territory in the past. 

Requests are constantly coming from our smaller towns and rural 
districts to send them a good osteopathic physician, and we regret 
very much that we have not been able to comply with many of these 
requests, for the reason that we have not the supply to meet the 
demand. 

Osteopathy the past year has made a most splendid growth and is 
gaining the favor and loyal support of intelligent people in most 
every community. The board has endeavored to be loyal to its 
trust, but in a new country like this, with its most phenomenal 
development, it necessarily requires great effort and diligence to keep 
any line of progress perfectly straight. 

Each applicant to practice osteopathy is required to pass an exam- 
ination in the following branches or subjects: Anatomy — descriptive, 
regional, and applied; physiology; pathology; histology; organic and 
inorganic chemistry; physiological chemistry; urinalysis; toxicology; 
hygiene; principles of osteopathy; practice of osteopathy; osteo- 
pathic technique; physical diagnosis; minor surgery; symptomatol- 
ogy; obstetrics, and gynecology. 

The board endeavors to sound thoroughly the moral as well as the 
professional standing of each applicant, believing a high moral tone 
is absolutely indispensable to the physician's professional life. 

BOARD OF EMBALMERS. 

[Arthur E. Bracken, secretary.] 

The board consists of three members: W. K. Patterson, president; 
W. E. Harper, vice-president, and Arthur E. Bracken, secretary. 
The present board was organized on April 10, 1905. Since that time 



296 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

we have issued 78 licenses in lieu of board of health license as pro- 
vided by law, and 94 by examination; total, 172. 

We have adopted the rules as provided by the National Associa- 
tion of Baggagemen and the different State boards of health in regard 
to the transportation of corpses. We have so far had but little trouble 
in getting the undertakers to realize the necessity of a very high 
regard for our law and regulations. Our aim is to have the standard 
of efficiency as high as it possibly can be made. 

PART V. 

Railways — Railways chartered — Telegraph and telephone. 
RAILWAYS, 

Every county in Oklahoma has some railway property listed for 
taxation. Markets, north, south, east, and west, are within easy 
reach, affording a great advantage for our surplus products. 

Of the fourteen railways reporting, two, the Denver, Kingfisher 
and Gulf and the Guthrie, Fairview and Western, report only right 
of way. 

There are 2,872.15 miles of main line, 443.54 miles of sidetrack, 
and 26.40 miles of street railway, divided as follows: 



Name of road. 



Mo in 
track. 



Side 
track. 



Atchison, Topoka and Santa Fe 

Chicago, Rock island and Pacific 

St. Louis and San Francisco 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas 

Denver, Enid and Gulf 

Fort Smith and Western 

Kansas City. Mexico and Orient 

Midland Valley 

St. Louis, El Reno and Western 

Guthrie Street Railway 

Oklahoma City Street Railway 

Shawnee Street Railway 

Denver, Kingfisher and Gulf (right of way only) 

Guthrie, Fairview and Western (right of way only). 



Miles. 

611.09 

915. 26 

619. 66 

236.13 

95.31 

61.54 

188.74 

83. 16 

41.01 

5.85 

15.71 

4.84 

13.50 

6.75 



Miles. 

128.93 

144.72 

90.79 

36.35 

12.8.S 

5.63 

12.27 

6.48 

5.49 



Considerable activity is anticipated in railroad construction the 
coming year. The abundant crops, the added manufacturing and 
extended agricultural interests, have caused many improvements in 
sidetrack and station facilities, as well as of roadbeds, for the in- 
creased traffic. 

New mileage for the year will approximate 300. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



297 



RAILWAYS CHARTERED. 



Following is a list of the railways chartered by the Territorial 
secretary during the past year, together with the amount of their 
capital stock and names of incorporators: 



Name of road. 



Southwestern Rwy. Co 

Oklahoma Citv, Denver and 

Gulf II. R. Co. 
Oklahoma City Terminal 
Association. 

Oklahoma Electric Rwy- Co. 

Oklahoma Western R. R. Co 

Pauls Valley Rwy. Co 



Pueblo, Oklahoma City and 
New Orleans Rwy. Co. 

Wichita Mountains Traction 
Co. 

Texas, Oklahoma and North- 
western Rwy. Co. 

Colorado, Oklahoma and 
Southern Rwy. Co. 

Tulsa, Texas and Gulf Rwy. 

Co. 
Tulsa, Turnerville and Texas. 

Clinton, Cheyenne and Cana- 
dian Inter-Urban Rwy. Co. 

Newkirk, Tonkawa and 
Southern Electric Rwy. Co. 

Guthrie, Shawnee and 
Shrevesport R. R. Co. 

Colorado, Oklahoma and 
New Orleans R. R. Co. 

The Davis and Turner Falls 
R. R. Co. 

Kansas City, Galveston and 
Mexico Rwy. Co. 

Kansas City, Tulsa, Texas 
and Gulf Rwy. Co. 

Canadian Midland R. R. Co. . 

Coalgate, Sulphur and West- 
ern Rwv. Co. 

The College City Southern 
Rwy. Co. 

The Winnepeg and Galves- 
ton R. R. Co. 

Frisco, Oklahoma City and 

Texas R. R. Co. 
Colorado, Texas and Mexico 

R. R. Co. 
Kansas Union Traction Co . . 
Wichita Mountain and Orient 

Rwy. Co. 
Lawton, Denton and Dallas 

Electric Rwy. Co. 
Shawnee- Tecumseh Traction 

Co. 
Cvlahoma and Texas R. R. 

Co. 

The Verdin Electric Co 

Enid Street Rwy. Co 



The Oklahoma and Pan- 
handle Rwy. Co. 

Pueblo, Oklahoma and New 

Orleans Rwy. Co. 
Oklahoma, Texas and Gulf 

R. R. Co. 



Capital 
stock. 



$100,000 
19,425,000 

ir>o,ooo 

250,000 
8,000.000 
5,000,000 

3,000,000 

250,000 

2,500,000 

5,000,000 

10,000,000 
3,500,000 
1,000,000 
1,500,000 
9,000,000 

20,000,000 

50,000 

100,000,000 

10,000,000 

40,000,000 
200,000 

500,000 

50,000,000 

2,000,000 

75,000,000 

1,000,000 
5,000,000 

250,000 

500,000 

5,000,000 

10,000 
200,000 

3,000,000 

3,500,000 
7,000,000 



Incorporators. 



George Northrup, John Carson, W. W. Graves, C. B. 

Felder, G. Martin, E. P. Holmes, R. E. Miller. 
C. G. Jones, J. L. Wilkin, Ed Overholzer, G. W. Carrico, 

R. J. Edwards. 
T. D. Turner, W. W. Bierce, A. H. Classen, G. B. Stone, 

J. H. Wheeler, R. J. Edwards, J. H. Johnson, G. C. 

Sohlberg, J. L. Wilkin, J. M. Owen, John W. Bhartel. 
Alfred Hare, E. H. Milburn, E. F. Fullerton, E. J.'Dicker- 

son, Chas. Blickensderfer. 
Geo. W. Graham, Paul D. Howes, S. S. Selig, Sol Fichten- 

burg, J. A. Stine, J. A. Hartshorn, II. A. Hoch. 
J. C. Amendt, W. M. Freeman, A. Pennie, S. J. Garvin, 

J. C. Hylarger, J. B. Thompson, A. P. Williams, John 

Upshaw. P. J. Stovall. 
J. H. Wheeler, W. C. Burke, R. A. Woolridge, Geo. H. 

Dodson, John H. Wright 
W. R. McKnight, John A. McKeene, E. A. Coulter, C. L. 

Johnston, Guy H. Parker. 
A. H. Huston, jno. Devereux, C. E. Carpenter. 

W. L. McClung, Geo. H. Rice, J. S. Houston, Chas. E. 

Shaw, E. S. Bronson, B. F. Waggener, M. A. Nichols, 

Henry Roh. 
L. Howard Lee, John W. Helt, Warren K. Snyder, M. H. 

Smythe, D. B. Merry, M. S. Lee, H. W. Pentecost. 
Fred E. Turner, V. N. Sayre, W. S. Harsha, Philip B. 

Hopkins, J. W. McNeal, Wm. M. Spurlock. 

C. S. Gilkerson, L. L. Collins, R. V. Converse, L. W. Pate, 
W. T. Bonner. 

Thomas S. Smith, M. P. Brown, J. S. Kerioot, E. G. War- 
field, H. E. Elder. 

W. S. McCaull, J. G. Trimble, L. Underwood, George E. 
Smith, George F. Riehl, Chas. L. Hill, George C. Cowles, 

F. L. Williams, Don C. Smith. 

W. S. McCaull, Geo. C. Cowles, M. N. Tomblin, Geo. F. 

Riehl, C. B. Kelsea, L. Underwood, Richard L. Dryer, 

J. G. Trimble, A. Chaplin. 
R. H. Wilkin, A. L. Welsh, J. W, Grant, Robt. Chowning, 

W. L. Demeey, John Watts. 
G. V. Pattison, H. W. Pentecost, L. E. Pentecost, N. D. 

McGinley, L. R. Pentecost. 
L. Howard Lee, W. H. Sweeall, Warren K. Snyder, D. B. 

Merry, J. W. Helt. M. S. Lee, E. T. Likes. 
George M. Paschal, G. F. H. Barber, Guy C. Robertson 
Robert S. Thacker, J. S. Little, Jay Sherman, G. M. 

Weems, F. Fields, W. A. Lovejoy, G. M. Nicholson. 
E. T. McKnight, F. G. Woodward, W. B. Taylor, H. R. 

Kent, J. B. Doolin. 
A. H. McMahan, W. M. McGibbon, W. O. Jones, F. C 

Spaulding, H. S. Goodrich, J. A. Koontz, Benj. F. 

Hegler, jr. 

D. T. Flynn, C. B. Ames. R. M. Campbell, C. R. Gray 
L. F. Parker, A. Douglas, W. B. Drake. 

Morris R. Locke, John M. Blackburn, R. C. Echols, H. M. 

Ferguson, T. N. Slater, G. W. Boyd, A. M. Stewart. 
Wm. J. Jones, C. N. Petty, M. E. Williams. 
H. A. Loyd, Wilford M. Smith, J. E. Thomas, E. M. Hall 

Chas. A. Rising. 
S. E. McCully, Chas. Henderson, J. T. Chambers, J. W. 

Lowerv, S. P. lies, W. O. Allen. 
Alfred Hare, Grace Carleton, S. P. Maury, J. H. Woods, 

G. S. W. Brubaker, A. M. Wallace, John W. Jones. 

G. B. Stone, Wm. W. Bierce, H. W. Prouty, H. R. Nicker- 
son, Eugene Willoughby. 

Samuel Black, C. E. Ingelhart, Roy Black. 

P. J. Goulding, H. H. Champlin, J. M White, Frank Brad- 
field, W. S. Spencer. 

Claude Miller, R. E. Dunlap, H. T. Kimble, J. C. McClay, 
J. G. Adkins, A. C. Fagan, R. R .McCaniel, M. C. Le Mas- 
ter, J. S. Wood, C. C. Hightower. 

R. A. Wooldridge, W. C. Burke, J. E. Carson, Geo. H. 
Dodson, Warren K. Snyder. 

R. K. Wootten, C. A. Hubes, F. R. Wildman, L. B. Cor- 
ner, E. A. Williams, R. Bardge, F. P. Bath, J. W. 
Buckman. 



Total capitalization of railroads chartered during year, $388,585,000. 



298 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE. 

Two companies, the Western Union and the Postal Telegraph, 
have extensive systems throughout the Territory. 

Among the telephone companies now doing business in the Terri- 
tory, the Pioneer has the most extensive system. Mr. John M. Noble, 
general manager, makes the following statement relative to the con- 
dition of the Pioneer company: 

The Pioneer Telephone and Telegraph Company now owns and has in operation a system 
of 95 telephone exchanges and approximately 15,500 miles of toll-line wire strung on3,500 
miles of toll-pole line. A greater portion of these lines are copper metallic circuits, and sre 
giving good service to 550 cities and towns in the two Territories. This is nn increase of 
about 35 exchanges and 3,500 miles of toll-line wire in the past year, and an increase of 
200 toll stations reached by this company's lines. The company, through its lint s, 
reached probably 200 toll stations on the lines of other companies. 

The company has strictly modern exchanges in Alva, Atoka, Bartlesvillo, Durant, Hugo, 
Medford, Newkirk, Perry, Pond Creek, Shawnee, South McAlcster, Spiro, Tulsa, and Vinita; 
and is now engaged in making modern and up-to-date its exchanges in Chickasha, Elk 
City, El Reno, Enid, Guthrie, Hobart,Lawton, Oklahoma City, Ponca City, and Wilburton. 

The company has expended in the past year $440,000 in the construction and recon- 
struction of exchanges, and $227,000 in the construction and reconstruction of toll lines in 
the two Territories, probably 60 per cent of this being in Oklahoma. 

It is probably not known by the public, but is a fact nevertheless, that Oklahoma has 
more and better telephone facilities in proportion to its population than any other State in 
the Union. This company's system of toll lines traverses or touches every county in 
Oklahoma Territory excepting three. 

Mr. J. F. Bezdecheck, auditor of the Topeka and El Reno Telephone 
Company, makes the following report : 

At the present time we have approximately 1,150 miles of toll-line circuit; most of which 
is metallic, 150 miles being copper. 

We have exchanges at El Reno, Chickasha, Lawton, Anadarko, Hobart, Mountain View, 
Clinton, Elk City, Sayre, Arapahoe, Bridgeport, Weatherford, and Cement, with subscribers 
aggregating 3,000. 

We contemplate copper toll-line circuits from the principal towns over our system to 
El Reno, connecting with the Pioneer Telephone Company, thereby giving our cities com- 
munication with all important points in Oklahoma and surrounding States. 

Mr. M. M. Davis, secretary of the Oklahoma Rural Telephone Com- 
pany of Enid, reports as follows: 

Incorporated February 15, 1904. Mileage, none. Miles. 

Report to Territorial auditor, February 1, 1905 71$ 

Report to Territorial auditor, February 1, 1906 286J[ 

Gain for year, February 1, 1905, to February 1, 1606 215 

Constructed since report of February 1, 1906 100 

Contemplated for this year (estimated), balance of 1906 75 

Exchanges: Carrier, Lahoma, Barr, Drummond, Fairmont, Bre ckenridge , Bison, Douglas, 
Coldwater, Covington; one now building at Marshall. We use the Pioneer Telephone and 
Telegraph Company's exchanges at Enid and Waukomis. 

All exchanges are connected by toll lines and are free to all stockholders of the company. 
All subscribers are stockholders. Rate for business, residence, and party line is 50 cents 
per month. There are about 800 telephones in the system, and access to 3,000 by exchange 
with other companies. The company is mutual and is not run for profit. 

Besides the above mentioned there are many private or neighbor- 
hood concerns in operation, 162 of which have reported to the audi- 
tor's office. 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 299 

PART VI. 

Oklahoma— The big pasture opening— The struggle for statehood — The enabling act. 

OKLAHOMA. 

[Fred L. Wenner.] 
ORIGIN AND GROWTH. 

Contrary to the usual precedent in the organization and admission 
of the other States of the Union, Oklahoma, the last Commonwealth 
carved from the great Louisiana Purchase, has not heen repeatedly 
diminished in size by the cutting off of territory, but rather has grown 
and expanded from a small and insignificant beginning to its present 
standing and magnitude. 

Early in the last century enthusiasts in Congress and elsewhere 
dreamed of founding somewhere in the Great West an Indian empire, 
believing that a certain portion of the then unoccupied domain 
which stretched far to the west of the Mississippi should be set aside 
as a home for all the Indian tribes of the nation. The idea was that 
these tribes could be moved from various parts of the country and 
located in this reserve territory which in time would become a great 
Indian State. When in 1834 the Creeks and Seminoles were brought 
west and located in the Indian Territory, they were assigned land 
extending west to the one hundredth meridian. In 1866 a further 
treaty was made with these Indians under the provisions of which 
they surrendered all land west of their present home reservations, 
the Government declaring its intention of settling friendly tribes of 
Indians on this land. This intention was carried out as regards most 
of the area surrendered, but there remained, however, in the eastern 
portion of these surrendered Creek and Seminole lands an area of 
country almost triangular in form and embracing over 2,000,000 
acres, which was never assigned to any Indian tribe. 

In the sixties Col. R. T. Van Horn, representing tl«e Kansas City, 
Mo., district in Congress, introduced a bill in the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress providing for the organization of the Territory of Oklahoma, 
the same to embrace these unoccupied lands in the Indian Territory, 
the name Oklahoma, meaning "Red Man's Land," being suggested 
by Col. Silas C. Boudinot, a Cherokee lawyer then in Washington. 
The bill received very little encouragement in Congress, however, and 
nothing much was heard of the matter for the space of ten years or 
more. 

In the early eighties an agitation for the opening of these 2,000,000 
acres of land, which came to be known as Oklahoma, was begun, and 
strong pressure was brought upon Congress to have them declared 
open for settlement. Capt. David L. Payne and other westerners 
took the ground that this land was public domain and subject to 
settlement, and made repeated raids into the land, establishing 
settlements and locating farms and even building towns. Again 
and again they were removed by the military authorities only to 
make another invasion, and finally as a result of their raids and the 
agitation kept up thruoughout the entire West, a rider was attached 
to the Indian appropriation bill on March 4, 1889, providing for the 
opening of the Oklahoma country. In accordance with the provisions 



300 ANNUAL REPORTS OP THE DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR. 

of this act, the President issued a proclamation fixing the date for 
the opening, and on April 22 occurred the first great race for homes, 
an event which will live long in the history of the nation. 

Never before had such a sight been seen; a wilderness peopled, a 
Commonwealth created, cities built up in a single day. On that first 
day 100,000 or more settlers poured into Oklahoma, and within a week 
the country that had so long been held by herds of cattle became an 
active, aggressive agricultural community. For more than a year 
the people lived without any laws except the few general Federal 
statutes which are in force on all public domain. The communities, 
however, were governed by common consent in a way that has never 
been surpassed in any new country in the world — life and property 
were fully protected, public enterprises encouraged, and general 
progress made every day from the first. 

On June 6, 1890, Congress passed the act creating the Territory 
of Oklahoma, making six counties out of the original Oklahoma — 
Logan, Payne, Kingfisher, Canadian, Oklahoma, and Cleveland, and 
adding to the Territory the country known as "No Man's Land," 
creating of it the seventh county of Beaver. This was a neutral 
strip of land, 167 miles in length and 34^ miles in width, located 
between Kansas and Colorado on the north, Texas on the south, 
Indian Territory on the east, and New Mexico on the west, which 
had never been a part of any State or Territory of the Union. Many 
settlers had located on this land, and in 1886 they organized them- 
selves into a Territory called " Cimarron," elected a legislative 
assembly, a Delegate to Congress, and Territorial officers. No atten- 
tion was paid to this action, however, by the National Congress, but 
in 1887 a bill was passed attaching "No Man's Land" to Kansas. 
This, however, was vetoed by the President, and the strip remained 
without the bounds of any State or Territory and with no laws in 
force until it was attached to Oklahoma in the organization of the 
Territory in 1890. 

The six original Oklahoma counties have all had additions made 
to their territory, Beaver County alone remaining the same, and 
nineteen other counties have been from time to time created by the 
various acts of Congress, which provided for the opening of the differ- 
ent Indian reservations within the Territory. 

On September 19, 1891, the Iowa, Sac and Fox, and Pottawatomie 
reservations joining original Oklahoma on the east were opened for 
settlement, the counties of Lincoln and Pottawatomie being created 
therefrom. 

On the 19th of April, 1892, the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservations, 
comprising 4,297,771 acres and lying immediately to the west of the 
Oklahoma country, was opened to settlement, and from them were 
created the counties of Blaine, Custer, Dewey, Day, Roger Mills, and 
Washita. 

The next addition to the settled area of the Territory was made on 
the 16th day of September, 1893, when the Cherokee Strip was opened 
for settlement. This was a strip of land extending from the Cherokee 
Nation west to " No Man's Land" and Texas, being about 58 miles wide 
and containing an area of 6,014,293 acres. This land had once been 
guaranteed to the Cherokee Indians as a perpetual hunting outlet to 
the western border of the United States, but the great hunting 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 301 

grounds are no more, and the Indian no longer used the outlet, so it 
was turned over to satisfy the ever-increasing demand of the white 
man for more land. Out of the area of the Cherokee Outlet were 
carved the counties of Pawnee, Noble, Kay, Grant, Garfield, Woods, 
and Woodward. 

On the 23d of May, 1895, the Kickapoo Indian Reservation, contain- 
ing 206,662 acres in the eastern portion of the Territory, was opened 
to settlement. These lands were located within the organized 
counties of Oklahoma, Lincoln, and Pottawatomie, and as about half 
of the land was taken as indemnity school land by the Territory there 
was not much of a rush by settlers. 

By virtue of a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
Greer County, which embraced an area of 1,511,576 acres and had 
been considered a part of the State of Texas, was, on the 16th day of 
March, 1896, added to Oklahoma. This county had been organized 
for many years and a large portion of it was already settled at the time 
it came into the Territory as a part of this rising young Common- 
wealth. 

There were no more additions to the settled and organized area of 
the Territory until the 6th day of August, 1901, when the Kiowa, 
Comanche and Apache, and Wichita reservations, lying to the south- 
west and comprising almost 4,000,000 acres, were opened to settlement 
and became a portion of the Territory, the counties of Caddo, Coman- 
che, and Kiowa being created and organized at that time. At this 
opening for the first time the race for homes was eliminated and a 
plan of registration and drawing substituted, each person desiring a 
home being compelled to register and a public drawing taking place in 
which the lucky numbers secured the homesteads. 

In 1904 the Otoe, Ponca, Missouri, and Kaw reservations were 
attached to Oklahoma by an act of Congress, becoming additions to 
Kay, Noble, and Pawnee counties. The Indians belonging to these 
tribes, however, absorbed all the land in these reservations and there 
was no land opened to white settlers. By the provisions of the state- 
hood bill, the Osage Reservation, which remained the only unorgan- 
ized portion of the Territory, was organized as Osage County and the 
lands of the tribe are now being allotted to them. 

This completes the organization and growth of Oklahoma as a Ter- 
ritory, but the enabling act passed by Congress and signed by the 
President of the United States on June 16, 1906, creates the State of 
Oklahoma, embracing all of the Territory of Oklahoma as well as such 
of the Indian Territory as was left after Oklahoma was originally 
taken from it. 

THE BIG PASTURE OPENING. 

The last great Oklahoma opening will occur in October or Novem- 
ber next and will differ materially from all those preceding. At the 
first openings of Oklahoma lands to settlement, the prizes went to 
those who had the swiftest horses or by other means were enabled to 
be on the ground first. At the last opening held, when the great 
Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, and Wichita reservations were 
opened to settlement, the land was given to those who drew the lucky 
numbers at a public drawing, but in this final distribution of homes 
from the Indian lands money will determine — the land in every case 
being awarded to the person who will pay the most for it. 



302 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

When the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache treaty was made it was 
provided that before the reservation of these Indians were thrown 
open to settlement pastures aggregating 480,000 acres should be set 
aside for the permanent use of the Indian tribes. As a result of this 
provision four such pasture reserves were designated, aggregating 
480,000 acres as agreed upon. Pasture reserve No. 1, more com- 
monly known as the big pasture, and made famous by being the 
scene of the great wolf hunt by President Roosevelt and party in 
1905, was located in the southern part of Comanche County, border- 
ing the Red River on the south and containing about 400,000 acres. 
Pasture reserve No. 2 was located in the southern part of Caddo 
County, with a small portion of it extending over the line into Coman- 
che County; pasture reserve No. 3, in the eastern part of Comanche 
County, and pasture reserve No. 4, in the western part of Kiowa 
County, the three pastures aggregating about 80,000 acres. Adjoin- 
ing pasture reserve No. 3, in the eastern part of Comanche County, was 
a wood reserve for the Fort Sill military post, containing 25,000 acres. 

By the provisions of an act of Congress approved June 6, 1906, 
these four pastures and the wood reserve will be opened to settlement 
by proclamation of the President of the United States within six 
months of the date of the passage of the act. This law provides that 
the land shall be sold to the highest bidder in quarter-section tracts, 
no land to be sold for less than $5 per acre; the terms of sale to be 
one-fifth cash, the balance to be paid in four equal annual install- 
ments, any failure to meet the payments when due forfeiting the 
purchaser all his rights. All successful bidders must go upon the land 
within six months and reside there for five years, as required by the 
homestead laws of the United States, unless permission be granted 
them to commute sooner. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized 
to make rules and regulations regulating the sale, and it is announced 
that the land will be awarded upon sealed bids. 

Considerable land in pasture reserve No. 3 is under lease, and by 
the provisions of another act of Congress the lessees on this reserve 
have the preference right to purchase the land held under lease by 
them at the appraised value. In the "big pasture" persons pur- 
chasing land under lease must accept same subject to the condi- 
tions of the agricultural leases now in force, and before the sale takes 
place between three and four hundred allotments will be made to 
Indian children born in the last five years. 

The land in these reserves is of a varied character. Along the 
streams can be found some of the very best of bottom lands, and there 
is a large amount of first-class level prairie land which will make the 
best of farms. There are other large areas of rolling, diversified 
prairie which will make good average farms, much of it being espe- 
cially adapted to fruit raising. Some of the land is sandy and not 
desirable, and there are a great many tracts that are not worth the 
$5 per acre minimum price fixed thereon. The land is so diversified 
in character that any person who contemplates bidding upon a piece 
should visit the land and examine it carefully before submitting 
his bid. 

The Government will lay off three or four Government town sites 
in the big pasture, and there will be many good business openings in 
these towns. The opening of these lands will put over 3 ; 000 fam- 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 303 

ilies as actual settlers on the farm and grazing lands, and probably 
bring 10,000 to 15,000 people permanently into the towns within the 
pasture land and on the border thereof. 

THE STRUGGLE FOR STATEHOOD. 

The struggle of Oklahoma for recognition and admission as a State 
has been a long and arduous one. In all, thirty bills have been intro- 
duced in Congress providing either for joint statehood for Oklahoma 
and Indian Territories or for separate statehood for one Territory or 
the other. 

During the first year after the opening of Oklahoma, even before 
the Territory had been officially created, the people met, declared 
themselves entitled to admission into the union of States and memo- 
rialized Congress for action looking to that end. The first Oklahoma 
statehood bill was introduced in the House by Hon. D. A. Harvey, 
who was the first Delegate elected to Congress from the Territory, the 
same being introduced in the first session of the Fifty-second Con- 
gress. This bill, providing for statehood for Oklahoma alone, at- 
tracted very little attention and was never reported on by the Com- 
mittee on the Territories — in fact, it is generally conceded that the 
committee never had a session to consider the bill. The same bill 
was introduced in the Senate at the next session of Congress and also 
died in the Committee on Territories of that body. In the next Con- 
gress a bill introduced by Representative Wheeler, of Alabama, 
chairman of the Committee on the Territories, was reported favorably. 
Other bills were introduced from time to time, but no decided action 
was taken until in 1901, when the House passed a bill introduced by 
Representative Knox, of Massachusetts, chairman of the Committee 
on the Territories. This bill died in the Senate, as there seemed to 
be an impression largely prevalent at that time that the Indian Ter- 
ritory was not ready for statehood, and the majority of both Houses 
of Congress were of the opinion that the two Territories should be 
united and admitted as one State. From this time on the fight was 
vigorously waged for the admission of the two Territories as one 
State, a minority in both Territories still advocating, however, the 
admission of Indian and Oklahoma Territories each as a separate 
State. . 

For the past four years the fight for the admission of Oklahoma 
has been retarded by being complicated more or less with the admis- 
sion of New Mexico and Arizona. There was a strong sentiment 
in Congress for the admission of the four Territories at one time, and 
because of the opposition to the admission of New Mexico and Ari- 
zona the admission of Oklahoma was greatly retarded. Everybody 
conceded that Oklahoma and Indian Territory were entitled to ad- 
mission, but they were compelled to wait until the sentiment was 
strong enough to pass a bill including New Mexico and Arizona. 

In the last Congress, it will be remembered, a bill admitting Okla- 
homa and Indian Territory was passed by both Houses, but failed in 
conference because of the differences between the Senate and the 
House upon the question of admitting the other two Territories. 
The long struggle came to an end, however, the 14th day of June, 



304 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

1906, by the passage of an act providing for the admission of Okla- 
homa and Indian Territories as the State of* Oklahoma, as well as 
for the admission of New Mexico and Arizona as one State, if the 
people of those two Territories should so desire. This bill, copy of 
which is hereto appended, was signed by the President and became 
a law on June 16, and the preliminary work incidental to the full 
admission of the new State is already in progress and being carried 
forward as rapidly as possible. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank Frantz, 
Governor oj Oklahoma. 

The Secretary of the Interior. 



[Public— No. 234.] 

An Act To enable the people of Oklahoma and of the Indian Terri- 
tory to form a constitution and State government and be admitted into the Union on 
an equal footing with the original States; and to enable the people of New Mexico 
and of Arizona to form a constitution and State government and be admitted into the 
Union on an equal footing with the original States. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled. That the inhabitants of all 
that part of the area of the United States now constituting the Terri- 
tory of Oklahoma and the Indian Territory, as at present described, 
may adopt a constitution and become the State of Oklahoma, as here- 
inafter provided: Provided, That nothing contained in the said consti- 
tution shall be construed to limit or impair the rights of person or 
property pertaining to the Indians of said Territories (so long as such 
rights shall remain unextinguished) or to limit or affect the authority 
of the Government of the United States to make any law or regulation 
respecting such Indians, their lands, property, or other rights by 
treaties, agreement, law, or otherwise, which it would have been com- 
petent to make if this Act had never been passed. 

Sec. 2. That all male persons over the age of twenty-one years, who 
are citizens of the United States, or who are members of any Indian 
nation or tribe in said Indian Territory and Oklahoma, and who have 
resided within the limits of said proposed State for at least six months 
next preceding the election, are hereby authorized to vote for and 
choose delegates to form a constitutional convention for said proposed 
State; and all persons qualified to vote for said delegates shall be 
eligible to serve as delegates; and the delegates to form such conven- 
tion shall be one hundred and twelve in number, fifty-five of whom 
shall be elected by the people of the Territory of Oklahoma, and 
fifty- five by the people of Indian Territory, and two shall be elected 
by the electors residing in the Osage Indian Reservation in the Ter- 
ritory of Oklahama; and the governor, the chief justice, and the 
secretary of the Territory of Oklahoma shall apportion the Terri- 
tory of Oklahoma into fifty-six districts, as nearly equal in population 
as may be, except that such apportionment shall include as one district 
the Osage Indian Reservation, and the governor, the chief justice, and 
the secretary of the Territory of Oklahoma shall appoint an election 
commissioner who shall establish voting precincts in said Osage Indian 
Reservation, and shall appoint the judges for election in said Osage 
Indian Reservation; and two delegates shall be elected from said Osage 
district; and the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes, and two 
judges of the United States courts for the Indian Territory, to be 
designated by the President, shall constitute a board, which shall 
apportion the said Indian Territory into fifty-five districts, as nearly 
equal in population as may be, and one delegate shall be elected 
from each of said districts; and the governor of said Oklahoma 
Territory, together with the judge senior in service of the United 
States courts in Indian Territory, shall, by proclamation in which 
such apportionment shall be fully specified and announced, order an 
election of the delegates aforesaid in said proposed State at a time 

305 



306 ANNUAL REPORTS OP THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

designated by thern within six months after the approval of this Act, 
which proclamation shall be issued at least sixty days prior to the time 
of holding said election of delegates. The election for delegates in 
the Territory of Oklahoma and in said Indian Territory shall be con- 
ducted, the returns made, the result ascertained, and the certificates of 
all persons elected to such convention issued in the same manner as is 
prescribed by the laws of the Territory of Oklahoma regulating 
elections for Delegates to Congress. That the election laws of the 
Territory of Oklahoma now in force, as far as applicable and not in 
conflict with this Act, including the penal laws of said Territory of 
Oklahoma relating to elections and illegal voting, are hereby extended to 
and put in force in said Indian Territory until the legislature of said pro- 
posed State shall otherwise provide, and until all persons offending 
against said laws in the election aforesaid shall have been dealt with in the 
manner therein provided. And the United States courts of said Indian 
Territory shall have the same power to enforce the laws of the Ter- 
ritory of Oklahoma, hereb} 7 extended to and put in force in said Terri- 
tory, as have the courts of the Territory of Oklahoma: Provided, 
however, That said board to apportion districts in Indian Territory 
shall, for the purpose of said election, appoint an election commis- 
sioner for each district who shall distribute all ballots and election 
supplies to the several precincts in his district, receive the election 
returns from the judges in precincts, and deliver the same to the can- 
vassing board herein named, establish and define the necessary election 
precincts, and appoint three judges of election for each precinct, not 
more than two of whom shall be of the same political party, which 
judges may appoint the necessary clerk or clerks; that said judges of 
election, so appointed, shall supervise the election in their respective pre- 
cincts, and canvass and make due return of the vote cast, to the election 
commissioner for said district who shall deliver said returns, poll 
books, and ballots to said board, which shall constitute the ultimate 
and final canvassing board of said election, and they shall issue certifi- 
cates of election to all persons elected to such convention from the 
various districts of the Indian Territory, and their certificates of elec- 
tion shall be prima facie evidence as to the election of delegates: Pro- 
vided further ', That in said Indian Territory and Osage Indian Reser- 
vation, nominations for delegate to said constitutional convention may 
be made by convention, by the Republican, Democratic, and People's 
Party, or by petition in the manner provided by the laws of the Ter- 
ritory of Oklahoma; and certificates and petitions of nomination in" 
said Indian Territory shall be filed with the districting and canvassing 
board who shall perform the duties of election commissioner under 
said law, and shall prepare, print, and distribute all ballots, poll books, 
and election supplies necessary for the holding of said election under 
said laws. The capital of said State shall temporarily be at the city 
of Guthrie, in the present Territory of Oklahoma and shall not be 
changed therefrom previous to anno Domini nineteen hundred and 
thirteen, but said capital shall, after said year, be located by the 
electors of said State at an election to be provided for by the legisla- 
ture: Provided, however, That the legislature of said State, except as 
shall be necessary for the convenient transaction of the public business 
of said State at said capital, shall not appropriate any public moneys 
of the State for the erection of buildings for capitol purposes during 
such period. 



GO VEEN OR OF OKLAHOMA. 307 

Sec. 3. That the delegates to the convention thus elected shall meet 
at the seat of government of said Oklahoma Territory on the second 
Tuesday after their election, excluding the day of election in case such 
day shall be Tuesday, but they shall not receive compensation for 
more than sixty days of service, and, after organization, shall declare, 
on behalf of the people of said proposed State, that they adopt the 
Constitution of the United States; whereupon the said convention 
shall, and is hereby authorized to, form a constitution and State gov- 
ernment for said proposed State. The constitution shall be republican 
in form, and make no distinction in civil or political rights on account 
of race or color, and shall not be repugnant to the Constitution of the 
United States and the principles of the Declaration of Independence. 
And said convention shall provide in said constitution — 

First. That perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be se- 
cured, and that no inhabitant of said State shall ever be molested in 
person or property on account of his or her mode of religious wor- 
ship, and that polygamous or plural marriages are forever prohibited. 

Second. That the manufacture, sale, barter, giving away, or other- 
wise furnishing, except as hereinafter provided, of intoxicating liquors 
within those parts of said State now known as the Indian Territory 
and the Osage Indian Reservation and within any other parts of said 
State which existed as Indian reservations on the first day of January, 
nineteen hundred and six, is prohibited for a period of twenty-one 
years from the date of the admission of said State into the Union, and 
thereafter until the people of said State shall otherwise provide by 
amendment of said constitution and proper State legislation. Any 
person, individual or corporate, who shall manufacture, sell, barter, 
give away, or otherwise furnish any intoxicating liquor of any kind, 
including beer, ale, and wine, contrary to the provisions of this section, 
or who shall, within the above-described portions of said State, adver- 
tise for sale or solicit the purchase of any such liquors, or who shall ship 
or in any way convey such liquors from other parts of said State into 
the portions hereinbefore described, shall be punished, on conviction 
thereof, by fine not less than fifty dollars and by imprisonment not 
less than thirty days for each offense: Provided, That the legislature 
may provide by law for one agency under the supervision of said State 
in each incorporated town of not less than two thousand population in 
the portions of said State hereinbefore described; and if there be no 
incorporated town of two thousand population in any county in said 
portions of said State, such county shall be entitled to have one such 
agency, for the sale of such liquors for medicinal purposes; and for 
the sale, for industrial purposes, of alcohol which shall have been 
denaturized by some process approved by the United States Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue; and for the sale of alcohol for scientific 
purposes to such scientific institutions, universities, and colleges as 
are authorized to procure the same free of tax under the laws of 
the United States; and for the sale of such liquors to any apoth- 
ecary who shall have executed an approved bond, in a sum not less 
than one thousand dollars, conditioned that none of such liquors 
shall be used or disposed of for any purpose other than in the com- 
pounding of prescriptions or other medicines, the sale of which would 
not subject him to the payment of the special tax required of liquor 
dealers by the United States, and the payment of such special tax by 
any person within the parts of said State hereinabove defined shall 



308 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

constitute prima facie evidence of his intention to violate the provi- 
sions of this section. No sale shall be made except upon the sworn 
statement of the applicant in writing setting forth the purpose for 
which the liquor is to be used, and no sale shall be made for medici- 
nal purposes except sales to apothecaries as hereinabove provided 
unless such statement shall be accompanied by a bona fide prescription 
signed by a regular practicing physician, which prescription shall not 
be filled more than once. Each sale shall be duly registered, and the 
register thereof, together with the affidavits and prescriptions per- 
taining thereto, shall be open to inspection by any officer or citizen of 
said State at all times during business hours. Any person who shall 
knowingly make a false affidavit for the purpose aforesaid shall be 
deemed guilty of perjury. Any physician who shall prescribe any 
such liquor, except for treatment of disease which after his own per- 
sonal diagnosis he shall deem to require such treatment, shall, upon 
conviction thereof, be punished for each offense by fine of not less 
than two hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not less than thirty 
days, or by both such fine and imprisonment; and any person con- 
nected with any such agency who shall be convicted of making any 
sale or other disposition of liquor contrary to these provisions shall 
be punished by imprisonment for not less than one j^ear and one day. 
Upon the admission of said State into the Union these provisions shall 
be immediately enforceable in the courts of said State. 

Third. That the people inhabiting said proposed State do agree and 
declare that they forever disclaim all right and title in or to any unap- 
propriated public lands lying within the boundaries thereof, and to all 
lands lying within said limits owned or held by any Indian, tribe, or 
nation; and that until the title to any such public land shall have been 
extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain sub- 
ject to the jurisdiction, disposal, and control of the United States. 
That land belonging to citizens of the United States residing without 
the limits of said State shall never be taxed at a higher rate than the 
land belonging to residents thereof; that no taxes shall be imposed by 
the State on lands or property belonging to or which may hereafter 
be purchased by the United States or reserved for its use. 

Fourth. That the debts and liabilities of said Territory of Oklahoma 
shall be assumed and paid by said State. 

Fifth. That provisions shall be made for the establishment and 
maintenance of a system of public schools, which shall be open to all 
the children of said State and free from sectarian control; and said 
schools shall always be conducted in English: Provided, That nothing 
herein shall preclude the teaching of other languages in said public 
schools: And provided further, That this shall not be construed to 
prevent the establishment and maintenance of separate schools for 
white and colored children. 

Sixth. That said State shall never enact any law restricting or 
abridging the right of suffrage on account of race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude. 

Sec. 4. That in case a constitution and State government shall be 
formed in compliance with the provisions of this Act the convention 
forming the same shall provide by ordinance for submitting said con- 
stitution to the people of said proposed State for its ratification or 
rejection at an election to be held at a time fixed in said ordinance, at 
which election the qualified voters for said proposed State shall vote 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 309 

directly for or against the proposed constitution, and for or against 
any provisions separately submitted. The returns of said election shall 
be made to the secretary of the Territory of Oklahoma, who, with the 
chief justice thereof and the senior judge of the United States court of 
appeals for the Indian Territory, shall canvass the same; and if a ma- 
jority of the legal votes cast on that question shall be for the constitution 
the governor of Oklahoma Territory and the judge senior in service of 
the United States court of appeals for the Indian Territory shall cer- 
tify the result to the President of the United States, together with the 
statement of the votes cast thereon, and upon separate articles or propo- 
sitions and a copy of said constitution, articles, propositions, and ordi- 
nances. And if the constitution and government of said proposed 
State are republican in form, and if the provisions in this Act have 
been complied with in the formation thereof, it shall be the duty of 
the President of the United States, within twenty days from the receipt 
of the certificate of the result of said election and the statement of 
votes cast thereon and a copy of said constitution, articles, proposi- 
tions, and ordinances, to issue his proclamation announcing the result 
of said election; and thereupon the proposed State of Oklahoma shall 
be deemed admitted by Congress into the Union, under and by virtue 
of this Act, on an equal footing with the original States. The origi- 
nal of said constitution, articles, propositions, and ordinances, and the 
election returns, and a copy of the statement of the votes cast at said 
election, shall be forwarded and turned over by the secretary of the 
Territory of Oklahoma to the State authorities of said State. 

Sec. 5. That the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any money 
in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the defraying of the 
expenses of the elections provided for in this Act, and said convention, 
and for the payment of the members thereof,